I have been working as a registered nurse in Tacoma. WA since 2011 and I have chosen to measure the community wellness of Pierce County. Tacoma is the county place of Pierce County and the largest metropolis in the county and 3rd largest metropolis in the province ( US Census Bureau. 2014 ) . Pierce County is located South of Seattle and is comprised of 1. 679 sq. stat mis. many of which front the Puget Sound. Northern countries of the county are comprised of islands and peninsulas merely accessible by Bridgess or boats. It besides contains one of the nation’s national Parkss and the state’s tallest extremum. Mount Rainier. The Park’s boundaries mostly define the eastern boundary line of the County and the White and Nisqually Rivers make up the North and South boundaries severally. ( Snob Hollow Designs. 2014 )
Population Economic Status Assessment
About 820. 000 people call Pierce County place. It boasts a high population denseness with 481 people per sq. stat mi. Urban countries comprise 93 per centum of the county. ( City-Data. 2014 ) The average family income in 2013 was estimated to be near to $ 60. 000 and 12 per centum of occupants are populating below the poorness degree. ( US Census Bureau. 2014 ) Blacks and African Americans make up the bulk of low-income people despite the fact that they comprise merely 7 per centum of the County population. The bulk of occupants ( 76. 5 per centum ) are white. 10 per centum are non-black Hispanics and 6 per centum are Asians. The average occupant age is 35 old ages and 12 per centum of occupants are 65 old ages or older. ( University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2014 ) . More than a 3rd of Pierce County kids are eligible for free tiffin benefits and 8. 9 per centum of occupants are unemployed.
Equally many as 16 per centum of occupants are uninsured despite a per capita personal wellness outgo of $ 8. 160 yearly. Ten per centum of those uninsured are kids. What’s more. shut to 6 per centum of occupants make less that $ 10. 000/year. It’s estimated that 15 per centum of occupants are non able to see a wellness attention supplier when they need to because they can’t afford it. When they can afford to. primary attention suppliers ( PCP ) are in short supply and overworked. There are an estimated 1500 patients for every PCP in Pierce County. ( University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2014 ) Medicare is the primary remunerator of wellness attention expenditures for 10 per centum of County occupants. ( City-Data. 2014 )
Pierce County has some of the highest rates of fleshiness in the state with a 31 per centum fleshiness rate. This is despite the fact that about 80 per centum of occupants reported exerting in the old month. ( University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2014 ) The County has legion Parkss. boosting trails. walking waies and enjoys a temperate clime with small snow accretion and mild summer temperatures. Poor nutrition is likely a cardinal subscriber with 16 per centum of occupants classified as nutrient insecure. The County has the lowest entree to healthy nutrients with 8 per centum of people populating in urban countries where the nearest food market shop is more than a stat mi from their place. Access to convenience shops is somewhat better. ( University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2014 ) .
Vicinity and Community Safety
Any Pierce County occupant can attest to smelling the “Aroma of Tacoma” on a regular footing. At assorted parts of the twenty-four hours. a pungent odor non unlike that of icky eggs fills the air. The beginning of the malodor is attributed to industries located at the Port of Tacoma. the forest industry. auto fumes. or the tidal alterations on the Puget Sound. The extent of air pollution in the country is big. More than three quarters of county occupants drive entirely to work every twenty-four hours. Merely 3 percent take public transit. The County ranks 16th in counties describing high C monoxide one hr concentration. It is among the dirtiest 10 per centum of US counties for its release of H2O and carcinogens. Chief among these deathly chemicals is methanol and hydrochloric acid. ( City-Data. 2014 ) ( Good Guide. 2011 )
There are four Superfund Sites in the County that continue to do taint of imbibing H2O. One of these sites is Commencement Bay. the hub of the Port of Tacoma. one of the world’s busiest ports. The biggest defiler in the country is the Simpson Tacoma Kraft Company. a forest merchandise company that prides itself on utilizing “every portion of the tree except its shadow. ” ( Simpson. 2014 ) Another well-known defiler and besides a major country employer is the US Military. Superfund Sites exist at both McChord AFB and the US Army Fort Lewis Range. ( Good Guide. 2011 ) Cultural Assessment
For a personal position of life inside Pierce County I consulted with a co-worker who works as a lactation adviser. She is a 50-year-old college-educated white female who besides works as an teacher in a local vocational college. She reports that her cohort’s attitude toward aging is non wholly positive. She is get downing to experience the gradual diminution in her organic structure maps and says that she and others like her discovery it thwarting that their organic structures don’t work every bit good as they did in their young person. That attitude of reluctance tends to impact how readily her equals seek aid. particularly if it means accepting the worlds of aging. Some of the physical wellness jobs common in her cohort involve vision. sleep apnea. joint hurting. and reduced staying power.
