Wales is a portion of the great Britain island happening on the west side of this island and boarded by England to its east side and the Atlantic ocean and the Irish sea to its west. It consists of an pointer of hills with some rather flat countries in southern and northern sides. This geographical nature affects people interactions and creates some sort of diverseness in footings of the idioms in different parts of Waless. Wales was a Gaelic district conquered, at first, by the Normans. The official linguistic communication of this country was Welsh linguistic communication and the presence of English was limited until the English colonisation ( young girl, 1987, p.271 ) . Cambrian linguistic communication is a member of the Celtic household and harmonizing to the national statistics 2003 ; it is “ the liveliest of the modern Celtic linguistic communications both in footings of existent Numberss of talkers ( 575,168 ) and in footings of per centum of talkers within the political boundaries of the state ( 20.5 % ) ” ( Ball, 2007, p.237 ) . It has been likely spoken until the center of 19th century ( Risukhina, 2007, p.4 ) .
The political and historical developments accelerate the diffusion of English linguistic communication in Waless. Due to its boundary with England, English in wales has some English characteristics depending to the contact with native English talkers. Welsh English can be characterized as a mixture linguistic communication with different grade of common influence of both of them. That is to state that Welsh English of the boundary line countries is more influenced by native English than the far parts. Furthermore, Welsh English has two types: northern and southern Welsh English, the northern shows the transitional phase of linguistic communication displacement procedure to English as spoken by Welsh bilingual while the southern type indicates concluding phase ( Lass, 1987, p.272 ) .
The intent of this survey is to foreground the history of English linguistic communication in Waless every bit good as the Anglicization procedure including its facets that improve English place in Waless. The 2nd portion of this essay will supply a lingual description of the salient characteristics of both Welsh English types.
Cambrian English history:
At early old ages, English presence in Waless was non important centered and used in the boundary line countries with England. In 1284 Waless was conquered by English as the first settlement of an spread outing English province. The English authorities established political and legal system replacing the Welsh jurisprudence and tribunal by English 1s. Even though its powerful entryway, English does non put to death Welsh linguistic communication instantly that during the first period of English conquest, Welshman was still the linguistic communication of the parliamentary authorities. This authorities followed England in its trueness even if it was governed by the Tudors, who were Welsh in their generation ( Coupland and Thomas, 1990 ) .
During the regulation of the Tudors, there was political and cultural convergence between Waless and England and the best image for it was the act of brotherhood in 1536. The Tudors joined the English irritant under Henry VIII ‘s regulation. In 1746, this act of brotherhood ended up on the Declaration that wales officially as a portion of England. The relationship between the two states may actuate the Tudors and the upper category Welshman community to larn English, which can be considered as one of English authorities purposes to integrate those people into its domain of influence and so the populace. The constitution of English schools for the House of tudors may look as an grounds of this desire. The advantageous point of this brotherhood is that it can be a mark of thoroughgoing Anglicization ( Williams, 1990 ) .
Anglicisation is important for the development of the British society every bit good as English linguistic communication. It can be defined as “ the procedure by which non-English people become assimilated or bound into English-dominated cultural and ideological system ” ( Williams, 1990, p.19 ) . In Waless, Anglicization procedure may function political intents in incorporating Welsh people into English kingdom. Furthermore, Anglicization may supply English societal values to welch community and promote its people to switch to English linguistic communication and utilize it as an ordinary linguistic communication instead than Welshman. There was an aggressive onslaught by the English authorities on Welsh linguistic communication abandoning it by the jurisprudence.
Anglicisation has assorted images that aim all together to protect British Empire. The first image concerns with the spiritual issue in which new spiritual and socio-political system was represented in the churches following the English church. This can be attributed to the desire of spiritual uniformity. The interlingual rendition of the Bible to welch may formalize these alterations in the system and helps in standardisation of Welsh linguistic communication, at first. During eighteenth century, the new spiritual motion insisted on the usage of English beside Welsh linguistic communication in the church services. This bit by bit causes a displacement in speech production of people to be bilingual in both of linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Pryce ( 1978 ) this displacement may deteriorate Welsh place in a community, and he remarks “ Ones a community moved toward a bilingual position so about necessarily English was to derive an overpowering laterality in the following coevals ” ( Pryce, 1978 cited in Bellin, 1984, p.451 ) .
