Use of information technology


Traveling frontward to the information age had effect to the promotion of the utilizing of informations and information. This brings to the debut of databases which so expand to detailed construct of informations warehouse and Data excavation. In this paper, informations warehouse and information excavation construct were discuss in item. Data excavation tools and techniques were besides highlighted. The execution of informations warehouse and informations excavation were mushrooming among organisations. This is because the execution of informations warehouse and information excavation had brought many benefits to the organisation. This article will besides foreground the benefits of execution of informations warehouse and informations excavation to the organisation.

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1. Introduction

In the early beginning of the usage of information engineering, assorted jobs sing to the information direction had occur. Problem ever occur when information is updated while at the same there is long running questions. User who is doing updates has to wait until the questions completed. It is blowing clip to wait for the question to finish. To avoid this is by physique read merely transcript of data.On-line dealing processing ( OLTP ) is the application that updates informations while the application that issues questions to the read merely database is called a determination support system ( DSS ) . Most organisations apply disparate OLTP and DSS application in several databases. As for illustration, finance OLTP and finance DSS are placed in difference database system with gross revenues OLTP and gross revenues DSS. This means that the system is stand by themselves, this has disable users ability to entree several sort of informations at one time. The users need to question different DSS in order to garner different informations. However in certain instances, informations may hold cardinal struggle between DSS. Some informations will non utilize the same format in other DSS, as for illustration a measuring may be stored in metres in a DSS while other DSS might utilize paces. Alternative was believing to supply solution for this job. Organizations come out with the thought that they need an incorporate system which is a information warehouse that integrates informations from several stand entirely systems and supply first-class informations sharing. A information warehouse will react to the user ‘s questions but it will non supply the forms in informations. To happen the information forms, the information excavation is used to mine cardinal information from a information warehouse.AA Data excavation is done by put to deathing the package which examines a database so happen forms in the information. To run the information excavation, informations excavation tools need to be use. There are assortment of informations excavation tools can be used for different excavation algorithm. Among of the popular informations excavation tools and techniques include association regulations, familial algorithms, determination trees and nervous webs.

2. Concept

2.1 Data warehouse

Data warehouses can be defined as cardinal storage for informations where the informations are collected from several beginning including informations from the operational database. The informations were so cleaned and integrated to used for determination devising ( William Inmon,1990 ) as cited by ( Mannino, M.V. & A ; Walter, Z. , 2004 ) .Besides supplying the executive and director with individual position of the truth, informations warehouse is specially programmed and organized for informations retrieval and analysis. Through the transition of operational and transactional informations into endeavor information, information warehouse will convey first-class determination devising.

Other than that, informations warehouse give chance to the organisation to interrupt their organisation ‘s obstruction, as disseminated information were collected and combined from assorted beginnings. Absolutely build informations warehouses include architecture, coordination and stage by stage informations migration from operational systems and transactional system into the nature which optimized to back up determination, information processing and concern intelligence.

Basically, informations warehouse will maintain and analyse converted informations which collected from package system in the full operational environment. Data warehouse are besides of import for informations analysing in the intelligence environment.

Categorizations of Data Warehouses

Normally, the size and complexness of a information warehouses should orient to the organisation ‘s demand, budgeting, demands, technological substructure, and resources. However, organisations ever choose to construct and keep two types of information warehouses. This includes Enterprise Data Warehouse and Data Mart ( Adam Getz, 2006 ) . Enterprise information warehouse refer to the execution in the big organisation broad which crosses the full concern maps and covered all informations elements from the full section and units. Enterprise information warehouse contain wide country of interconnected capable country and include assorted informations that needed by the organisation to the sweetening of informations analyze. Data entities and Fieldss from the full organisational sections and units collected and change over in to a centre storage/ depository. All units and division such as selling and accounting will affect and work together to centralise the analysis of all of the disparate informations. The information will be converted to standard format that can be use by the full organisation. This will better the organisation ‘s analysis methods. In add-on, this will better the organisation ‘s informations quality, consistent consequence and of class the organisational efficiency. Data marketplace is differ from the endeavor informations warehouse. Data mart particularly designs to back up one concern map or units to cover specific inquiries within comparatively narrow confines. Beside that, informations marketplace was particularly created to back up the particular intent which is for tactical and speedy retrieval. The informations focused in a short development agenda on a rapid execution. Each units or section in the organisation such as accounting and selling will utilize informations mart as their coverage and analytical system. To enable each section in the organisation to analyse informations for the demands of their units, the section will plan informations marketplace which contain adequate information Fieldss and entities to back up their demands. Other than that, informations marketplaces can be gather straight from an operational system implement by the organisation or in the information warehouse. Both transactional and analytical system can change over the informations kept in informations marketplace.