She states that persons in her cohort tend to be individualistic and prefer their paces. both physically and metaphorically. to be fenced. This perspective crosses over to how kids are parented with a high value placed on raising grownups that are independent and self-sufficing. Her kids have either graduated from college or are presently go toing university. She considers fiscal independency a grade of maturity. A ritual associated with maturity is traveling out of the household place and their ain.
One of the challenges she sees in her cohort is that of obtaining entree to mental wellness attention. A co-worker late lost her boy to suicide after legion efforts to assist him derive entree to care failed and he committed self-destruction. She feels that merely those who are traveling to ache others or ache themselves are receivers of attention in a broken system. Because so many are hurting for aid in the community and a greater consciousness of the demand. the consequence has been a decreased stigma associated with mental unwellness. Admiting that mental unwellness is far from being treated on plane with biological unwellness. she reports that the consciousness of an individual’s deficiency of control over what is a existent disease is turning.
Disaster Assessment and Planning
The unbelievable sum of physical beauty nowadays in Pierce County is besides a beginning of danger to its occupants. The country has been declared as a catastrophe country 19 times in recorded history. Most of these events were the consequence of terrible storms that caused implosion therapy. landslides. and mudslides. The country is situated on or near several tectonic home bases giving it an temblor hazard that is 355 per centum greater than the national norm. In 2001. a magnitude 6. 8 temblor was centered merely 10. 8 stat mis from the metropolis centre and caused 10s of 1000s in harm. An temblor centered even farther off could impact the county via a subsequent Tsunami. Coastline countries comprise many of the County’s industries. Parkss. and places and could be destroyed by a tsunami’s tidal rush. Mt. Rainier frames many of Tacoma’s picturesque positions but it is a vent that could come back to life at any minute. Its last eruption is estimated to hold occurred more than 150 old ages ago but a recent eruption could do monolithic downstream implosion therapy in about the full County. ( City-Data. 2014 )
Catastrophes caused by deluging precipitated by a tsunami. volcanic eruption. or one of the countries many rainstorms could displace many occupants from their places and barricade entree to pressing and chronic health care services. Sewage systems could be affected by the implosion therapy every bit good as lessening entree to clean H2O. A monolithic temblor could destruct many of Tacoma’s older edifices. many of which were built in the early 1900s and good before any seismal building regulations went into consequence. Falling objects from an temblor and ensuing fires could ensue in monolithic hurts in the short-run and harm to public substructure in the long-run. ( Pierce County Department of Emergency Management. 2010 ) Many of the possible catastrophes that could strike the country do non hold the luxury of progress warning. Severe storms may give every bit small as a twenty-four hours or two notice. tsunamis and implosion therapy merely a few hours. Many occupants are improbable to understand the badness of a catastrophe until they are in its thick.