Another signifier of Anglicization can be introduced through instruction. In the mid nineteenth century, English authorities imposed English linguistic communication on instruction system. English becomes the official linguistic communication for instruction in schools. Welsh linguistic communication is discriminated and an illustration of such favoritism of its talkers is that, in a school, any child radius Welshman had to have on a particular wooden mark on their chest demoing that they are Welsh talkers ( Risukhina, 2007, p.4 ) . Enforcing English through instruction was clip devouring but its consequence lasted for centuries subsequently on. Furthermore, this act can be interpreted as an effort of uniformity in which the functionary linguistic communication wales as English district ought to be English. Until 1890, Welsh linguistic communication was ignored in schools, nevertheless few old ages subsequently welsh was reintroduced as a medium for making English for Welsh talkers and it developed to go an optional topic in effort to better its place in the community ( Lass, 1987, p.272 ) .
Geographically talking, the natural construction classifies wales into plane and cragged districts, the industrial revolution took topographic point in the plane fertilized countries off from the cragged parts of the state. This revolution contributes to the demographic construction of Waless in which the population figure in these countries would increase quickly due to migration motion, which in bend will increase the figure of English talkers of that population. The boundary line countries with England, besides, plied an of import function in the economical every bit good as lingual degree. Because of Welshman English economic exchange ; English could be the trade linguistic communication in those countries. David, in his survey, indicates an addition of figure of English monoglots in Waless over the twentieth century ( Penhallurick, 2007, p. 152 ) . Turning to the migration point, Waless was exposed to many motions of in-migration either within Waless itself or from outside such as England. There are assorted grounds for these motions, for illustration, wars or political crises and socio-economic depression.
This guide us to the premise that Welshman English has two typical theoretical accounts the southern and the northern one. Get downing with the southern theoretical account, it can be found spoken in the southeasterly parts near to the English boundary lines. It has an autochthonal idiom which portion many lingual characteristics with English idioms particularly west Midland and sou’-west 1s, which can be viewed as one of English assortments. Furthermore, most of the talkers are monolingual of English stand foring the concluding phase of language-shift procedure. The 2nd theoretical account is the northern one ; people who live in northwesterly parts of Waless have this type of Welsh English. It depends on Welsh linguistic communication more than the southern portion which in the reverse is influenced by English linguistic communication. This theoretical account can be found among Welsh-English bilinguals ( Thomas, 1984, p.178 ) .
In the undermentioned subdivision, some of the outstanding lingual description of Welsh English will be highlighted. The focal point will about be on the southern form of Welsh English because the bulk of the population as monolingual or at least bilinguals likely speaks it, with mention to the typical characteristics of northern one.
The RP vowel // , as in STRUT, becomes more raised and centralized in Welsh English. It may make the quality of /E™/ ; nevertheless in unstressed syllables it does non contrast with regular /E™/ . In Welsh linguistic communication there is no // phoneme but it has /E™/ which may explicate the inclination to centralise and raise the // . This characteristic may be called as ‘SHWA-merger ‘ . North Welsh English has /ES/ for the prance vowel which can be interpreted as a north English influence. Harmonizing to Parry ( 1990 ) in his survey of Welsh English in south Pembrokeshire, there are three realisation of RP // as: [ ] in stressed syllable, [ E™ ] in unstressed syllables and may happen in stressed syllable as a letter writer to RP/E’/ , and [ E™Ez ] in unstressed concluding syllables in words with concluding orthographic & lt ; er & gt ; ( Parry, 1990, p.153 ) .
In BAT-BATH there is no split, both of them have /a/ , a short forepart vowel. Although the vowel in BATH words is [ a ] , the long realisation of this vowel [ aE? ] may happen in cart, composure and instead. This can be attributed to the confrontation between non-standard short /a/ and standard influenced-long vowel /a: / . Furthermore, /a/ is found in unstressed & lt ; a & gt ; where in RP it has /E™/ or /E’/ , this may explicate as spelling pronunciation influence. The [ aE? ] realisation is socially sensitive with being stigmatized as compared with the RP [ E’E? ] , in some words [ aE? ] may be raised to [ ?E? ] or [ E›E? ] for illustration, get down becomes /st?E?t/ or even /stE›E?t/ . This characteristic is common in Cardiff which can be pronounced by its people as / kE›E?dE?f/ . In Bangor, the [ E’E? ] variable applies merely to the word start in its sociolinguistic value while the [ aE? ] variable is kept in other words like thenar.
