The intent of this survey was ( 1 ) to research prospective early childhood instruction instructors ‘ apprehension of selected constructs related to human circulatory system and blood circulation ; and ( 2 ) to measure the utility of two acquisition activities for advancing participants ‘ understanding about human circulatory system. The context of this survey was an undergraduate class concerns with development of scientific and mathematics constructs and how kids get and utilize scientific constructs. Quantitative and qualitative informations were collected from 35 participants utilizing two learning activities ( individualized/group drawing and individualized/group response to structured inquiries ) as an assessment tool designed to uncover participants ‘ understanding about human circulatory system. Consequences indicated that three classs of alternate understanding emerged related to human circulatory system. Results besides indicated that individualised and group drawing was more effectual than individualized/group response to structured inquiries in uncovering the extent of and advancing participants ‘ apprehension of human circulatory system.
Research surveies covering with pupils ‘ apprehension of scientific constructs have been conducted across a broad scope of scientific discipline subjects and constructs. Most findings of these surveies pointed to a fact that pupils hold assorted positions about scientific constructs ( Bahar, Johnstone, & A ; Hansell, 1999 ; Buckley, 2000 ; Cuthbert, 2000 ; Lewis & A ; Wood-Robinson, 2000 ; Reiss & A ; Tunnicliffe, 2001 ; Tunnicliffe & A ; Reiss, 1999 ) . To day of the month, many surveies have investigated pupils ‘ apprehension of biological constructs. For illustration recent subjects investigated include photosynthesis ( Capa, Yildirim & A ; Ozden, 2001 ; Griffard & A ; Wandersee, 2001 ) , ecology ( Ozkan, Tekkaya, & A ; Geban, 2004 ) , diffusion ( Marek, Cowan, & A ; Cavallo, 1994 ; Tekkaya, 2003 ) , respiration ( Sanders, 1993 ) , genetic sciences ( Tsui & A ; Treagust, 2005 ) , digestive system ( Teixeria, 2000 ) , and the circulatory system ( Alkhawaldeh, 2007 ; Sungur, Tekkaya, & A ; Geban, 2001 ; Yip, 1998 ) .
Many of these investigated subjects can be regarded as indispensable to student patterned advance towards future biological cognition and are interrelated. For illustration, knowledge about human circulatory system and its related procedures are believed to be among the most critical to apprehension of other biological constructs. Students ‘ apprehension of the circulatory system were found to impact their apprehension of other biological constructs such as homeostasis, nutrition and conveyance, since go arounding blood is indispensable for transporting needed stuffs to keep favourable and needful conditions for endurance. Thus pupils ‘ who possess meaningful apprehension of how the circulatory system works may come to understand how this cognition is related to other biological cognition about other systems and therefore recognize the of import function of the circulatory system in homeostasis ( Tekkaya, 2003 ) .
On the other manus, scientific discipline instructors and prerservice scientific discipline instructors in peculiar have shown to hold similar jobs when it comes to scientific apprehension of scientific discipline. A reasonably consistent portrayal has been painted that illustrates preservice instructors ‘ deficiency of deep content Knowledge in all scientific discipline capable countries. For illustration, simple and secondary scientific discipline instructors have been found to keep alternate constructs refering scientific discipline subjects which are similar to the 1s their pupils may possess, and utilize scientific nomenclature that they do non genuinely grasp ( Ginns & A ; Watters, 1995, Pelaez, Boyd, Rojas & A ; Hoover, 2005 ) . Furthermore, instructors were besides found to possess by and large low degree of declaratory cognition every bit good as unequal accomplishments in the content country of scientific discipline ( Calik & A ; Ayas, 2005 ; Jegede, Taplin & A ; Chan, 2000 ; Justi & A ; A Gilbert, 2002 ; Tairab 2008 ) .
The quality of instructors ‘ apprehension of scientific discipline frequently tends to determine pupils ‘ alternate thoughts about scientific discipline alternatively of examining for understanding. For illustration, findings from old research showed that the quality of preservice secondary biological science instructors ‘ schoolroom discourse was greatly influenced by the quality of their content. Furthermore, other similar findings concluded that low quality content cognition of scientific discipline instructors negatively influenced their instructional schemes ( Lee 1995 ) .