Because the occupants lack the ability to fix. The Pierce County Department of Emergency Management has five sections to cover with every twenty-four hours exigencies and large-scale catastrophes. The services include exigency direction. enhanced 9-1-1 services. fire bar. wireless communications and an urban hunt and deliverance undertaking force. The Department is working to inscribe all occupants in an exigency qui vive system via text. Area infirmary employees besides have an qui vive system that sends a text message to employees to describe to duty in the event of an exigency. The enhanced 9-1-1 system automatically finds the street reference for landline calls. The wireless communications squad works to guarantee that wireless remains active in the event cell towers fall during an temblor or are damaged during terrible implosion therapy. Urban Search and Rescue can supply critical services in the event of an temblor. mudslide. avalanche or abandoned mine prostration. ( Pierce County Department of Emergency Management. 2010 )
The bulk of lodging options available in Tacoma are single-family detached places. A lodging roar in the 1990s resulted in many newer places and flat edifices in both high and poor-income countries. Housing denseness appears to be highest in high-income vicinities. Many places in both countries have grassed forepart and back paces. Although the country was to a great extent wooded when settled in the 1890s. much of the native evergreen trees are gone. Tree replacing appears limited to higher-income countries and is limited to non-native deciduous trees. Housing in lower-income vicinities appears to be in just to chair fix. Very few places in these countries have bars over Windowss or doors. ( Patamia. 2015 )
In Tacoma. there appears to be a moderate sum of unfastened infinite. particularly sing it is an urban country. I saw a big strip of valuable waterfront in the Ruston country dedicated to a walk-to way and docks used for office infinite and dining. The gem in the Crown of the Tacoma Metropolitan Park System is Wright Park. a 27-acre package crossing more than 10 metropolis blocks in the bosom of the metropolis that features an botanical garden. lawn bowling. resort areas. and a pool. In add-on. Mt Rainier National Park has more than 235. 000 estates of protected forestland and legion State Parkss dot the County. All of these infinites are unfastened for public usage and park base on ballss are enveloped as portion of the residents’ vehicle revenue enhancement.
The boundaries of the country are mostly natural characteristics like rivers and mountains. Neighborhoods Begin and terminal without presentment but poorer countries tend to hold more concatenation nexus fencings. fewer shopping countries. and places that lack fresh pigment and cosmetic landscape gardening. Ironically. the most expensive places in the county have roads that are either crushed rock or so unkempt that potholes dominate.
Peoples in the county tended to congregate around food market shops and the strip malls that surround them. I visited an upscale food market shop in the center of the twenty-four hours and found parking hard despite an ample batch. Areas environing the Port of Tacoma concern territory tend to ever hold a big sum of traffic. particularly big trucks transporting containers to and from the ships docked in Commencement Bay.
Pierce County. despite the low Numberss of occupants who use public transit has legion options for acquiring out of your auto. Buss travel to every portion of the county. even across the Tacoma Narrows Bridge to the Olympic Peninsula town of Gig Harbor. Residents can go to Seattle utilizing rail or coach. Residents enjoy the capableness of attaching their motorcycles to metropolis coachs but since the country is really hilly and often rainy. few take advantage of the service. For all of its entree capablenesss in Tacoma. acquiring about in environing communities is hard.
Interstate 5 intersects the county. enabling easy entree for Port of Tacoma traffic to Canada and the western provinces. Several province main roads run through the community and many are presently undergoing expansive betterment undertakings. Long-run programs include spread outing Seattle’s light rail into Tacoma but recent enterprises to spread out inter-county coach services was voted down by occupants.
One of the most impressive things about Pierce County is how new and beautiful its schools are. Around these countries. it’s easy to descry societal service centres such as YMCAs or Community Healthcare Clinics. Even in the poorest countries of the County. I saw many dentist offices. Parkss with resort area installations. and pavements. I drove by a newer looking in-between school several times during my study and ever saw it occupied by pupils despite heavy rain.
Commercial countries in the county look to be centered on big concatenation food market shops. There are few non-chain. independent dining options and those that are tend to offer high-calorie. high-fat options like beefburgers and milk shakes. I did non see any marks advertisement husbandmans markets but there were more than a few community gardens where occupants could turn their ain fruits and veggies. I was besides impressed by how few food market shops there were outside of major shopping countries and how far even the wealthiest had to go to purchase nutrient. In more than one country. there were several food market shops in close propinquity to each other.
Peoples Out and About
I saw several people walking around the County during my study but all of them appeared to be walking for exercising and leisure. non for transit. Almost all of these Walkers were white and non-obese. A bulk of those I saw were have oning Seahawk New Jersey and/or colourss. It was so persuasive that I felt out of topographic point with an orange sweatshirt. Dogs accompanied many of the Walkers and every Canis familiaris was leashed.
Signs of Community Vibrancy
The Pierce County Community is really diverse but in about every country I traveled. I saw marks of plangency evidenced by hanging flower baskets. kids playing outside. countries of preserved natural beauty. easy entree to healthcare. and a deficiency of abandoned places. isolated animate beings. or infinite stateless people.
