Agro forestry is an intensive land-management system with combination of harvests, trees, farm animal. Farmlands on hill inclines of Nepal have been losing dirts at the rate of 8 to 12 tons/ha/year due to eroding ( Carson, 1992 ) . ( The word resiliency is viewed as a nonlinear multiple sphere or ecological resiliency which was aroused from ecologists who studied ecosystem kineticss linked with human actions. ( Holling 1973, Lance Gunderson1 and Carl Folke2 2005 ) .Though many ecologists and resource practicians view worlds and their actions as external to the system, they fail to take into history the mutualities between societal kineticss and the ecosystem development.
The environment is dynamic faced by several baleful factors. In this status, ecological resiliency provides such buffer that protects the full system from direction failure. This helps the directors to larn and alter. In this respect, the major challenge is to construct cognition, inducements and larning capablenesss into establishments and organisation for administration for the adaptative direction of local, regional and planetary ecosystems. ( Folke et al. 2005, Lance Gunderson1 and Carl Folke2 2005 ) . ) So, with the rapid and badness of our universe & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s natural catastrophes, it is the great challenge to the humanity in the hereafter non merely to accommodate to current conditions in short term but besides to device more sustainable development tracts.
The ecosystem itself has the great capacity to self fix to the drastic alterations upto certain degree. When the alterations exceeds the degree, the full system would be disturbed that will non be sufficient to cut down force per unit areas on ecosystems from emphasiss. In this respect, agro forestry is the popular construct to supply resiliency which is practiced in most of the states of the universe. The account is farther mentioned in the context of Nepal.
This agro forestry pattern has several direct and indirect benefits for human being..
First, it fulfills the basic demands of local husbandmans which includes forestry constituents ( fresh fish, fuel wood, carnal bedclothes stuffs, little lumber, medical specialty, fruits ) , Agricultural constituents ( Grains and hard currency harvests ( tea, cardamon etc. ) and Livestock constituent ( Milk, meat, compost, ploughing, wool, leather etc ) Second, landscape direction where most of their demands such as firewood, fresh fish, grasses, bedding stuffs for farm animal semen from farming area and trees associated around their farming area. Not merely this, trees are of import for the protection of the environment and biodiversity. ( Gilmour and Fisher, 1991: Grimble et Al, 1994, Regmi, 2003 ) . With the enormous addition of human and livestock population, there has been tremendous force per unit area on wood and cultivable land that consequences in the depletion of natural resources which has affected natural and human environment ( MPFS, 1991, Regmi 2003 ) . Sharma 2006
*Sharma-The forest resources are being diminishing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours in measure every bit good as quality. From 1964 to 1979, the forest screen reduced to 43 % in Nepal. By 1986, forest screen had been farther reduced to 37.4 % and by 1998 to 29 % of the entire land country ( NPC, 1998, Regmi 2003 ) . In this context, agro forestry can play a critical function to run into the demand of the turning population which can prolong harvest agribusiness and farm animal. ( Chew, 2001 ; Arnold, 1997, Regmi 2003 ) .
There are chiefly two factors responsible for alterations in the environment viz homo and natural.
Human activities such as switching cultivation, steep incline cultivation, deforestation, invasion, fire have negative consequence in the productiveness of the land.
On the other manus natural factors such as eroding, landslides, heavy rainfall, and drouth are besides every bit responsible for conveying such alterations in the environment.
Therefore, in order to defy these sever factors in the agribusiness land, agro forestry has been the anchor to defy the alterations. These eventually increase the productiveness of land every bit good as better the status of the ecosystem. This besides fulfills the demands of turning human and livestock population.
Finding alternate options to increase the supply of wood merchandises to back up rural supports agro forestry have become a cardinal concern for policy shapers and contrivers to supply options for rural supports and biodiversity preservation ( Gordon and Bently, 1990 ; Kidd and Pimentel, 1992, Regmi 2003 ) . The ecological and socio-economic importance of agroforestry in continuing the ecosystem has been good recognized. ( Boffa, 1999, Adaba, 2005 ) . Agroforestry provides social-ecological resiliency which is the key to sustainability. It has besides great deductions on the clime alteration.
Rural husbandmans can besides practise this technique due to its simpleness. Those rural husbandmans who are hapless and have limited land are benefited by this technique. This is the successful pattern for sustainable productiveness and resources use. This pattern is of import non merely at present but besides for future. Agroforestry provides assorted services to human being. The land resource is utilized in optimal manner. This besides protects the degrading land and promotes the productiveness every bit good as stableness of the land.
Climate alteration has serious effects in Nepali agribusiness since it extremely rely on the conditions. Agro forestry is the pillar to the success in order to defy the possible climatic consequence in the hereafter. Increased evapo-transpiration, lower dirt wet degrees and decreased winter precipitation may go the major factors that decrease the productiveness of the land. Hence, agroforestry act as the resiliency for advancing the degraded land by bettering dirt belongings such as wet saving in dirt, increasing dirt porousness and microbic activities.
Though agroforestry has been supplying multiple benefits to the people, it is hard to prolong this pattern in the hereafter. There are several jobs to follow and implement this system specially in the underdeveloped state like Nepal. The major jobs are forest debasement, increased population, unfavorable institutional agreements, environmental impairment, hill farming agro-ecosystem and traditional every bit good as unscientific assorted agriculture system. Despite these factors, if anyone of the constituents of farming system ( forest, cultivable land and farm animal ) is imbalanced, the whole agriculture systems may be collapsed. Therefore, it is a great challenge to incorporate all the elements of agro forestry systems.
Development jussive moods of farming system are forest, cultivable land and farm animal. If any one is
disregarded, whole agriculture system may fall in. On the other manus, this system has some restrictions although it has many advantages. These are foods competition among the workss, high cost for the system, seasonably attention and intervention required, policy job among husbandmans and so on.