Misconstruing about scientific constructs such as circulatory system can intensify further when school instructors hold unscientific apprehension. Previous research findings about the circulatory system found that both pre-service and in-service scientific discipline instructors were unable to expose scientific understanding about bosom construction and map, blood flow, blood force per unit area, and blood vass, and the relationship between construction and map of constructs associated with circulatory system and blood circulation ( Yip, 1998, Pelaez, Boyd, Rojas & A ; Hoover, 2005 ) . Furthermore, Arnaudin and Mintzes ( 1985 ) in their early survey revealed that college pupils excessively have similar misinterpretations of constructs associated with the circulatory system. For illustration, Arnaudin and Mintzes found that to big extent pupils conceptualized blood as “ cells suspended in ruddy liquid and ruddy cells missing an intercellular liquid ” . It was besides found that the bulk of the pupils at assorted age degrees and instruction fail to gestate the “ dual circulation nature ” of the circulatory system. The most often displayed misinterpretation at all degrees was the apprehension that describes the circulatory system as an unfastened system.
Merely as pre-service and college pupils, experienced instructors excessively, were found to hold similar misconceptions ( Yip, 1998 ) . Although teacher instruction plans provide great chances to analyze instructional teaching methods, methodological analysis, and learning pattern, few provide chances to deeply study scientific discipline content within the model of their instructor instruction plans. There is grounds that frequently teacher instruction plans spend less clip on content that is closely related to school curricular ( Tairab, 2008 ) . Alternatively pupils who prepare to go instructors are frequently inundated with an in deepness content that does non fit what they will be learning after graduating.
On the other manus, traditionally assessment attacks such as multiple-choice and written responses are normally used to place pupil alternate apprehension of scientific constructs. These diagnostic trials were developed utilizing assorted format including two-tire format and unwritten interviewing ( Treagust, 1995 ) , garnering pupils ‘ written responses ( Leach, Driver, Scott, & A ; Wood-Robinson, 1995 ) , entering pupils ‘ self-generated conversations ( Tunnicliffe & A ; Reiss, 1999 ) and building construct maps ( Novak & A ; Musonda, 1991 ) . Evidence from research findings suggest that these attacks may non be equal in uncovering the extent of alternate understanding held by pupils. Alternatively, appraisal and monitoring schemes are being developed by pedagogues to assist name student understanding during learning procedures so that pupils can be helped to modify their erroneous apprehensions. Among the alternate attack is the usage of pulling and participatory schemes in a signifier of active pupil engagement. The usage of drawing, which relies less on words has the possible to impact the manner scholars assessed. Although there is a big and turning literature on the importance and centrality of linguistic communication in acquisition of scientific cognition, there are restrictions to the usage of linguistic communication peculiarly when pupils are reacting to the appraisal in a non-native linguistic communication.
The findings reported in this survey are concerned with how participants ( prospective early childhood instruction instructors ) understand constructs related to circulatory system and blood circulation and later measure the effectivity of learning activities that were used as untraditional appraisal attacks on bettering apprehension. This survey is portion of current attempts to construct instructors ‘ capacity related to the development of content and pedagogical content cognition. The attempts, in its first stage explored how prospective instructors develop and understand constructs related to their field of survey.
Although a reasonably big figure of surveies have been conducted on simple and secondary instructors ‘ cognition and apprehension in scientific discipline, really small is known from the literature about the scientific background of the instructors of early childhood instruction. Modern beliefs maintain that appropriate scientific cognition can and should get down in infant categories ( Frost, 1997 ) . The survey presented in this paper is concerned with instructors ‘ capable affair content cognition in the context of scientific discipline in early childhood context.
This survey examines understanding of prospective early childhood instruction instructors of selected constructs of circulatory system and blood circulation. Furthermore, the survey evaluates the utility of two learning activities designed to measure and advance scientific apprehension of participants of these selected constructs. Specifically, the survey was concerned with happening replies to inquiries about prospective early childhood instruction instructors understanding of ( 1 ) bosom construction and map, ( 2 ) blood circulation with its associated constructs such arterias, venas, capillaries, and blood force per unit area, ( 3 ) the extent to which learning activities such individualised and group drawing every bit good as individualized and group response to structured inquiries detect and better participants ‘ apprehension of circulatory system and blood circulation.