In Welsh English the RP diphthongs are monophthongaized in some instances. The FACE and GOAT words have [ eE? ] and [ oE? ] alternatively of the RP diphthongs /eE?/ and /ou/ severally. This characteristic may be related to the old fashioned Welshman English while the urbanized/ Anglicized countries likely southern districts use the diphthongs as RP. northern Welsh parts may utilize even opener monophthongs [ eIˆE? , oIˆE? ] , for illustration, coat /keIˆE?k/ . orthographically, words written with & lt ; ai, ay, ei, ey & gt ; such as: canvas /seE?l/ and quarry / prei/ maintain the RP pronunciation of /eE?/ . Welsh English, besides, retain the diphthong /ou/ in matching to orthographic & lt ; ow & gt ; .
The PRICE and MOUTH words have /E™i and / E™u/ diphthongs severally. They are characterized as mid-central in its first component similar to the prance vowel quality. The concluding component of the diphthong is really close and resists smoothing procedure. This characteristic is really typical in Welsh English ensuing presumptively in the fact that Welsh linguistic communication has both /E™E?/ , /E™u/ and /aE?/ , /au/ . The first set may be selected to be tantamount to RP diphthongs in PRICE and MOUTH. This pick may be attributed to the premise that these diphthongs had non yet acquired their unfastened get downing point in RP at the period when Welshman is introduced in Waless. And so it can be understood that it is non of Welsh linguistic communication influence.
Furthermore, In Welsh English, and as resistance to RP, there is no elision of the 2nd component of the diphthongs when they are followed by /E™/ . This can be due to the emphasis distribution and the relation between stressed and post-stressed syllables, therefore it tends to be strengthened by developing semi-vowel semivowel, which is homorganic with each vowel. These diphthongs seem to avoid the smoothing and focus oning procedure. For illustration, fire /fE™E?E™/ [ E?fE™ijE™ ] and shower /E?E™ESE™/ [ E?E?E™uwE™ ] . Sing the vowels which are followed by /E™/ , the RP diphthongs /E?E™/ , /E›E™/ and /ESE™/ have Welsh English letter writers for /E›E™/ as a pure long vowel /E›E?/ and for /E?E™/ , /ESE™/ as /iE?E™/ and /uE?E™/ severally, in non-rV environment. They are disyllabic and may hold the inclination of infixing semi-vowels, which are homorganic with stressed log vowels. For illustration, cervid /E?diE?E™/ [ E?diE?jE™ ] and hapless /E?puE?E™/ [ E?puE?wE™ ] . The orthographic & lt ; ure & gt ; seems to be pronounced non merely with /uE?E™/ as in certain /E?E? uE?E™/ [ E?E? uE?E™ ] but besides with a sequence of diphthong /E?ES/ plus /E™/ such as pure /E?pE?ESE™/ . The orthographic & lt ; ew & gt ; , & lt ; u & gt ; followed by a vowel besides have /E?ESE™/ in pronunciation such as gem /dE’E?ESE™l/ and may develop a semi-vowel semivowel to go /E?uwE™/ as in /dE’E?uwE™l/ .
Under the absence of phonemes matching to RP /E?E™/ and /ESE™/ . The quality of Welsh English vowel in NEAR words can be /jE?E?/ which may rime with /E?E?/ in FUR words. The words ear, here ( H is dropped ) and twelvemonth wholly have /jE?E?/ realisation. While in -rV environment there is a inclination to utilize simple /i: / such as period /piE?riE?E™d/ or even divide in to two syllables as in ‘beer ‘ /bi: jE™/ and in ‘fury ‘ /fju: Rhode Island: / .
