Action Research is an probe, where, as a consequence of strict self-appraisal of current pattern, the research worker focuses on a `problem` ( or a subject or an issue which needs to be explained ) , and on the footing of information ( about the up-to-date province of art, about the people who will be involved and about the context ) , plans, implements, so evaluates an action so draws decisions on the footing of the findings. `
This chapter entitle Research Methodology covers the different types of roll uping informations used such as instance surveies, interviews, studies, observations, and the different facets of trying process, questionnaire design, informations aggregation and ethical issues associated with research. The aim is to supply an penetration into the methodological analysiss used every bit good as into the grounds and the applicability of their usage.
3.1 What is Research?
Research is a agencies to obtain cognition. A Research methodological analysis simply defines what the activity of research is, how to continue, how to mensurate advancement and what constitute success. In other words, Research is a human activity based on rational probe and is aimed at detecting, construing and revising human cognition on different facets of the universe.
3.1.1 Why Research is of value?
There are different ways of obtaining information. Some of these are:
Consulting experts, trusting on intuition ;
Review books & A ; articles, inquiries, or detect co-workers with relevant experience ; nevertheless these are non dependable.
3.1.2 Research methods
The end of the research procedure is to bring forth new cognition, which takes three chief signifiers:
Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new jobs
Constructive research, which develops solutions to a job
Empirical research, which tests the feasibleness of a solution utilizing empirical grounds
Research can besides fall into two distinguishable types:
Research methods used by research workers include:
Experience and intuition
Mathematical theoretical accounts
Content or Textual Analysis
3.2 Action Research
For this survey action research was selected since action research helps to place what pupils are truly making, instead than what they think they are making. In action research the research worker focuses on a ‘problem ‘ and on the footing of information, plans, implements and so evaluates an action than draw decisions on the footing of findings ( Macintyre, 1991 ) .
Action research would besides assist to orient instruction and acquisition to scholars and their scenes. Harmonizing to Corey ‘s action research in many ways is instruction ‘s ain. It is non borrowed from other field. In a schoolroom state of affairs action research calls for wide engagement, a flexible survey program, clip for participants to turn in the procedure of analyzing the job and most of import of all, confidence that action be taken towards a solution to the job under survey ( Barnes, 1960 ) .
Corey believed that the value of action research is in the alteration that occurs in mundane patterns instead than the generalisation to a broader audience. He saw the demand for instructors and research workers or instructors as research worker to work together ( Mc Farland & A ; Stansell, 1993 ) .
3.2.1 Action research in the field of instruction
There are certain hypotheses about educational research which form Educationists believing and determine class of action. An educational research may be approached from different positions, depending on the purpose of the research and the restraints on the research. For my survey, as a instructor I have to give personal study and apprehension of what happens in the schoolroom. The educational tradition proposed by Stephen Cory in 1953 illustrates the ways a instructor can better her patterns. It was the initial systematic effort to specify Action Research.
Interest in action research declined over the following few old ages as experiments with research designs and quantitative informations aggregation became the norm. Action research highlights the engagement of instructors holding jobs in their ain schoolrooms that has as its primary end the in-service preparation and development of the instructor instead than the acquisition of general cognition in the field of instruction.
Stephen Corey at Teachers College at Columbia University was among the first to utilize action research in the field of instruction. He believed that the scientific method in instruction would convey about alteration because pedagogues would be involved in both the research and the application of information. Corey summed up much of the idea behind this fledgling subdivision of enquiry.
Through action research I would be able to go on the procedure of alteration and advancement in the schoolroom. Sing the classical schoolroom state of affairs, the chief resources were the text edition and extra notes which were used as a usher for lesson planning and a beginning of assignment. Classroom interaction is dominated by the instructor who, on norm, contributes 85 % of the talk, 15 % of the duologue typically consisted of reacting to instructors inquiries either singly or in chorus. Very seldom did the pupils ask inquiries or originate an exchange ( Stuart, 1977 ) .
3.2.2 Reasons for taking action research
Action research is one of those footings that we hear rather frequently in today ‘s educational domains. Classically, action research is undertaken in a school scene. It is a brooding procedure that allows for question and treatment as constituents of the research. Often, action research is a collaborative activity among co-workers seeking for solutions to everyday, existent jobs experienced in schools, or looking for ways to better direction and increase pupil accomplishment. Rather than covering with the theoretical, action research allows practicians to turn to those concerns that are closest to them, 1s over which they can exhibit some influence and do alteration.