Given that about three-fourthss of Pierce County occupants are white. its non surprising to see largely white people in the County. Surprisingly. there are two major Indian Reservations. the Nisqually and Puyallup. inside Pierce County yet less than 2 per centum of occupants are Native American. Most of the County looks and feels American with few cultural food market shops or marks in a linguistic communication other than English. Areas where Whites live tend to be preponderantly white but countries with larger populations of Blacks. Asians. and Hispanics are good incorporate. In one strip promenade. there was a Mexican taqueria following door to an Asiatic food market shop.
While merely 30 per centum of Pierce County occupants study being affiliated with a spiritual fold. about half of them are non-denominational Christian churches. A 3rd of occupants report an association with a Roman Catholic Church. I saw many more churches in the less flush countries of the County than I did in affluent 1s. I besides saw one Buddhist temple and Muslim Mosque.
There are 10 infirmaries functioning Pierce County the largest of which is Tacoma General Hospital that has more than 400 beds and a degree II injury centre. A few blocks off with the area’s 2nd degree II injury centre and a degree III NICU is St Joseph Medical Center with 367 beds.
Signs of homelessness are somewhat unseeable in Pierce County and be given to be clustered around country shelters or service suppliers such as the Union Gospel Mission and the YWCA. It’s estimated that 2. 000 people including kids are stateless on any given dark in Tacoma. One of the country infirmaries. Western State Hospital. provides services entirely to the mentally sick but the deficiency of services to the homeless and mentally ill is striking. There are an estimated 368 mentally sick people for every mental wellness supplier in Pierce County.
Top acting counties have 521 suppliers per patient. The State ranks 49th in figure of available psychiatric beds and several bureaus have late closed their doors or decreased services due to the economic bend down. ( League of Women Voters – Pierce County. 2013 ) ( Good Guide. 2011 ) Forty per centum of female tenth-grade kids are classified as down. The Tacoma Pierce County Health Department lists mental wellness as its # 1 precedence in the coming old ages.
I toured the country in January when the nearest election was months or old ages off. Cars I viewed had a mix of bumper spines that indicated the metropolitan country voted for Obama in the old presidential election. supports the legalisation of marihuana. and is a fan of the Seattle Seahawks. Media
No affair the country. grounds of satellite dishes was seen on about every place. I did non see any newspaper boxes around country shops. It seems that the primary signifier of communicating medium is through telecasting and the Internet. Television Stationss accessed by occupants are chiefly in English but there are two Stationss that are entirely in Spanish.
As mentioned antecedently. Pierce County is a really beautiful topographic point with positions of mountains. H2O. dense wood. and even a vent seeable from about every corner of the County. During my study. I even viewed a brace of bald bird of Joves playing over the Puget Sound. The countries around the Port of Tacoma and the two Indian reserves tend to be the least attractive countries of the metropolis where hoardings for nearby tribal-run casinos predominate the landscape.
Womans. Babies. and Children ( WIC )
WIC is a nutrition plan that helps guarantee that pregnant adult females. nursing mas and kids under five have entree to healthy nutrients. They besides provide wellness instruction and suckling support including equal counsellors. Womans who use WIC acquire money to buy fresh fruit and veggies. milk. cheese. whole grain staff of lifes and tortillas. They besides guarantee that kids are vaccinated and remain on recommended growing curves. A household of four is eligible for WIC benefits if they have an one-year income equal or less than $ 43. 000. Accessing the services requires sing a WIC location. which are located on major coach paths near infirmaries. wellness clinics. or in tribal offices. There are more than 15 WIC locations in the county and offer services in English. Spanish. Vietnamese. Korean. Russian. Tagalog. and Kampuchean. ( Tacoma Pierce County Health Department. 2015 ) YMCA
The YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties offer a assortment of services including seven healthy life centres. a summer cantonment and more than 70 kid attention sites. Their mission is to offer plans that “build a healthy spirit. head and organic structure for all. ” ( YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties. 2014 ) Monthly fees that are based on family income support rank and fiscal assistance is available. There are steep price reductions for members of the military and their households. The assortment of services available at the healthy life centre is wide. Members of the Tacoma installation take piano lessons. larn how to package. and bask an indoor pool.