Data Warehouse Architecture

In traditional informations warehouse architecture, fundamentally there will be informations beginning that comes from assorted locations such as the databases, external informations and text file ( Jarke, M. , Jeusfeld, M.A. , Quix, C. , & A ; Vassiliadis, P. , 1999 ) . Other so that, informations warehouse architecture will incorporate informations sender that transmit the information from a database to another. Before come ining the information into the information warehouse, the informations will be processed to construct consistence and standardise informations, this phase of struggle declaration done by the mediature ( G. Wiederhold, 1992 ) as cited by ( Jarke, M. , Jeusfeld, M.A. , Quix, C. , & A ; Vassiliadis, P. , 1999 ) . This architecture besides contain repository that shop informations about the informations in the information warehouse. Data warehouse architecture besides include informations mart. This will enable the organisation to custom-make their informations warehouse architecture to assorted sections and concern map in the organisation, such as finance, selling and buying. User will straight question for informations in the informations warehouse for assorted demands.

2.2 Data Mining

Data excavation can be defined as a procedure which aims is to happen valid, utile and apprehensible correlativities or forms in available informations by utilizing a wide spectrum of techniques and formalisms ( H.M. Chung & A ; P. Gray ( 1999 ) , P. Smyth, D. Pregibon, & A ; C. Faloutsos ( 2002 ) ) as cited by ( Nenad Jukic & A ; Svetlozar Nestorov, 2006 ) .while others define information excavation as the extraction of utile information from big informations sets ( Hand et. al. , 2001 ) as cited by ( Karthik Jayashankar, 2007 ) . In other word, information excavation is best defined as procedure of pull outing forms and relationship hidden in informations to happen the significance in informations.

Data excavation attack is complement to data analysis techniques. This includes basic informations entree, statistics, online analytical processing and spreadsheets. However, informations excavation package extinguish the organisation understanding on the information, the demand to cognize the concern and aware on the general statistical method. In add-on, informations excavation non normally find cognition or forms that can be trusted straight without confirmation. Besides, informations excavation besides can be use to bring forth hypothesis, nevertheless informations excavation does non used to formalize the hypothesis.

Data excavation procedure

Data excavation commonly involves few procedures, this include readying, categorization, constellating, calculating and association regulation acquisition ( Karthik Jayashankar, 2007 ) . The first measure in information excavation is data readying and geographic expedition. In this procedure, informations will be clean to rectify the informations entry mistakes, trying and cut down the complexness Classification separated the informations in to group. As for illustration, mail plan can sort an electronic mail as legitimate electronic mail or a Spam. This procedure is to develop regulations utilizing informations with known categorization and use this regulation to unknown categorization informations. Prediction is the procedure of foretelling binary categories which end is to happen chance of the variable numerical value.

In bunch, similar records in the information will be grouped harmonizing to constellating algorithm. This procedure is about the same with categorization regulation, nevertheless but the groups are non standardized. The algorithm was so used to seek seting similar points together. Association regulation acquisition is the undertaking that identifies the relationships between points. For illustration a supermarket might look for informations on client buying wonts. By utilizing the association regulation acquisition, supermarket will be able to happen what merchandise is often bought together. The founded information can be as recommendation for selling intents. While arrested development is an effort used to happen a map which represents the informations with the minimal mistake.

