One of jobs of the universe is climate alteration. In by and large, the clime alterations are doing human activities instead than due to natural alterations in the ambiance. The nursery consequence is really of import when we talk about clime alteration. In order to cut down nursery gas, we need to utilize a new environmental friendly engineering in the energy industry. Therefore, utilizing the natural resources such as the solar, air current and H2O that renew themselves and do n’t foul the environment correspond to the inclination of development of the universe energy provides the changeless development of ecology. Ch. Batbayar ( 2009:91 ) stated “ It is obvious that concentrating on [ renewable energy ] sector has been going more important from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours ” .
Although our state, Mongolia, has a sufficient beginning of coal, some obstructions still have been encountered while utilizing it. On the other manus, Mongolia is a mobile state and the population denseness in the rural country is thin and the sum of energy is so little that it ‘s economically inefficient and there is non adequate equipment to supply energy from the centralised energy.
So, using the renewable energy will be contributed non merely our state ‘s development but besides positively affects in ecology.
The purpose of this work is to research some facets and present state of affairs of Australian Renewable Energy, particularly weave energy sector and specify how to present Australian air current energy engineering to the Mongolian energy sector.
2. Present state of affairs and facets of Australian Wind Energy Sector
2.1 Present state of affairs
Harmonizing to the Clean Energy Council, Australia is blessed with abundant clean energy resources from a broad scope of beginnings: the changeless air currents of the Roaring Forties, abundant sunlight, geothermic resources, bio energy, ocean and wave energies. Presently around 6 per cent of Australia ‘s electricity energy comes from renewable beginnings. Australia is already good advanced to make and excel its 20 per cent renewable energy mark by 2020. ( Clean Energy Council: 3 )
Today, the sum installed capacity of all power Stationss including renewable and fossil fuel is 65,085 MW, and there are 305 renewable power coevals undertakings ( of greater than 100kW in size ) operating in Australia stand foring 10,629 MW of installed capacity. ( Clean Energy Council: 4 )
Most of Australia ‘s renewable energy at present is derived from hydro electricity and it accounts for 77 per cent of entire renewable coevals capacity in Australia. After hydro, air current makes the 2nd largest part to clean energy capacity ( 16 per cent ) .
Australia has excellent wind resources, particularly the southern coastline lies in the boom mid-fortiess and 100s of sites have mean air current velocities above 8 or even 9 m/s at 50 m above land. For illustration, the sou’-west of Western Australia, southern South Australia, western Victoria, northern Tasmania and elevated countries of New South Wales and Queensland have good air current resources. ( Blakers: 223-236 )
International Energy Agency reported that air current power in Australia is a proven and dependable engineering that can be and is readily deployed ( IEA: 79 ) .
At the November of 2009, there were 49 air current farms in Australia, with a sum of 962 runing air current turbines. Australia ‘s entire operating air current capacity is making 1668MW and supplying 1.3 % of Australia ‘s national electricity demand. ( Clean Energy Council: 40 ) .
South Australia has the largest installed capacity and represents 44 per cent of the state ‘s entire capacity. The tabular array 1 shows that entire installed air current capacity by province.
Modern air current generators, that utilizing in air current farm, have capacities in the scope 600 to 2,000 kilowatt. This capacity size will be increase to 2,000 to 5,000 kilowatts by 2010. Wind generator consists of 40-70 m high cannular steel towers on a concrete foundation and 3 blades, each 20-40 m long. The nacelle at the top of the tower contains the blade ground tackles, gear box, generator, power electronics, brake assemblies and motors to revolve the nacelle to confront into the air current and to revolve the pitch of the blades in order to command power extraction from the air current. They are computer-controlled and centrally monitored, with many safety characteristics. They have handinesss above 98 per cent and will last more than 20 old ages, although replacing by a larger machine after 10-15 old ages to take advantage of a good wind-site is common.