Action research is basically an on the topographic point process designed to cover with a concrete job located in an immediate state of affairs. This means that for my research the bit-by-bit procedure is invariably monitored ideally over changing periods of clip and by a assortment of informations aggregation tools ( Cohen and Manion, 1989 ) .
The informations aggregation tools will guarantee feedback which may be translated into alterations, accommodations, directional alterations, redefinitions as necessary, so as to convey about enduring benefits to the on-going procedure itself ( Cohen and Manion, 1989 ) .
The procedure of action research assists pedagogues in measuring demands, documenting the stairss of enquiry, analysing informations, and doing informed determinations that can take to coveted results. Although there are many types of research that may be undertaken, action research specifically refers to a disciplined enquiry done by a instructor with the purpose that the research will inform and alter his or her patterns in the hereafter. This research is carried out within the context of the instructor ‘s environment, that is, with the pupils and at the school in which the instructor works.
3.3 Research designs
For my research I have adopted qualitative attack. Implicit in the term action research is the thought that I will get down a rhythm of presenting inquiries, garnering informations, reflecting, and make up one’s minding on a class of action. The thought of utilizing research in a “ natural ” puting to alter the manner that the instructor as research worker interacts with, is that puting can be traced back to Kurt Lewin, a societal psychologist and pedagogue whose work on action research was developed throughout the 1940s in the United States.
“ Lewin is credited with coining the term ‘action research ‘ to depict work that did non divide the probe from the action needed to work out the job ” ( McFarland & A ; Stansell, 1993 ) .
3.3.1 Lewinian Model of Action research
In this technique of action research, larning alteration and growing are seen to be facilitated best by an incorporate procedure. It begins with experience followed by aggregation of informations and observation about that experience. The informations are so analysed and the concluding analyses are fed back to the histrions in the experience for their usage in the alteration of their behavior and pick of a new experience. Learning is therefore visualized as a four phase rhythm as shown in figure 1 ( Kolb, 1984 ) .
Testing deductions of
constructs in new state of affairs Observation and contemplations
Formation of abstract constructs and generalizations
3.3.2 Dewey ‘s theoretical account of larning
John Dewey theoretical account of the acquisition procedure is unusually similar to the Lewinian theoretical account. He makes more expressed the development nature of larning urges in Lewin ‘s theory. A feedback procedure is utilized by depicting how learning transform the urge, feeling and desire of definite experience into higher order determined action ( Kolb, 1984 ) .
This theoretical account stresses on larning as a dialectic procedure integrating experience and constructs, observation and action. The caprice of experience provides thoughts to their traveling force, and thoughts give way to impulse. Postponement of immediate action is of import for observation and opinion to step in. Action is indispensable for accomplishment of end ( Kolb, 1984 ) .
3.4 Model selected
I have selected the theoretical account advocated by Stephen Kemmis. He proposes a self-reflective spiral of planning, moving, detecting, reflecting and re-planning as a footing for a job work outing tactic. Kemmis bases his thoughts on the original construct of Lewin but he has defined it well. The diagram below shows the rules in action that is the motion from one critical stage to another and the manner in which advancement may be made through the system.
Observe Revised program
Stephen Kemmis Model
3.5 Execution of rhythms
Observational Study – man-made
Observational Study – Natural
Observational Study – Still life
Presentation by instructor to pupils in category
Presentation by pupils to groups
Peer presentation by pupils
Data aggregation tools
Qualitative research tend to analyze the “ quality ” of things around us of course in the context and based on the premise that the universe is made up of legion worlds, socially constructed by assorted single positions of the same state of affairs. Those research workers try to detect the significances and readings by analyzing instances intensively in natural scenes and by reflecting the research workers ‘ ain experiences in what they report.
Advantages: it provides understanding from the point of view of the participants ; offers a strong empirical committedness to triangulated description of instruction ; uses greater flexibleness in the schemes and techniques ; and shows a sense of empathy heightening the public-service corporation of usage for applied pattern in instruction.
A sample means a group of people on whom the probe will be carried out. The mark sample refers to all pupils involved in the survey. For my survey I have selected a category of Form V degree pupils from the school I ‘m really working. The population of the category is 8 and they are all pupils of Art and Design. Once the official mandate at the school was granted ( Appendix *** ) , I had to be cautious and careful to concentrate on my purposes and aims of my survey.
