Malaysia is enriched by copiousness of natural resources and one of them is the rivers or besides known as surface H2O. River or surface H2O is cherished and critical natural resource for all life on Earth particularly human being as it provides H2O supply for human domestic usage, irrigation for agribusiness, as a agency of transit, industries use and so on. Even though there ever has been enough of fresh H2O in Malaysia, clean H2O supply has non ever been available due to the lifting H2O pollution job.
Presents, Malaysia has become an industrialised state and no longer left behind the other developed states but at the cost of the environment. Effluent from the industrial country which is so discharged straight into the rivers without anterior intervention is the chief beginnings of H2O pollution. Besides, human activities such as the utilizations of agricultural chemicals, dirt eroding due to improper development undertaking, land usage and so on are besides contributed significantly to H2O pollution ( Niemi et al. , 1990 ) . Pollution of river with high concentration of toxic chemicals and extra foods, which are ensuing from surface H2O overflow, leaching from landfill site and land H2O discharges has been aroused the public concern towards the H2O pollution issue. Therefore, there is a demand to measure river or surface H2O quality due to the increased apprehension of the importance of H2O quality towards public wellness and aquatic life ( Ying, 2005 ) .
Peninsular Malaysia consists of 11 provinces and two federal districts whereas Perlis is the smallest province among them. Perlis province is situated at the northwest of peninsular Malaysia. There are more than ten major rivers within the Perlis country while Perlis River is one of the most of import rivers in Perlis. The length of the Perlis River is about 11 kilometers through Kangar metropolis to Kuala Perlis while the size of the river basin is about 310 kilometer & A ; Acirc ; ?. Perlis River has become the halfway phase for the populace to socialise and for recreational activities peculiarly at Denai Larian Sungai Perlis. The figure of visitants who are sing to the river and environing country for remainder and diversion intent is estimated to be achieved 10,000 peoples per month. However, the quality of Perlis River does non make the coveted degree and it is much difference if compared to the major rivers at developed states.
There are some jobs which occurred at Perlis River at nowadays. Harmonizing to the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia, the position of H2O quality at Sungai Perlis is classified as Class III. There is heavy eroding occurred at Perlis River and taking to the river Bankss become really shallow. Residents which located environing the river have thrown rubbish or solid waste into the river hence doing to inaesthetic scene and it is non accessible to boats. Besides, there is a landfill located in Kuala Perlis and this straight affects the H2O quality of the river when the leachate is leaching out. Squatters located near the river modesty country are besides doing pollution jobs and there is a demand to regular patrols or hut-to-hut cheques. Other point beginning pollution such as runt farm animal pools, Kangar moisture market, esplanade at Perlis River, nutrient stables and the Kuala Perlis fisherman breakwater are contributed significantly to the H2O pollution at Perlis River. ( www.1s1rcommunity.net )
On the other manus, the beginnings of H2O pollution can be categorized into point and non-point beginnings. Point beginnings of pollution refer to those easy identifiable pollutants which enter the H2O resource though a direct path, for illustration, wastewater from effluent intervention workss. Whereas for non-point beginning pollution, it refer to those pollutants which enter from diffuse beginnings and they are hard to command, such as stormwater overflow ( P.Jamwal et al. , 2008 ) .
In this survey, Mann-Kendall tendency trial and chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) have been applied to observe the tendencies of H2O quality informations and to obtain the most important parametric quantities in order to follow the beginnings of pollutants. Mann-Kendall tendency trial is one of the most widely used non-parametric trials to observe important tendencies in clip series. It has the advantage that their power and significance are non affected by the existent distribution of the informations ( Hamed, 2009 ) . Therefore it is more suited for observing tendencies in hydrological clip series, which are normally skewed and contained the outliers.
Mann-Kendall tendency trial has been widely used in measuring the variableness on hydrological clip series ( Hamed, 2008 ) . The illustrations of earlier surveies which applied Mann-Kendall technique are tendency survey and appraisal of surface H2O quality in the Ebro River ( Bouza-Deano et al. , 2008 ) , hydrological tendency analysis due to landuse alterations at Langat River basin ( Juahir et al. , 2010 ) , designation of hydrological tendencies at Canadian Rivers ( Khaliq, 2009 ) and so on.
Chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) , one of the multivariate statistical techniques, is helps in cut downing excess parametric quantities with minimal loss of original information ( Helena et al. , 2000 ) . A better apprehension of H2O quality can be achieved through the reading of complex H2O quality informations matrices. Besides, it allows the designation of possible factors or beginnings that affect H2O systems and therefore a dependable direction of H2O resources every bit good as fleet solution to pollution jobs can be found out ( Vega et al. , 1998 ; Wunderlin et al. , 2001 ; Reghunath et al. , 2002 ; Simeonova et al. , 2003 ; Simeonov et al. , 2004 ) .
In recent old ages, chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) has been applied in assorted facet of field including environmental issues. It has been used to qualify and measure H2O quality informations, and it is efficacious in verifying temporal and spacial fluctuations caused by natural and anthropogenetic factors ( Helena et al. , 2000 ; Singh et al. , 2004, 2005 ) . The illustrations of application of PCA in environmental issues are reading of land H2O hydrographs ( Winter et al. , 2000 ) , scrutiny of spacial and temporal forms of heavy metal taint ( Shine et al. , 1995 ) designation of weedkiller species related to hydrological conditions ( Tauler et al. , 2000 ) and so on.
The purposes of this survey are to observe the tendencies of H2O quality informations at Perlis River and find the important parametric quantities that contributed to H2O pollution by utilizing Mann-Kendall and chief constituent analysis techniques. A deeper apprehension of the development in H2O quality from the twelvemonth 2003 until twelvemonth 2007 can be achieved via the Mann-Kendall tendency trial. Besides, by utilizing the chief constituent analysis ( PCA ) , the beginnings of pollutants can be traced and therefore some extenuation steps can be carried out.