3. Theoretical model
The model for this survey is based on instructors ‘ cognition ( Lee and Luft, 2008 ; Loughran, Mulhall & A ; Berry, 2008 ) , the conceptual alteration theory ( Duit & A ; Treagust, 2003 ) , and the visual image and representation theory ( Gilbert, 2005 ) . Teacher content cognition of scientific discipline is evidently cardinal to being able to assist pupils larn. Lack of scientific apprehension at a sound and a consistent conceptual degree is thought to be peculiarly troublesome for early childhood instruction instructors who need to learn cardinal constructs to immature scholars. To pass on an accurate apprehension of scientific cognition to scholars, instructors need to understand the capable affair from multiple positions than that really presented to their pupils. To learn as advocated by most scientific discipline instruction reforms, instructors must keep deep and extremely structured content cognition that can be accessed in a more flexible and efficient manner when interacting with pupils. Such cognition will be indispensable in order to learn for understanding and to supply reliable acquisition chances for pupils.
Research surveies covering pupil constructs and misconceptions suggested that pupils need plausible and fruitful schemes if they have to see conceptual apprehension. From a position of the conceptual alteration theory, effectual scientific discipline learning would hold resulted in assisting scholars exchange their scientifically unaccepted apprehensions with scientifically accepted 1s. A conceptual alteration attack suggests that if scholars are to alter their constructs they must hold plausible options so that they become disgruntled with their bing cognition construction, new constructs must supply alternate point of views and be apprehensible. These new constructs must look to seemingly offer alternate solutions to jobs and be credible. They must hold potency for new acquisition ( Posner, Strike, Hewson, & A ; Gertzog, 1982 ) . Prospective scientific discipline instructors from this position demand to develop right, accurate, and incorporate position of scientific constructs so that they develop sound and consistent content cognition which in bend can assist them efficaciously teach scientific discipline to their pupils.
On the other manus, recent scientific discipline instruction research surveies have started to pay attending to the power of ocular representation, pulling and mold of scientific thoughts ( Ainsworth & A ; Loizou, 2003 ; Gilbert, 2005 ) . Representations, and pulling in peculiar, present alone challenges to larning scientific constructs. This is because representations and pulling can be used to understand pupil thought and apprehension of constructs ‘ constructions and maps. For illustration, Ainsworth and Loizou ( 2003 ) showed that diagrams and drawings elicit more self account than textually presented information. In ocular representation and pulling scholars can get the better of the disadvantages posed by textual information. Furthermore, pupil drawings enable them to interpret self-explanations across different representational format and thereby deeply picture their apprehension.
The survey was designed as a assorted method ( quantitative and interpretive qualitative ) one in the sense that it quantifies and explores how pupils understand constructs related to the circulatory system and blood circulation. Quantitative every bit good as qualitative attacks were used to roll up informations on participants ‘ apprehension of the constructs studied utilizing the two acquisition activities. The acquisition activities were specifically developed to accomplish two ends: to name alternate understanding held by participants, and to supply them with a necessary feedback that could assist them build and develop scientific apprehension of these scientific discipline constructs.
The participants of this survey were 35 prospective early childhood instruction instructors who are presently enrolled in a unmarried man degree plan. The participants were enrolled in a teaching method class designed to assist them understand how immature kids concept and develop scientific and mathematical constructs. Specifically the class was designed to enrich their apprehension of kids get and develop scientific and mathematical constructs through realistic and structured scenes. In order to accomplish these ends, prospective instructors must themselves master of import scientific and mathematical constructs such as the 1s under probe. All participants were females. Participants were regarded every bit homogenous in footings of ability and background judgment from their college class point norm.
4.3. Data beginning
There were two beginnings for informations. The beginning of the quantitative analysis included all participant responses to specifically developed larning activities. The first acquisition activities included diagram prompt method to measure participant understanding which required participants to call and label drawings related to the circulatory system and place tract of how blood travels to different parts of the organic structure. The 2nd activity includes structured inquiries which require participants to react in authorship.
In order to develop coherent and plausible apprehension of the circulatory system scholars require to associate anatomical with physiological apprehension, i.e. construction with map. Although the linguistic communication may convey structural constructs of the circulatory system, at some flat conceptual understanding demand to be developed through visual image ( drawings ) . Functions, on the other manus are much better developed through text or propositions ( Mathai & A ; Ramadas, 2009 ) . It is suggested that uniting pulling with structured inquiries may accomplish better consequences in uncovering both structural and functional apprehension of the participants.
Participants were given diagrams of unlabeled bosom construction and were asked to label the assorted constructions that make up the bosom as an organ. Furthermore, participants were given the following job to finish.
Insert Figure 1 about here
The drawings were completed twice: separately every bit good as in groups. Participants completed the individualised activity foremost and instantly proceeded to group work before discoursing their public presentation in individualised manners. The pulling conceptual model was chosen as a diagnostic activity to prove its effectivity in observing pupil ‘s scientific apprehension.