Triangulation is a procedure in which the research worker uses two or more research methods to look into the same phenomenon. This can be done consecutively, so that sequence of phases of research emerges. For illustration, for my survey observation is carried out ab initio and so interview is being used. It is a good thought to seek and utilize more than one method of question to better my opportunities of acquiring better, more dependable information. This will minimise the opportunity of colored findings. Using more than one method research is sometimes referred as triangulation. It is non every bit easy as it sounds ( Grix, 2004 ) .
There are several types of triangulations:
Combined degrees of triangulation
( Denzin, 1970 )
The major benefits of triangulation are that findings and decisions are likely to be much more convincing and accurate if based on several different beginnings of information. The best manner is to look into findings derived from one type of method with those derived from another, every bit long as the original fact under probe remains the same therefore it would be heightening the cogency of the research ( Grix, 2004 ) . For my research I have selected the research worker type of triangulation.
What people say is a major beginning of qualitative informations. However there are some restrictions to how much can be learned from what people say. Through observation the research worker can hold organizational informations, which are non possible through interviews. However, it is true that non everybody can be observed. Data for scientific and proficient intents are obtained in one or two ways ; by observation and by experimentation. Observation means we watch carefully and enter what we see. However, this is non every bit easy as it sounds. Accurate and dependable observation, hence, requires much preparation and pattern. Since I am learning art as a topic and I have been working in five colleges including star and low acting schools, with misss and male childs, run intoing different co-workers, curates, and parents it was easy to set up trustiness. I spent some clip detecting. Thus the findings are considered to be trusty. The demand for triangulation arises from the ethical demand to corroborate the cogency of the procedures. Thus the methodological analysiss used for the intent of this survey are, interviews, questionnaire design, and personal observation.
3.8.2 Interview as a research method
Interviews are really popular signifiers of research tool and may be used in concurrence with other signifiers of informations, point of views and methods that is utilizing the Triangulation procedure.
Wolcott ( 1989 ) suggests that triangulated techniques are helpful “ for cross-checking or for ferreting out changing positions on complex issues and events ” ( p.192 ) .
The interview method of research, typically involves a face-to-face meeting in which a research worker ( interviewer ) asks an person a series of inquiries.
The interview method is a conversation with a intent and is non experimental in design.
Interview is used as the primary research tool, or instead in an accessory function, as a checking mechanism to triangulate informations gathered from other beginnings.
The interview is used widely to addendum and widen our cognition about single ( s ) ideas, feelings and behaviors, or how they think they feel and behave.
220.127.116.11 Classs of interview
There are two classs of interview:
The cardinal characteristic of the structured interview is in the pre-planning of all the inquiries asked. Structured interviews besides allow for reproduction of the interview with others. For my survey here similar inquiries were asked to the forces of the MOE and the MGI. For case I can so generalise what I find out to the population from which my interview sample came. Structured interviews are conducted in face-to-face manner.
18.104.22.168 The structured interview
Using inquiries tightly specified in progress structured interviews aim to study comparatively big populations by inquiring same inquiries in the same order. This type of interview is used for a assortment of grounds but can frequently be used to increase response rates and the quality of replies for questionnaire manner research.
Cohen & A ; Manion ( 1989:312ff ) set out the chief types of point used in structured interviews.
Fixed alternate: i.e. Dichotomous yes/no
Open – ended: some response flexibleness possible
Scale: normally grades of agreement- dissension
22.214.171.124 Semi structured interview
Semi Structured Interviews is possibly the most normally used interview technique in qualitative societal research, the research worker will desire to cognize certain information which can be compared and contrasted with information from other interviews, and the research worker may bring forth an interview agenda which is a list of inquiries the research worker will desire to happen out from the interviewee.
126.96.36.199 Unstructured interview
An Unstructured Interview is where the research worker asks as few inquiries as possible, allowing the interviewee talk freely, step ining merely to refocus the treatment or investigation for extra penetrations into a cardinal country.
A qualitative interview is different from mundane conversation in the undermentioned ways. First it is a research tool and enabled me to fix inquiries in progress, and subsequently analyze and study consequences. I guided the inquiries and focused the survey. Good interview accomplishments require pattern and contemplation. Finally, beyond the acquisition of interview accomplishments, interviewing is a doctrine of larning. Personally I become a pupil and so seek to acquire people to depict their experiences in their ain footings.
Interviews can give us both quantitative and qualitative informations about participants ‘ ideas, feelings and behaviors. This is due to the standardisation and / or free runing nature of inquiries asked. The more structured or standardized interview inquiries are, the more able you to acquire quantitative informations. Quantitative information is dependable and easy to analyze. The less structured and freer runing the interview inquiries the more qualitative your informations becomes. Qualitative information is hard to analyze and is non as dependable.