3. Data Mining Tools and Techniques

Data excavation tools collect informations and pattern the informations to stand for the world. The theoretical account will stand for and depict the information relationship and form. Based on orientation procedure, informations excavation activities divide into three classs which include find, prognostic mold and forensic analysis ( Chris Rygielski, Jyun-Cheng Wang & A ; David C. Yen, 2002 ) . Discovery is the procedure of happening the hidden forms in a database without gives thought and hypothesis on what the form might be. While prognostic mold is the procedure of utilizing the form gather from the database and utilize the informations to foretell hereafter. The 3rd classs are the forensic analysis. Forensic analysis is the procedure of implementing the extracted forms to find differences or non-standardized informations.

Data excavation automates the procedure relevant forms of current and historical informations in the database to be analyzed to calculate the hereafter. Through the ability of informations excavation tools to foretell and analyse behaviours of informations in the databases, it will be able to steer the organisation to bring forth proactive and efficient determination devising and reply inquiry that is desperately need to be solve in a small clip

There are assorted types of informations mining available in the market. Each tool comes with its ain advantage and failings. Information personal have to maintain update with the different type of informations excavation tools and suggest to buy the right tools that support the best demand of the organisation. Data excavation tools can be classified in to three chief classs which is dashboard, text excavation tools and traditional informations excavation tools, ( John Silltow, 2006 ) . Traditional information excavation tools use complex algorithms and technique to set up informations tendencies and forms. To supervise informations, tendencies and gaining controls information that non in the database, these tools should be installed in the desktop. Most of the tools are compatible with both Windows and UNIX version.

The 2nd classs of informations excavation are dashboard. Basically organisation will put in these tools to supervise the information alterations, information contained in the database and onscreen update. Basically this tool comes in the signifier of tabular array and chart to let the user to acquire better visual perception of the concern public presentation. Beside that, splashboard besides let user to mention historical informations. This will enable user to happen alterations on the information. Beside easy to utilize, this map makes dashboard interesting and easier for the director to see the company ‘s overall performance.AA

Text excavation tools is the 3rd type of informations excavation. This tool has the ability to mine informations in assorted sort of text such as Microsoft words and acrobat PDF. The ability of this tools to scan and convert information into the right format that suited with the tool ‘s database has brings easy and convenient informations entree to the user. By the usage of this tool, user does non necessitate to open different application for every different informations format. The informations scanned may incorporate structured or unstructured informations. This input captured will gives organisation a wealth of information which can be mined to find attitudes, tendency and construct. The beginnings of informations mining began on the first storage of informations in the computing machines and go on with the advancement in informations entree, until nowadays engineering that allows users to shop through informations in existent clip.

Best manner in using advanced informations excavation techniques is should hold synergistic and flexible informations excavation tools which is straight integrated with the organisation ‘s informations warehouse ( John Silltow, 2006 ) . It is the best pattern to incorporate informations excavation to informations warehouse. This allows organisation to simplify the application and excavation consequence execution. Besides, if the information warehouse grows larger, organisation can mine best pattern continually and use for the future determination devising. In Contrass, with utilizing outside excavation tools that is non efficient and clip devouring where by, few excess excavation stairss are required.

In implementing informations excavation tools, the information professional in charge may take from assortment informations excavation techniques that is suited to be usage. The nearest-neighbor method, unreal nervous webs and determination trees were the common excavation techniques that implemented by current organisation. Each technique has its ain method in mining the information. Artificial nervous webs are a powerful predicting technique that helps organisation to reexamine records to happen fraud and take action to minimise the fraud. In term of usage, this technique is more complex comparison to other techniques. However, unreal nervous webs are best to utilize in the units where there can be reused. As for the illustration at the monthly recognition cards dealing to command anomalousnesss. Decision trees can be used as illustration and buttocks weather the organisation had choose the right determination. It besides provides theoretical accounts for the hearer to do determination in the signifier of determination sets. The determination tree can bring forth regulations that can be used to sort information. Basically this technique is used for an apprehensible theoretical account. are arboreal constructions that represent determination sets. The nearest-neighbor method is a excavation technique that used by the organisation to happen or turn up other similar points with their interested paperss. This technique can group the dataset records with other informations in historical dataset harmonizing to similarity.AA

