What Is Meant By The Age Of Enlightenment Criminology Essay

John Howard- was a county squire, societal militant, and sheriff of Bedfordshire. He had great influence in bettering healthful conditions and procuring humane intervention in prisons throughout Europe. He was responsible for carrying the House of Commons to ordain a set of penal reform Acts of the Apostless. Along with others, Howard drafted the Penitentiary Act of 1779, which called for the creative activity of houses of difficult labour where people convicted of offenses that would otherwise hold earned them a sentence of transit would be imprisoned for up to 2 old ages. Prisoners were to be confined in lone cells at dark but were to labour mutely in common suites during the twenty-four hours. The double intent of the penitentiary was to penalize and to reform wrongdoers through lone parturiency between intervals of work, the ingraining of good wonts, and spiritual direction so that inmates could reflect on their moral responsibilities.

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4 rules

Secure and healthful construction

Systematic review

Abolition of fees

Reformative regimen

New penal establishment should be a topographic point non simply y o degree Fahrenheit industry but besides of attrition and repentance

All these influences created a major alteration in the pattern of the penal system. Penal codifications were rewritten to stress adaptation of penalty to the wrongdoer. Correctional patterns moved off from bring downing hurting to the organic structure towards methods that would put eh person on a way of honestness and right life. Conclusively, a penitentiary was developed where felons could be secluded from the temptations of society, think about their offenses, and hence be rehabilitated. The terminal consequence of the Enlightment epoch was that captives were tortured less but forced to endure longer, more psychologically torturing, corsets of imprisonment.

4. Discourse the construct of offense as a moral disease. What is meant by this? What are the deductions? How did this impact the thought of imprisonment and prison?

Morality is a set of rules refering the differentiation between right and incorrect or good and bad behaviour. Crime as a moral disease means that offense happens because of a pick based on bad values by the wrongdoer. In other words it could be described as a disease of the head. Crime is the consequence of your milieus and values that make you take to make what you do. Criminals were viewed as the victims of societal upset. It came about during the age of the penitentiary in the nineteenth century America. While intoxicant was one of the biggest societal jobs, psychic upset, opium dependences and general populace and moral upset discourtesies started to go progressively common. Crimes of force, belongings discourtesies ( larceny and burglary ) were increasing. ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken )

Crime was to boot attached to societal factors. Four reformists during this clip gave their thoughts: Gresham Powers claimed that the “ causes of offense can be found in the rapid growing of wealth, population size, in-migration and commercialism and fabrication ” ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) . Edward Livingston claimed that offense was merchandise of intemperance, indolence, ignorance, irreligiousness and poorness ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) . John Griscom found offense to be in the context of bad parenting and that parents allow kids to make what they want without restraints and bounds ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) . Last, Thomas Eddy claimed that offense could be traced to inordinate passions like lecherousness, greed or force. These passions overpower the qualities of ground and reason. ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) Each one of these reformists suggested assorted grounds as to why offense was bing utilizing societal factors like the community and attitudes of those communities and upbringings as the causes.

The many averments of what the causes of offense fundamentally implicated three different foundations: “ broken household, intemperance and a general bad environment: ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) . Therefore, when you put all three of these beginnings together, the offenses that occurred during this clip period held that a corrupt community filled with enticement and immorality promoted morally weak milieus which contributed to morally weak people who ca n’t defy the societal immoralities. In the mid 1800 ‘s society was in diminution. ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) Things were non traveling good around this clip. As a consequence, when you have a broken household and you live in a bad environment, people do non cognize right from incorrect. The morality of the environment you live in assorted with enticements will do person bargain or burglarise a place. The morality of what is inherently good and bad was ne’er instilled so the morality of the individual is weak. Therefore, these wrongdoers ‘ behaviours are seen as a moral disease.