3.9 Survey Questionnaire
The study besides called questionnaire is a set of inquiries given to a sample of people. The intent is to garner information about the people ‘s attitudes, ideas, behaviors and so forth. The research workers compile the replies of the people in the sample in order to cognize how the group as a whole thinks or behaves. I have designed two set of questionnaires ; one for the instruction staffs and the other for pupils. The questionnaires were used because of the undermentioned advantages:
3.9.1 Advantages of Written questionnaire
Questionnaires are cost effectual when compared to face-to-face interviews
They are easy to analyse
They cut down prejudice as there are no verbal or ocular hints to act upon the respondent
Questionnaires are less intrusive than the telephone or face-to- face studies. when a respondent receives a questionnaire he is free to finish it on his ain time-table
3.9.2 Disadvantages of written questionnaire
Possibility of low response rates
The inabilities to examine responses as questionnaires are structured instruments. They allow small flexibleness to the respondent with respect response format.
Gestures and other ocular cues are non available with written questionnaires.
Questionnaires are merely non suited for some people
3.9.3 Format of the questionnaire
One of the underpinning of a successful study is the rightness of the questionnaire. The prime of the questionnaire is to roll up the relevant information. Therefore, while planing it, I used simple linguistic communication. It was concise and manageable. It should non be complex, equivocal and drawn-out as long questionnaires get less response than short 1s. More of import than length is question content. A topic is more likely to react if they are interested in the research subject. Questions should be meaningful and interesting to the respondent.
The order of the inquiries is grouped into logically consistent subdivisions by grouping inquiries that are similar as this makes the questionnaire easier to finish, and the respondent will experience more comfy. And passages between inquiries were made smooth.
The qualities of good inquiries besides are of paramount importance for illustration utilizing: dichotomous inquiries ; multiple pick inquiries ; rank ordination ; evaluation graduated tables ; and open-ended inquiries. I have chosen multiple pick, dichotomous, and evaluation points for their popularity when making the study because they are by and large the easiest for the respondent to answer and easiest besides to analyse. In the 2nd portion of both my study questionnaires I have used open-ended inquiries as they are devices for smaller graduated table research and they invite honest, personal remark and free response from respondents.
3.10 Pupils Diaries
Diaries are an attractive manner of garnering information about the manner pupil spends their clip. Such dairies are non records of battles or personal diaries of ideas and activities, but records or logs of professional activities. They will supply valuable information about work forms and activities provided topics are clear what they are being asked to make ( Bell, 1998 ) .
Through this method, pupils will be given the chance to show themselves and give constructive feedback on a peculiar instruction episode. A checklist will besides be given to the pupils to steer them in what to enter in their journals. The chief concern would be to acquire feedback on how far they have been able to implement what they have learnt in theory category in the practical category.
The values of unity, equity and nonpartisanship are upheld in informations analysis. It was ensured that informations refering to the study were collected after holding explained to the respondent the general nature of the question and the intended usage of the information. Much attention has been used to avoid misinterpretation and abuse of the consequences of the research.
Effective informations can be obtained if the right inquiries are asked make a batch of the appropriate informations analysis tools and utilize different beginnings of informations to increase the credibility of the findings, we can non trust and anticipate excessively much from informations. Data does non stand -alone as it is the significance we apply to the information that is critical. The undermentioned chapter will cover with the analysis and findings of the collected information.
3.12 Anonymity and Confidentiality
An anon. survey is one in which cipher can place who provided the information. Some surveies have shown that response rate is affected by the anonymity/confidentiality policy of a survey. Others have reported that responses became more deformed when topics felt threatened that their individualities would be known. Others have found that namelessness and confidentiality issues do non impact response rates or responses. I have besides used anon. questionnaires that contain no identifying information so that to bring forth more honorable responses.
3.13 Validity and Reliability of Instrumentations
Dependability refers to the consistence of tonss or replies from one disposal of an instrument to another ; and from one set of points to another.
Cogency refers to the meaningfulness, rightness and utility of the illations a research worker makes. The triangulation method was used to guarantee cogency. The triangulation ( observation, interview, entering and uninterrupted feedbacks ) approach gives assurance in the cogency of the illation. Informal interviews have been dealt straight with the pupils, therefore bring forthing precise information. The triangulation will profit in the sense that the informations can be crosschecked. It can besides be less resource demanding although it may take the research worker to set about more research to formalize or measure theoretical position.