Welsh English has monophthongal realisation of the /i: / in FLEECE and /u: / in GOOSE. These long monophthongs resist diphthongization procedure. The /iE?/ sometimes is centralised and lowered nearing the quality of these vowels /aE?/ , /E›E?/ , /E”E?/ . The /u: / monophthong correspond to the orthographic & lt ; oo & gt ; , & lt ; o & gt ; or & lt ; ou & gt ; while other words written with & lt ; u & gt ; , & lt ; ue & gt ; , & lt ; eu & gt ; or & lt ; ew & gt ; have /E?u/ alternatively of /u: / or /ju: / . For illustration, loose /luE?z/ and new /nE?u/ , through /I?ruE?/ V threw /I?rE?u/ in environment -rV. However, /E?u/ presently may confront an eliminating procedure, because of lexicon diffusion, from words in which /E?u/ does non match to RP/ju: / and it is replaced by /u: / such as ; ill-mannered becomes /ruE?d/ alternatively of /rE?ud/ and flew /fluE?/ alternatively of /flE?u/ . In Bangor, it can be fund that bluish /bluE?/ and blew /blE?u/ are considered as minimum brace connoting lexical distribution as letter writer to lexical alteration procedure. Welsh linguistic communication has /E?u/ diphthong, therefore it can be substratal influence on Welshman English. Wells ( 1986 ) remarks that the switch from /E?u/ to /u: / as person ‘s inclination to lose their local speech pattern ‘as Welshman ‘ or even do hypercorrection in articulating these two sounds such as state of affairs / sE?tuE?E?eE?E?n/ instead than /sE?tE?uE?eE?E?n/ in local speech pattern and /sE?tESE?eE?E?n/ in RP ( Wellss, 1986, p.386 ) . The characteristic of utilizing /E?u/ instead than /ju: / can be discussed as yod-dropping exclusion.
In TRAP words the quality of the vowel is /a/ to the full opened in general, but in Cardiff is /?/ . With orthographic & lt ; a & gt ; , words are pronounced with /a/ instead the standard /E’/ . This can be attributed to spelling pronunciation influence. harmonizing to Parry survey, it can be seen that the vowel /a/ is common in WASP and occasional in prey and absent in wash ( Parry, 1977, cited in Wells, 1986, p.386 ) .
Welsh English about resists the decrease of vowels in concluding unstressed syllables. It may avoid /E™/ in concluding checked syllable such as minute [ moE?mE›nt ] , incapacitated [ hE›lplE›s ] . the -ed and -est added postfixs may articulate with /E›/ , landed [ landE›d ] and brightest [ brE™itE›st ] are good illustrations. Again this inclination may take to hypercorrections such as plan [ proE?grE™m ] that is [ -gr?m ] in RP. Welsh English does non hold /E™/ in polysyllabic words.
Welsh English is non-rhotic, hence words like start and North are pronounced as /sta: t/ and /nE” : I?/ severally, the quality of /r/ sound is alveolar axial rotation /r/ or pat /E?/ . However, there are some countries in Waless where R is rhotic as in southernmost Dyfed including Pembroke, Gower peninsula, easternmost English boundary line influencing by rhotic local speech pattern of English side and about among those people who speak English as their 2nd linguistic communication. English borrowed words in to Welsh retain historical /r/ in all places. Because of the rhoticity of Welsh linguistic communication and spelling pronunciation consequence, all /r/ letters are pronounced, nevertheless the influence of Anglicization leads to excluding of /r/ except in prevocalic places. Another factor lending to the non-rhoticity of Welsh English is English instructors. They insist to show a perfect English non merely in grammar but besides in pronunciation when non rhotic English was considered as a polite norm in England.
The same as the book
The median consonants particularly in V-V environment and, after short stressed vowel, be given to be lengthened. Wordss as run intoing meat-tin [ myocardial infarction: T: E?n ] and nil [ nE™I?I?E?n ] are good illustration of gemination procedure. This regulation applies most to voiceless consonant than sonant 1s. Furthermore, it has phonological effects in that the resistance between individual or dual consonants may vanish in which the singular consonant such as ‘city ‘ may be lengthened while a combination of two stop ‘brought together ‘ may be shorter than RP pronunciation. This characteristic can be found in less Anglicized parts of Waless.