Wind generator efficiency depends on air current velocity. It averages about 25 per cent and extremums at about 45 per cent under ideal air current conditions. The theoretical maximal efficiency is 59 per cent. Wind generators are designed to get down bring forthing power at a air current velocity of 4 to 5 m/sec and to cut out for safety grounds at a air current velocity of 20 to 30 m/sec. The capacity factor of a generator is defined as the existent one-year energy end product ( MWh/year ) divided by the merchandise of the rated end product ( MW ) and the figure of hours in a twelvemonth ( 8,760 ) . For illustration, the Vestas V66 1650/66 has a capacity factor of up to 32 per cent at a site with an mean air current velocity at 50 m above land of 7.5 m/sec. ( Blakers:4 )
2.3 Some facets of renewable air current energy
Renewable air current energy contributes important sum of green electricity:
Australia ‘s air current resources are already being harnessed to bring forth up to 1668 MW of power more than double the 824MW of capacity as at terminal of 2007.
Estimated one-year electricity coevals of this air current capacity is tantamount to 4,967 GWh
This green electricity helps Australia cuts its nursery gas emanations because:
4967 GWh of pollution – free air current energy means a economy of about 6,500,000 dozenss of CO2 every twelvemonth
That is tantamount 1500000 autos off roads or seting 9.7 million trees
Dr. Mark Diesendorf, Director of Sustainability Centre, noted “ aˆ¦ A air current farm has one of the lowest environmental impacts of all energy beginnings:
It occupies less land country per kilowatt-hour ( kWh ) of electricity generated than any other energy transition system, apart from rooftop solar energy, and is compatible with graze and harvests.
It generates the energy used in its building in merely 3 months of operation, yet its operational life-time is 20-25 old ages.
Greenhouse gas emanations and air pollution produced by its building are little and worsening. There is really small emanation or pollution produced by its operation.
In replacing for base-load ( largely coal power ) in mainland Australia, air current power produces a net lessening in nursery gas emanations and air pollution.
Modern air current turbines are about soundless and revolve so easy ( in footings of revolutions per minute ) that they are seldom a jeopardy to birds. “ ( Diesendorf:1 )
3. Wind resource and present state of affairs of Mongolian renewable air current energy
3.1 Wind resource
During the 1998 – 2001, National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy and the Scientific, Production, and Trade Corporation for Renewable Energy of Mongolia implemented a undertaking to develop elaborate air current resource maps for all parts of Mongolia ( delight see the figure 1 ) . ( D. Elliott, M. Schwartz: 1 )
Figure 1. The air current resources map of Mongolia
As a consequence of this undertaking, undertaking squad denifed that:
The district of Mongolia has big wind resource potency for industrial and family intents.
The sum of blowy land is about 10 % of the entire land country of the state. This sum of blowy land, utilizing conservative assoumptions, that consequence in about 7 MW of capacity per km2, could back up over 1,100,000 MW of installed capacity, and potentially present over 2.5 trillion kWh per twelvemonth. 12 states have at least 20000 MW of air current potency and 9 states holding greater than 50000 MW of air current potency. Southgobi state entirely is estimated to hold over 300000 MW of possible.
If extra countries with moderate air current resource potency ( or good for rural-power applications ) are considered, the estimated sum windly land country additions to more than 620 000 km2, or about 40 % of the entire land country of Mongolia. This sum of windly land could back up over 4300000 MW of installed capacity and potentially present over 8 trillion kWh per twelvemonth. ( D. Elliott, M. Schwartz: 134 )
3.2 Present state of affairs of air current resource
In respect of use of air current energy, merely little sum of rural households use a little graduated table air current turbines for ain intents. Detailss of air current energy Stationss at present in operation are shown in the Table 2.
Harmonizing to the Energy Authority, in 2008, Mongolia ‘s renewable solar and air current Stationss generated 0.4 million kWh electricity, and supplying 0.01 % of Mongolia ‘s electricity demand. ( Era: 63 ) .
In decision, using renewable energy we non merely can supply energy to the distant land and off-grid soums, but besides decline the nursery gas emanation.
Australian Renewable air current energy industry has been dramatically increasing. Therefore, in order to develop Mongolian renewable energy sector, we should analyze development and invention of Australia ‘s renewable energy industry, and utilize experience and engineering of Australian Renewable energy to the ain state.