Barnett defines the field of urban design as a subject that deals specifically with the visual aspect, functionality and agreement of metropoliss and towns. Urban design is a subject that requires specific focal point on the usage, development and defining of “ public infinite ” among urban metropoliss. Given its direct nexus to architecture, landscaping and urban planning, other architectural subjects emerged from this rule ( 7 ) .
Whereas the field of urban design appears to be really simple for many, this impression is non needfully true as urban design pattern requires a great trade of cognition on political economic system, societal theories, economic sciences and the scientific disciplines which are Fieldss interrelated with urban design ( Barnett 7 ) .
Hillier B. and Hanson J. states that the urban design theory is non an ordinary architectural subject as it deals with the direction and design of “ public infinite ” . Public infinite lies at the nucleus of urban design as the latter involves the proper direction and use of the public infinite or public sphere ( 26 ) .
In order to decently understand the theory of urban design planning, it would be necessary to specify the term “ public infinite ” . Hillier B. and Hanson J. defines this term as the entirety or summing up of infinites freely utilized by the general populace on a daily footing which encompasses the chief roads, streets, Parkss, place and other known public substructures that are offered by the authorities for public usage. This would even include certain in private owned infinites like gardens, edifice frontages, and any privately-owned infinite intended for public usage. All of these infinites are referred to as “ public infinite ” and are considered at the nucleus of the application of urban design theories and rules ( 30 ) .
Harmonizing to Holmes, A. , urban design, planning and analysis is all about the effectual application of the relationships and characters that exist among people, edifice and infinites every bit good as the people ‘s perceptual experience on the proper use of all these three facets ( 4 ) .
This paper on the “ The Urban Design Analysis Application on Arabic-Islamic Cities ” delves into the existent application of the urban design analysis among Arabic-Islamic metropoliss. Specifically, this paper will use the rules of urban design planning to analyse the street system in the Arabic-Islamic metropoliss and the advantages and disadvantages of such street system that presently exists in these metropoliss.
The Urban Design in Arabic- Islamic Cities: Development, Elementss and Structure
Based on the Hakim Becim book, the procedure of urban development in Arabic-Islamic metropoliss has so greatly evolved that its influence, peculiarly its physical constituents, have already become portion of the vocabulary of the people. The writer referred to this as the communities ‘ design linguistic communication, a rule that has been established out of tradition and is a byproduct of over 3,000 old ages of town edifice and development in the Middle East. Throughout the long history of urban design be aftering narrative of the writer, it has been found out that the physical constituents, the design linguistic communication and the vocabulary beginnings of the names used in the towns, parts and edifices have greatly evolved in clip ( 55 ) .
In farther analyzing the Hakim Becim book, the writer stated that Arabic-Islamic metropoliss have now become mature and complex as a merchandise of historical development and the major elements consisting it. Today, the urban colony in Arabic-Islamic metropoliss is known as Medina which are differentiated from Rabad which refer to suburbs ( 56 ) .
As recorded in the pre-historic development of major colonies, the Hakim Becim book stated that al-Maqdisi, a known Arab-geographer one time constructed four different colony types which he referred to as Amsar ( city ) , Qasabat ( provincial capitals ) , Mudun ( provincial towns ) and Qura ( small towns ) . These are far different from today ‘s contemporary term for colony known as Medina ( 56 ) .
Interestingly, throughout the procedure of constructing Arabic-Islamic metropoliss, faith is at the nucleus consideration in urban planning and design. Harmonizing to Abu Hanifa of the Hanafi School of Law, the metropolis or Medina is defined as a huge colony composed of a system of chief through streets called Suqs governed by an appointed residing governor who executes his responsibilities including judging the jobs which may originate among the people under his legal power ( 57 ) .
The Arabic-Islamic metropoliss hence do necessitate to run into certain demands in order to be considered as a Medina. First, it is necessary for a Medina or a metropolis to hold a Mesjid- Al hami known as Friday mosque where people are given sermon every Friday. The Mesjid- Al hami is besides supposed to function all the occupants within the legal power of the metropolis. A Kadi or the governor is besides required to be present in order to carry through his executive responsibilities for the occupants and dependants shacking within the metropolis. Suqs or the chief through streets must besides be present in order to function the people ‘s demands ( 57 ) .
Aside from the Medina other elements consisting the Arabic-Islamic metropoliss include Kasbah, a bastion attached to the wall which surrounds the Medina. Kasbah serves as the governor ‘s safety against the people ‘s rebellion to subvert his reign and authorization. Normally, this bastion is strategically positioned within a military constitution for the intents of added protection. It may even be situated in a sea forepart, H2O class or drop. In the traditional Islamic metropolis called Tunis, the Kasbah is situated at the highest elevated place ruling the urban composite ( 57 ) .
The Rabad, another component which comprises the Arabic-Islamic metropolis ‘s overall urban design, pertains to the quarters and territories located at the cardinal portion of the Medina or in simple footings, the town ‘s immediate locality. In the Tunis, two Rabads transporting different names are located in the Northern and the Southern portion. One is the Rabad Bab Souika ( north ) and the other is the Rabad Bab Jazira ( South ) . Bing an of import metropolis component, the Rabad, is surrounded by impenetrable walls for security and protection intents called the Sur ( 60 ) .
The Sur is besides another of import component which comprises the Arabic-Islamic metropolis ‘s urban design which is specifically intended for protection. It is made up of three protective elements which are: the wall proper, the Bab or the Gatess and the Burj or defensive towers. In the metropolis of Tunis, the two Rabads, the Medina and the Kasbah are all covered under the protection of these impenetrable walls or bulwarks called Sur ( 60 ) .
The Bab or the chief door is besides an indispensable urban design component among Arabic-Islamic metropoliss. This pertains to the door or gate entrywaies which are byproducts of great military expeditions in the past. Two types of Gatess, the set and the consecutive through, are besides being used in the metropolis of Tunis which are called the Bab Bahr and Bab Saadoon ( straight through ) and Bab Jdid ( dead set entryway ) ( 60 ) .
The Burj, which refers to the bastioned towers strategically positioned along the Sur or the bulwarks besides comprise the many different elements of urban design in Arabic-Islamic metropoliss. In the Tunis, one Burj is located inside the Medina walls, three on the Kasbah and another three on the outer walls of Rabad ( 60 ) . The street or the Shar ‘ or Tariq Nafid is perchance one of the most of import elements which comprise the composite and mature urban design elements of the Arabic-Islamic metropoliss. The streets in Arabic-Islamic metropoliss are really of import that it must be designed and built on a system or web of thoroughfares dispersed city-wide which are connected to the chief Gatess and the metropolis ‘s nucleus portion ( 61 ) .
Interestingly, the street system in the Arabic-Islamic metropoliss is designed to run into certain breadths and tallness demands. In fact, the demand should be that two to the full loaded camels may be able to go through by these streets without any trouble or hinderances. Since the streets are owned by the populace, it is besides under the direct supervising of the Kadi or the governor who supervises the people ‘s personal businesss within the metropolis ( 61 ) .
The street system within Arabic-Islamic metropoliss is composed of first-order streets, consisting the street system ‘s anchor, linking all the Babs or major metropolis Gatess to the Medina ‘s nucleus which is occupies the place of the mosque. The second-order streets on the other manus, known as the Mahalla are streets linking the primary streets with the major quarters. And eventually, the third-order streets known as the minor one-fourth streets are the 1s supplying linkage and entree to countries that are inside Mahallas or streets which are non serviced by second-order streets ( 64 ) .