The 2nd beginning of information was a response of structured 4 inquiries about the bosom construction and map and blood circulation with its associated constructs such arterias, venas, capillaries, and blood force per unit area as in the undermentioned Figure 2:
Insert Figure 2 about here
The intent of the structured inquiry is to supply participants with chance to depict their ain apprehension in a more drawn-out mode. Open responses will let them to form their idea and therefore show their apprehension in a much telling manner, and hence it will supply informations to determine the other informations generated from the pulling activity.
Each of the inquiries was presented to each of the 35 participants separately every bit good as in groups of 5 participants. Participants were probed for their grounds and accounts of their replies. The responses to the structured inquiries provided more hints and waies about the participants ‘ apprehension of the circulatory system and blood circulation.
The findings suggested that prospective early childhood instruction instructors do non possess equal apprehension sing the circulatory system and blood circulation. Participants ‘ apprehension of circulatory system and blood circulation can be grouped into three classs of misinterpretation: Heart construction and map ; blood vass ; and blood circulation.
Table 1 shows participants responses to the two activities related to the three conceptual countries of the circulatory system.
Insert Table 1 about here
5.1. Heart construction and function-
As can be seen from Table 1, 65.7 % of participants showed alternate apprehension as respect to naming and labeling of the chief constructions and parts that make up the bosom separately. Participants showed inability to right place constructions such as valves and chief vass that should be mastered by presrvice instructors. Merely few participants ( 34.3 % ) were able to correctly name and label the 10 constructions that were asked to call and label.
5.2. Blood circulation
30 ( 85.7 % ) in individualised activity and 28 ( 80 % ) in the group of participants were unable to right pull the tract of a bead of blood when go forthing the bosom to the remainder of the organic structure. Most participants were unable to hold on the thought that describes the dual nature of the circulatory system where it starts from the left side chamber of the bosom through the aorta to the remainder of the organic structure before returning back to the bosom via the right side chamber of the bosom to go on its journey to the lungs before returning back to the left side of the bosom. Few participants were able to explicate the construct of “ Double circulation ” and the function of the lungs. Typical illustrations of participants pulling are shown in the undermentioned diagrams:
Insert Figure 3 about here
Insert Figure 4 about here
As it can be seen from the above figure, participants expressed an apprehension proposing that blood from both left and right subdivisions of the bosom passes to all parts of the organic structure and come back consecutive to the left side of the bosom ( Diagram 3 ) – an apprehension that fails to acknowledge the dual circulation nature of blood. Although Diagram 4 indicated that blood travel between right and left Chamberss of the bosom to reflect the pneumonic circulation, it fails to include the systemic circulation. A typical correct reply explains the dual circulation with blood from the left side chamber of the bosom will go forth to the remainder of the human organic structure and return back to the right side chamber of the bosom as it finish its first rhythm ( systemic circulation ) , where it is pushed to the lungs before returning back to the left side chamber of the bosom to finish its 2nd rhythm ( pneumonic circulation ) .
Matching similar thoughts were revealed in the authorship undertaking. When participants were asked to react to a inquiry in composing that asked them to depict how blood circulates to organic structure parts, assorted erroneous thoughts emerged consistent with the pulling activity. Table 2 presents the most common erroneous apprehension among participants.
Insert table 2 about here
Typical responses were similar to the followers:
“ The blood is ever traveling. It starts from the bosom and it goes around the organic structure and it comes back once more to the bosom ” .
“ The blood goes from both sides – the left and right side of the bosom to all parts of the organic structure ” .
“ I think I see it as something like that the blood from the right side of the bosom goes to the right side of the organic structure, and blood from the left side of the bosom goes to the left side of the organic structure. ”
5.3. Blood vass
Biologically talking the construction and map of blood vass are related. Arteries are good known by their midst and elastic walls due to their maps, while venas can easy be distinguished by their thin diameters. Participants were unable to take this into history when asked to pull a cross subdivision of an arteria and a vena. Furthermore, participants failed to acknowledge the way of flow of blood in relation to venas and arterias. The thought that blood travels in venas from the remainder of the organic structure as it goes to the bosom while it travels in arterias from the bosom as it leaves it.
The findings besides showed that 22 ( 62.8 % ) of participants were unable to distinguish between the arterias, venas and capillaries in footings of map. Merely 13 ( 37.2 % ) of the participants showed basic right responses to the inquiries about the venas, arterias, and capillaries, and the fact that blood travel in venas to the bosom and arterias carry blood off from the bosom. Furthermore, the relationship between arterias, venas and capillaries seems to be ill-defined to most of them.