In Welsh English, the stop consonants /p, T, k/ are strongly aspirated in most places than RP. The sonant stop consonants in Welsh English are substituted by voiceless stop consonants. This characteristic may be considered as one of the typical characteristics that define Welsh English idiom. Interestingly, after /s/ the stop consonants are weakly aspirated and are understood as sonant stop consonants instead than unvoiced 1s. This may construe Welshman people confusion when they hear the voiceless plosives spin, steam and mark thought that their quality is voiced stop consonants /sb- , sd- , sg-/ instead than unvoiced 1s. An reading to this association between voiced and voiceless may associate to the consequence of Welshman spelling system by composing English borrowed words ‘spite ‘ and ‘scop ‘ as ‘sbite ‘ and ‘sgop ‘ , severally. Furthermore, aspiration may be used to separate between voiced and unvoiced stop consonants.
Another characteristic of Welsh English is the absence of glottalling in most of the place. However, in contrary to most Welsh districts, Cardiff and Newport have glottalling of /t/ after syllabic [ cubic decimeter ] while in the V-V environment /t/ is tapped and voiced. Glottalling may function in make fulling a suspension place between two vowels belonging to different syllables as in reaction /rE?E?E”akE?E™n/ , or in beef uping an tonic vowel under accent such as she ‘s old /E?iE?z E”ould/ .
Welsh English has two extra continuant phonemes: voiceless alveolar sidelong continuant /E¬/ and voiceless uvular continuant /x/ . These two phonemes have been found in Welsh linguistic communication. Because of the trouble in Anglicising the names of topographic points, occasions and individuals, Welsh people may utilize these phonemes when talking English. The chief distribution between these phonemes is that /x/ ne’er occurs word ab initio.
The /l/ phoneme is normally clear in Welsh English in most of Waless except for Cardiff and other Anglicized countries where they have both dark and clear /l/ as in RP. North Waless tend to utilize a pharyngalization quality which make clear /l/ dark in all environments.
Northern welsh English does non hold /z/ and /E’/ which lead to let go of them to /s/ and /E?/ , severally. Good illustrations of this characteristic are is [ E?s ] alternatively of [ E?z ] , vision [ vE?E?E’n ] rhymes with fission [ fE?E?E™n ] . It is assumed that the ground of the release of /E’/ to /E?/ and /z/ to /s/ refer to the fact that Welsh linguistic communication does non hold /dE’/ or /tE?/ but merely as loan phonemes.
There are many grammatical characteristics that distinguish welsh English from other assortments of British English. To get down with fronting, welsh English tends to set accent on a particular word, which carry the of import message, by get downing a sentence with it. An illustration of looking procedure is the undermentioned sentences: working in Swansea he is, singing they were and expensive it is. This procedure can be explained as topicalisation of verb phrases or adjectival phrases in which the of import verb or adjective is put at the beginning of the sentence. In order to stress that something is above the norm, particularly in weight, height..etc, Welsh English tends to geminate the word alternatively of utilizing ‘very ‘ . For illustration, It is high high ( it is really high in standard assortments ) .
Another grammatical characteristics in Welsh English is the generalisation of the 3rd remarkable ticket is n’t it to replace other individual mentions. This omnipresent usage of is n’t it may be common for rural assortments. For illustration, you are traveling place now, is n’t it? , and she came to see me, is n’t it? . In northern Welshman assortments, tag yes can be used in declaratory sentences such as: you are in the university, yes? .
Sing the present tense, the full verb plus the 3rd remarkable stoping is generalized to all individuals. The signifier will be as follow: they knows that, cubic decimeter dramas football and so on. The add-on of a- in present participial signifiers is common in southern Welshman English, cubic decimeter am a-going now is an illustration. The accustomed usage of progressive signifier can be found in Welsh English in present or past tense signifiers. For illustration: I am traveling to chapel every Sunday ( cubic decimeter go toaˆ¦ ) and he was coming in before I was completing ( he came in before fifty coating ) .
The signifier ‘some ‘ can be used in inquiry and negatives instead than ‘any ‘ . It can be found in non criterion welsh English while standard assortments have ‘any ‘ . In negative signifier as he has non got something to have on ( got anythingaˆ¦ ) and in inquiry signifier as have you got some money? ( got anyaˆ¦ . ) .
Welsh English lexis
There are some loan words borrowed form Welshman linguistic communication in to welch English. These words by and large few and the more localised the idiom is the greater figure of borrowed words become. Examples of these words from Welshman are:
del, Bach footings of endearment
llymru a porridge-type dish