The remedy for moral disease was a moral scientific discipline. This construct affected the thought of imprisonment and prison because it was presumed that scientific promotion that dainty physical upsets could be employed to handle evil. Dr. Benjamin Rush was a celebrated doctor at the clip and believed offense as an infective disease. Rush along with other physicians medicalized reasonably much all behaviours. He taught that disease was a wont of incorrect action and wonts that cause injury are diseases. Crime can finally be cured and the injection against immoralities and offense foremost necessitate strong subject and the closing down of any constitutions of bad character. Any influences that can pervert the head demand to be removed in order for one to acquire better ( Bloomberg & A ; Lucken ) . As a consequence, Rush suggested the thought of a “ House of penitence ” . Imprisonment and prisons took on the “ The House of penitence ” which helped the captive meditate on their offenses, experience compunction, and undertake rehabilitation. These thoughts turned into the Pennsylvania System and subsequently led to a penitentiary in hopes to make a penitent installation with lone parturiency. Prison fundamentally became a topographic point to believe about what you have done twenty-four hours in and twenty-four hours out and inquire forgiveness for your evil Acts of the Apostless of offense.

American Penology: A history of Control ( Enlarged Second Edition ) , Bloomberg, Thomas & A ; Lucken, Karol

6. What is the medical theoretical account of poenology? What was it ‘s attack? How did this translate into existent universe applications? Make it work- why or why non?

Prisons in our society have gone through many transmutations and alterations. When one design does non work we change it for a new one in hopes of better results. Our prison systems have shifted their focal point from penalty to rehabilitation so from reentry and reintegration back to captivity. Along the manner, the demands of the condemnable justness system changed and prison theoretical accounts were developed to assist offense rates diminish. In 1929, the thought to hold establishments that target rehabilitation as its chief end was introduced. Prisons were to change over into something similar to a mental infirmary that would rehabilitate and measure the wrongdoer for preparedness to travel back into. Therefore, in the 1950 ‘s the medical theoretical account started to go widespread sing this thought.

The medical theoretical account is the theoretical account of corrections based on the belief that condemnable behaviour is caused by societal, psychological, or biological defects that require intervention. Crime was seen as a moral disease and viewed felons as victims of societal upset. This theoretical account was the first echt attempt to use medical schemes that aimed straight at scientifically sorting, handling, and rehabilitating condemnable wrongdoers. The wrongdoers in this theoretical account were dealt with on an single footing to set up the cause or causes of their condemnable behaviour. The attack this theoretical account took was to calculate out why a individual committed their offense and what could be done to repair it. The single intervention was based on what the scientific discipline of poenology decided was needed. Prisons and gaols were the 1s naming the causes of offense ( drug maltreatment, intoxicant maltreatment, etc ) . They were besides the 1s urging plans and processs to bring around the unwellnesss. Many of the plans applied by the theoretical account: place parturiency, halfway houses, pre-release centres, word, compulsory release and work plans. Additionally, the new poenology processs included: psychotherapeutics, daze therapy, behavior alteration, reding and group therapy. The wrongdoers ‘ condemnable history, personality and their alone demands were taken into history to calculate out how to repair their unwellness.

Furthermore, the medical theoretical account of corrections was designed and aimed to handle felons ‘ unwellnesss with outlooks that when they are released, the wrongdoer is cured and will non relapse. The applicable plans and processs of the medical theoretical account had an admirable end of assisting wrongdoers find solutions to what caused them to perpetrate offenses and use them. Unfortunately, the theoretical account was unsuccessful and it came to an terminal. One ground the theoretical account did non work was because of budget jobs. Many provinces adopted the medical theoretical account but merely in name. Even when the theoretical account was at its highest point, most provinces did n’t delegate any more than five per centum of the budget towards rehabilitation.

The medical theoretical account was besides said to be forced and promoting dishonesty. The engagement of the theoretical account was all compulsory alternatively of voluntary. Wrongdoers had to take their medicines and interventions whether they wanted to or non. As a consequence, the inmates knew what to make if they wanted to acquire out of prison or gaol. They knew if they displayed good behaviour and did the interventions and therapies needed, they would be released. Dishonesty amongst the inmates seemed to be seen as bucked up because of this.

7. What accounts for the growing of prisons in the U.S. ? Give at least 3 accounts along with specific illustrations. Are these valid explanations- why/why non?

There are many things that account for the growing of prisons in the U.S. Three things in peculiar are the new penal policies that happened in the get-tough epoch, inequality of hapless, disadvantaged work forces and recidivism and misdemeanors of probation and word. In 2009, three are 2,429,299 people in federal, province, and local prisons and gaols which is the highest captivity rate in the universe ( http: //www.drugpolicy.org/drug-war-statistics ) .