Family Renewal Shelter
There are 16 different resources for those covering with domestic force in Pierce County. Among them is the Family Renewal Shelter. They provide exigency services by manner of confidential shelters. self-defense categories. religious support. and favored therapy. They besides offer aid with entree to vehicles. educational scholarships. and resettlement. Support for the organisation comes from private contributions from persons. foundations. concerns. and churches. Access to services is via the organization’s 24-hour crisis line. Information about domestic force is available on the organization’s web site including a button that allows a user to go forth the site rapidly and extinguish a computing machine trail. ( Family Renewal Shelter. 2014 )
National Alliance on Mental Illness – Pierce County
The intent of NAMI is to back up people and those who love them with the challenges of mental unwellness. Members are people whose lives have been touched by mental unwellness and can portion resources. lessons learned. and empathy with one another. They besides advocate for alteration on local and legislative issues. Support group meeting occur three times a hebdomad and are located in a local Episcopal Church. They are free to go to. NAMI Walks occur several times a twelvemonth and aid to cut down the stigma of mental wellness and expand services. particularly in instruction of mental wellness issues with constabulary. fire and other first respondents. ( NAMI – Pierce County. 2015 )
A group of community voluntaries opened the first Planned Parenthood clinic in Tacoma in 1972 to turn to concerns about high rates of adolescent gestation and sexually familial infections. The organisation believes that everyone has the right to take whether and when to acquire pregnant and works to forestall unwanted gestations. They rely to a great extent of single giver support to supply basic low-priced wellness attention. acceptance planning. vasectomy services. and suiting for catamenial cups. They besides provide abortion services and are frequented by protestors. ( PPGNW. 2015 )
Tacoma Rescue Mission
There are more than 36 homeless shelters in Tacoma offering everything from exigency shelter. transitional lodging. and assisted lodging for people covering with domestic force. drug dependence. and sexual trafficking. They are a Christian organisation funded by the United Way of Pierce County and the metropoliss of Lakewood and Tacoma in add-on to support from Pierce County itself. They report that they provide shelter to more than 400 people every night and supply nutrient for 26. 000 people who have no other entree to nutrient. They work to assist people overcome drug and intoxicant dependence with rehabilitation serves. educational aid and instance direction. ( Tacoma Rescue Mission. 2015 )
Interpretation of Collected Data
Epidemiology examines how wellness position or wellness events are distributed across a community and what determines it. The predating illustrations give a wide shot picture of wellness in Pierce County. Overall. the birth rate ( 15 per 1000 ) exceeds the decease rate ( 7. 3 per 1000 ) in Pierce County and the infant mortality rate ( 6. 5 per 100. 000 ) is in line with the national norm ( 6. 15 per 1000 ) . ( City-Data. 2014 )
Pierce County offers many assets that empower the wellness of its occupants. Among these are a big population of college-educated people with 90 per centum of grownups 25 old ages and older finishing at least high school or obtaining a GED. Although 8 per centum of occupants are foreign born. more than 80 per centum of these study talking English fluently. The people of Pierce County have entree to nature and local nutrients. including the nation’s largest harvest of pieplant. Strong faith communities with societal outreach plans help neighbours in demand. The community brims with people who are mostly open-minded and entree complementary attention such as massage. stylostixis. and chiropractic accommodations is common. ( Tacoma Pierce County Health Department. 2014 )
In my analysis of the informations collected. it appears that Pierce County’s top three jobs are entree to mental wellness services. high rates of fleshiness. and entree to quality wellness attention.
Entree to mental wellness services
A community that is mentally healthy is productive. enjoys carry throughing relationships with others in the community and is resilient through life’s challenges. Without it. even the healthiest organic structure can fall into disrepair rapidly. It’s no admiration so that mental unwellness is one of the most common causes of disablement. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that every bit many as one in every 17 people has a earnestly enfeebling mental unwellness. The good intelligence is that mental. emotional. and behavioural upsets can be prevented. We know more about how the encephalon maps than of all time before and current research indicates that greatest chance to forestall unwellness is to acquire people into intervention early and frequently. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 )
With Washington State’s blue rankings in the handiness of psychiatric beds and the high patient burden of mental wellness attention suppliers in the County. there is much work to be done. Healthy People 2020 ends province that 87 per centum of primary attention installations should supply mental wellness intervention onsite or by paid referral. This end represents a 10 per centum betterment over the baseline rate of 79 per centum in 2006. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 )
High rates of fleshiness
Pierce County’s high rate of fleshiness is good above the national norm and may be attributed to big figure of nutrient comeuppances. particularly in urban countries. Peoples who have healthy weights and entree to fresh nutrients have lower rates of chronic disease and a higher quality of life. Addressing fleshiness is complex. nevertheless. and requires a multi-faceted attack. As with mental wellness. the most powerful intercessions are aimed at bar.