5.4. The utility of larning activities:
The acquisition activities were found to hold different sensitivenesss to uncovering and assisting participants get scientifically acceptable apprehension. The pulling activity was found to be more sensitive to observing misconstruing in the three classs than the authorship responses to structured inquiries. For illustration, the individualised drawing revealed most of the labeling and the blood circulation mistakes than the group pulling. Similarly, the individualised authorship response activity revealed about similar degree of misconstruing about blood vas, and the relationships between arterias, venas and capillaries. As can be seen from Tables 1 and 2, Individualized activities proved to be most utile in observing misconstruing than group activities judging by the high per centum of mistakes compared to the group activity. Group activities may be given to hide some of the most noticeable individualised mistakes. By and large whether individualised and group, drawings were more effectual than individualised and group responses to structured inquiries in uncovering the extent of pupils understanding of the bosom construction and map, blood vass, and blood circulation.
The findings of the present survey suggest that prospective early childhood instruction instructors, merely like other instructors, tended to exhibit erroneous understanding similar to those found elsewhere ( Yip, 1998, Pelaez, et. Al, 2005 ) . The extent of these erroneous apprehensions appears high, yet the informations could non corroborate the exact extent which it could be even much higher than what has been revealed in this survey if other diagnostic methods such as interviews were used.
The findings of this survey may indicate to a fact that these prospective instructors need to develop a better content cognition if they are to be effectual scientific discipline instructors. This is because whatever content cognition instructors have, it straight related to their schoolroom pattern. As shown antecedently research findings showed that the quality of preservice secondary biological science instructors ‘ schoolroom discourse was greatly influenced by the quality of their content ( Tsui & A ; Treagust, 2005 ; Tekkaya, 2003 ) . It follows that instructors have to hold a sound conceptual apprehension of the content they teach if they are to accomplish the stated course of study and aid pupils develop better scientific cognition.
An of import index that can be drawn from this survey is that larning must be related to antecedently acquired cognition if it has to be meaningful ( Duit & A ; Treagust, 2003 ) . Indeed the findings of this survey suggest that many prospective instructors did non possess the anterior cognition needed to develop a sound and extended apprehension of human circulatory system. Knowledge of the assorted constructions such as arterias, venas, and capillaries and their maps are necessary for meaningful apprehension of the circulatory system. Indeed biological operations such as diffusion and the function of O and C dioxide can besides lend to the development of better apprehension of the circulatory system. Pelaez, et. Al, 2005 ) suggested that “ understanding cell respiration and the functions of O and C dioxide in metamorphosis ” most probably would assist the scholars develop coherency in their apprehension of the interconnected nature the circulatory system with other biological procedures, and therefore acknowledge the function and map of the circulatory system in a better manner.
The high degree of misconstruing revealed through the group activities suggested that participants either did non profit from group work or they did non hold the necessary cognition to assist each other. It is suggested that such thoughts were more easy concealed during the group activities. The group work exposed thoughts that participants were diffident approximately and as such these thoughts seems to belie their initial understanding shown in the individualised activities.
Based on the present findings, it would look that the development of sound and coherent apprehension of the constructs of circulatory system and blood circulation are more likely to be promoted by exposing pupils to change and rich activities affecting drawing and labeling and authorship and reflecting experiences. Students would besides profit if relationships between the constructs and constructions of the circulatory system are explicitly highlighted so that scholars are able to construct right understanding related to construction and maps of these constructs.
One related observation emerges from this survey is that the precise linguistic communication is besides required for participants to separate scientific constructs from mundane use. It becomes grounds in this survey that the usage of the footings “ circulation ” may hold contributed to participants non being able to grok the circulatory system. In the survey of Pelaez, et. Al, ( 2005 ) apprehension of the term “ circulation ” was interpreted as the motion in blood in circles. And non as a systematic motion of blood through sophisticated constructions in specific tracts. As the instance with most misconceptions a precise usage of linguistic communication is really much needed to relieve any confusion.
The consequences of the present survey showed that the acquisition activities used as an assessment tool revealed a figure of erroneous apprehensions among participants. The usage of these activities suggested that the disposal of such activity as drawing and labeling was extremely sensitive in uncovering inaccurate thoughts about bosom construction and map and the construct of blood circulation. The combination of a drawing and labeling and treatment and authorship was besides sensitive to demoing verification of the prevalence of these erroneous constructs among participants.