One ground is the get-tough-on-crime Torahs that boosted an addition in prisons. The Torahs include compulsory sentencing, three work stoppages, truth-in-sentencing and more that consequence in longer and harsher punishments. So why would this be a ground for prison growing? Well the aggressive policing in minor offenses like shrinkage, drug ownership or other minor discourtesies traps people in the three-strikes-laws for repetition wrongdoers. The three-strike Torahs set up compulsory 25 old ages imprisonment which mandates longer sentences for repetition wrongdoers. Another illustration is the compulsory minimal sentences from 1986 that are fundamentally fixed sentences to those convicted of a offense, irrespective of blameworthiness or other mitigating factors. Compulsory lower limits were used to catch drug distributions and most people in a compulsory sentence are low-level drug discourtesies. If caught on drug ownership charged you are traveling off for a lower limit of 15 old ages no inquiries or statements. This is valid because harmonizing to the “ Drug Policy Alliance, more than 80 per centum of the addition in the federal prison population from 1985 to 1995 was because of drug strong beliefs ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civilrights.org/publications/justice-on-trial/sentencing.html ) . Additionally, the three-strike Torahs are besides non-violent repetition wrongdoers. As a consequence, prisons are invariably seeking to do room for all these non-violent wrongdoers and let go ofing violent criminals because these Torahs say that minor discourtesies must be tough and the wrongdoer must function their clip in prison instead than rehabilitation. The ground for these Torahs was to halt violent felons, but the antonym is taking topographic point and minor discourtesies by wrongdoers are sent to prison longer than those who commit violent Acts of the Apostless.

Compulsory minimal sentencing and the three-strike Torahs were really hard largely on drug discourtesies. The “ War on Drugs ” was brought to halt the merchandising, fabrication and importation of illegal drugs. The two condemning types led to the addition of drug wrongdoers to make full the prison systems. The “ Number of people arrested in 2011 in the U.S. on nonviolent drug charges: 1.53 million ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.drugpolicy.org/drug-war-statistics ) ” .

A 2nd ground for the growing of prisons in the U.S is due to the inequality of hapless, disadvantaged work forces. Harmonizing to “ Punishment and Inequality in America ” by Bruce Weston says that “ unemployment, household instability, and vicinity upset combine to bring forth particularly high rates of force among immature black work forces ” .

Poverty

Poverty rhythms create captives. Entire demographic groups which are categorized as life at or below the poorness degree in most surveies reflect an person from that generational group traveling to prison or gaol. During the past 25 old ages, there has been a widening spread in America between the rich persons and have nots. Once a individual has been jailed or incarcerated, they are categorized by most employers as 3rd category citizens, which limits their chances to mount out of a rhythm of poorness old ages after their release. The cultural group impacted the most is African americans.

A 3rd ground is recidivism and proficient misdemeanors of probation and word. There are so many people out on probation and word that word and probation misdemeanors increases which makes them travel back into prison. Serious proficient misdemeanor like the perennial failure to describe, violent offense a form of misbehaviour can set down a individual on probation or parole back in in prison. As we know, there are non many rehabilitation plans that help the wrongdoers reintegrate back into society. Therefore, when captives are released back into society they merely recidivate and stop up back in prison. This causes a growing of prisons in the U.S. There are two specific statistical illustrations to demo the rates of recidivism:

Of the 272,111 individuals released from prisons in 15 provinces in 1994, an estimated 67.5 % were rearrested for a felony or serious misdemeanour within 3 old ages, 46.9 % were reconvicted, and 25.4 % resentenced to prison for a new offense. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //bjs.gov/index.cfm? ty=tp & A ; tid=17 )

Released captives with the highest re-arrest rates were robbers ( 70.2 % ) , burglars ( 74.0 % ) , larcenists ( 74.6 % ) , motor vehicle stealers ( 78.8 % ) , those in prison for possessing or selling stolen belongings ( 77.4 % ) , and those in prison for possessing, utilizing, or selling illegal arms ( 70.2 % ) . ( hypertext transfer protocol: //bjs.gov/index.cfm? ty=tp & A ; tid=17 )

This statement is valid because these statistics plus many more show how wrongdoers are cycling in and out of the condemnable justness system. Not merely do we hold new wrongdoers but now old wrongdoers who can non rhythm out of the system.

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