Harmonizing to Healthy People 2020. more than 10. 4 per centum of kids ages two to five were considered corpulent in 2008. The 2020 end is to cut down that figure to 9. 4 per centum. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 ) One of the most cost effectual ways to accomplish that end is to increase the figure of kids who are breastfed. A history of suckling. particularly sole chest milk feeding for the first six months. is associated with an estimated 40 percent decrease in childhood fleshiness. ( AHRQ. 2009 ) Unfortunately. merely 14. 1 per centum of babies born in 2006 achieved this. Healthy Peoples 2020’s mark is 25. 5 per centum. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 ) Entree to quality health care
Optimal wellness is non a province achieved without support. instruction and intercession. Guaranting that Pierce County occupants get the aid they need when they need it is a large portion of forestalling chronic disease. bettering quality of life. and forestalling unneeded decease. Some of the grounds people do non see a wellness attention supplier are they can’t find one. they can’t afford it. or they don’t have insurance coverage.
The most recent informations suggests that every bit many as 16 per centum of County occupants do non hold wellness insurance. ( Good Guide. 2011 ) Harmonizing to Healthy People 2020. the national norm is somewhat higher at 16. 8 per centum. The aim is an ambitious 1 with 100 per centum of persons covered by private insurance or Medicaid/Medicare by 2020. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 )
Harmonizing to Washington State’s Department of Public Health. there are about 543 suppliers in Pierce County including physicians. ARNPs. CNMs. and PAs. A little more than half of them report that they are accepting new Medicaid and Medicare patients. ( Washington State Department of Public Health. 2011 ) Interestingly. Healthy People 2020 has yet to specify specific ends for increasing the figure of practising suppliers in all countries. ( Healthy People 2020. 2015 )
Primary Prevention Topic
When John Snow. the “father of epidemiology. ” was look intoing cholera eruptions in mid-nineteenth century London. the main cause of unneeded decease was catching disease. Today. chronic disease that amendss the bosom. pancreas. and lungs are more likely to kill than bacteriums. A big subscriber to high blood pressure. diabetes. and bosom failure is fleshiness. In a society obsessed with weight loss and tenuity. fleshiness rates in grownups and even kids are turning. Just as John Snow found the beginning of the disease that was claiming lives in his community. we must besides happen the beginning but it is improbable to be in a lone H2O pump in the center of the metropolis.
Preventing fleshiness appears to be a life-long undertaking best started at birth. The information demonstrate that increasing suckling rates is a powerful tool in diminishing childhood fleshiness. Breastfeeding rates for older. educated and more flush adult females are already at Healthy People 2020 marks but adult females who are immature. have low degrees of instruction and who are hapless are more likely to ne’er suckle and are highly improbable to go on to make so for six months. ( Grummer-Strawn. Scanlon. Darling. & A ; Conrey. 2004 )
An organisation in the community that helps low-income adult females set up and keep breastfeeding is the Women. Babies. and Children Program. A squad of equal counsellors who have themselves struggled with issues common to low-income breastfeeding adult females including pumping in the workplace help new mas navigate a hard terrain and supply their kids with the best start in life. Area hospital-based birth centres are working toward or hold already achieved enfranchisement as a Baby Friendly Hospital. This appellation indicates that the installation employs evidence-based pattern that lead to dramatic additions in suckling rates. ( DiGirolamo. Grummer-Strawn. & A ; Fein. 2008 )
Given that the job of fleshiness is big in Pierce County. the wagess for cut downing it great. and the intercessions that are most likely to assist are known and cheap. I am concentrating my primary bar subject on advancing breastfeeding as a agency to cut down fleshiness in Pierce County.
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