4. Benefits to organisation

The execution of informations warehouse in the organisation bring relaxation for the determination shapers and the directors, where by the information warehouse will rapidly pull out information to give solution to the organisation ‘s question. Data warehouse provide beginnings for information analysis to back up determination devising. Successful execution of informations ware house have brings several benefits and value to the organisation. Organization will derive immediate and long term benefits through the execution of informations warehouse.

Through the execution of informations warehouse and analytical application, the organisation will derive significant cost nest eggs and positive affects towards the organisation ‘s underside line fiscal. This can be proved based on a survey on concern analysis that focused on fiscal Impact. The survey found that the execution of concern analytics have generated a average 5 old ages ROI of 112 % . Among the organisations that involve in the survey, 54 % have a ROI around 101 % or more ( International Data Corporation, 2002 ) . Return on Investment ( ROI ) is the sum of increased or gross decreased in an organisation.

Other than that, informations ware house besides help in enhanced concern determinations. Data warehouse provide organisation with believable facts that backed up with grounds and informations that encapsulated within the organisation. The top degree of the company such as the director and executive can be freed to do determinations based their ain cognition, or inherent aptitude. In add-on, determination shapers may inquire for existent organisational informations and recover extremely organized that support to their demand.

Besides, informations ware house besides provide seasonably entree to informations. Previously organisation has to pass batch of clip to entree several of informations from many different beginnings and have to inquire so analyzed the informations as they need. Nowadays, agenda modus operandi ( ETL ) were set up in the environment of informations warehouse to roll up and unite relevant informations from separated beginning system and transform the information into the right format which utile to reply question and for of import for analysis. Data warehouse is setup with agenda modus operandis which collect informations from assorted beginnings and standardise their format. This allows organisation to entree informations from assorted beginnings with easy entree with fast retrieval for their demand to analyse and reply question.

Business user will let to inquire for informations straight even with less information engineering support and they can bring forth studies and questions by their ego. The concern user may utilize the question and analysis tools straight and can bring forth studies and questions by their ego. This will cut down the clip for the production of studies and question by the information professional. Further, the determination shapers may entree to the informations merely by utilizing one interface without demand to roll up the informations from assorted locations.

Consistency of informations can be gain from the execution of informations warehouse.Data will be cod and combine from many different beginnings and so change over in to a standard format. The informations are gathered from separated systems before convert into standardize format. Data format and terminology between the different organisational units will be standardized throughout the endeavor, while the informations with inconsistence nature will be removed. In other words, all organisation ‘s units will utilize the same information storage/repository as the chief beginning for their questions and analysis. Organizational units such as human resource, operation and R & A ; D will utilize the same information depository as a resource for its ain unit ‘s questions and analysis. So, each of the organisational units will bring forth consistency consequence with other units within the endeavor

Data warehouse besides can better the system performance.Data repositing environments are designed and organized with the primary focal point were to supply strategic critical analysis and fast informations retrieval. The implicit in construction is specialized to hive away big sum of informations and user was able to question for informations at fasters retrieval. Differ from the operational system which focuses on treating dealing, informations warehouse is particularly built for optimisation analysis and retrieval of informations compared to the efficient creative activity and alteration of informations. Data warehouse cut down the system load by expeditiously administer the system burden to the full organisation ‘s engineering substructure.

5. Decision

The execution of informations warehouse and information excavation in organisations have brings several benefits to the betterment and effectivity of the organisation procedure. The information professional should believe of some alteration and accommodation in informations warehouse can be suggested to heighten the map and the ability of the informations warehouse. This besides can be apply to informations excavation, some alteration to the tools and techniques will act upon the ability of the informations warehouse. New techniques in informations excavation can be believe to supply more options to take best techniques to be implemented.AA


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