Based on the tendency of globalisation acquiring grown quickly and the competitory environment had alterations and increased the competitory degree for all the industry, the procedure of mensurating public presentation has developed earnestly to organisation. Performance measurement procedure may include the resources of organisation resources, the recent and past organisation activities and the aim of the organisation planned. The intent of the measuring is meaningful for dressed ore on the long-run mark and supports the organisation long-run planning. Besides that, the measuring provides an extended alterations to the hereafter strategic planning. Furthermore, the procedure given a good opportunity for the organisation to do a comparing with the rivals in term of scheme or selling activities to supply dependable information for comparing while the betterment on environmental alterations and shows consequence on the sweetening and upgrading plants.
Fertilizer is one of the chief “ nutrient ” for works, which is like people demands H2O and nutrient to maintain them survives mundane. Unquestionable, fertilizer maker produced particular fertiliser to supply peculiar plantation and present the best foods to the works for healthy turning. Indeed, works needs some specific foods, such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur, and Micronutrients like Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Molybdenum, Silicon, etc.
Presently the most celebrated fertiliser used in Malaysia is chemical compound fertiliser besides named as NPK compound fertiliser, this type of fertiliser is blending several chemical component to organize the basic demands of works, the component of which included the Diammonium Phosphate ( DAP ) , Muriate of Potash ( MOP ) , Urea ( sort of N ) , Magnesium, Calcium and some little sum of chemical elements. Manufacturer mixes those elements to organize a coveted foods ratio for peculiar works.
Nowadays, there are many type of fertilisers are selling in the market, for illustration, chemical fertiliser, organic-chemical fertiliser, bio-organic fertiliser, to the full organic fertiliser and etc. Every fertiliser contains different map and consequence to the plantation.
Types of fertilisers
Actually there are merely two type of fertiliser but organisation specialize the merchandise comparison with rivals. Organic and chemical fertilisers are the celebrated type of fertiliser in the fertiliser market. Harmonizing to the Fertilizer Industry Association of Malaysia ( FIAM ) stated that, the use of chemical fertiliser is used in Malaysia in most of the plantation, plantation proprietors prefer the chemical fertiliser is the first pick of fertiliser. The supply of chemical fertiliser is either provided by the local chemical fertiliser maker or of import from abroad such as Germany. The chief natural stuff of bring forthing chemical fertiliser that included Diammonium Phosphate ( DAP ) , Muriate of Potash ( MOP ) , Urea ( sort of N ) , Magnesium, Calcium, Urea, kieserite, phosphate stone and etc. Some of the chemical fertiliser merely mixes and blended the chief natural stuffs to organize the simple chemical fertiliser compound. Based on the Agrium ( 2011 ) fact book showed, Malaysia listed the top 10 states on the 2010 to import potassium hydroxide which above France, Belgium, Poland and Vietnam ( Agrium, 2011 ) . The monetary value of the chemical fertiliser from the last six-month of 2012, the highest MYR1794 per metric ton and the lower is MYR1529 per metric ton, the monetary value of the chemical fertiliser increased about 13 % ( Worldbank, 2012 ) .
The ingestion of organic fertiliser for tonss of plantation type has increased repute, it is because the run organize by the authorities stating the husbandman that the organic fertiliser is more environmental usage and better controlling of natural resources such as the Ca, Mg and etc. Government puting budget to advance the organic fertiliser by encourage people to work more in recycle and use the agriculture waste and some biomass from agribusiness. Government stated that organic agribusiness have the large chance for state. The natural stuffs used to bring forth organic fertiliser that contain composted soya bean, tapioca and rice bran wastes. But natural stuffs are assorted from every organic fertiliser companies, some of the companies used sweet maize waste, empty thenar oil shell and sugar cane waste. All the stuff contain different of stuff for works, it is the same construct of chemical fertiliser but utilizing the natural stuffs. Some of the companies added bastioned with foods from chemical fertilisers and agglomerated into granules to bring forth organic-chemical fertiliser which double the consequence organic fertiliser, this type of fertiliser balanced the side consequence from the chemical fertiliser and have the map of organic fertiliser to mend the damaged dirt ( FIAM, 2009 ) .
The selling theory and construct will be based on the theoretical positions, some selling diary and some literatures will be used. Chiefly the Marketing Concept given by McDaniel and Gates ( 1998 ) , Young, et Al ( 2008 ) , Armstrong, Michael Harker, Kotler and Brennan ( 2009 ) , Baines, Fill and Page ( 2011 ) and include some other selling book which relevant to this research.
Most of the resources of The fiscal crisis impact in Malaysia information will be written by Kilmster ( 2008 ) , Romer ( 2011 ) , Goh and Michael ( 2010 ) , Ariff and Abubaker ( 1999 ) , Hawkeye ( 2008 ) , Ting, Nassir, Newell and Hassan ( 2006 ) and Athukorala ( 2010 ) , and some of the intelligence from media. Tenkorang and Lowenberg-Deboer ( 2008 ) , Rahim ( 2002 ) written The demand of fertiliser in planetary and Malaysia and Harnandez and Torero ( 2011 ) given the fertiliser market state of affairs which contain the information of fertiliser ‘s market construction, the ingestion of fertiliser and merchandise behavior in Malaysia and the pricing behaviour of the providers and industries ( Harnandez and Torero, 2011 ) .
The benefit/advantages of organic fertiliser and dirt attention will be provided by Vinje ( 2012 ) , Primavesi ( 1990 ) , Robert G. Piper, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ( 2010 ) and Blessington, Clement and William ( ND ) given that the advantages of organic fertiliser and the solution of dirt attention. Furthermore, the consequence that chemical fertiliser is written by Narkhede, Attarde and Ingle ( 2011 ) , Singh ( 2009 ) , Jin et Al ( 2010 ) and Calugar and Morar ( 2010 ) .
OSAKA specializes in organic-chemical fertilisers that are marketed under the trade name of SunrayA® . The merchandises are manufactured from composted soya bean, tapioca and rice bran wastes and fortified with foods from chemical fertilisers and agglomerated into granules. Undertaking “ SUNRAY ” was launched in August 1988. SunrayA® was conceived out of a demand to supply husbandmans with a merchandise that can replace the traditional usage of monolithic doses of natural poulet manure and chemical fertilisers thereby advancing a more hygienic and healthy environment – minus the flies, maggots and odor.
The initial stage of the undertaking involved the merchandise and market development of SunrayA® – a pelletized organic compound fertiliser. After a series of successful field tests conducted in the Cameron Highlands the merchandise was commercially marketed in the Highlands by August 1988. SunrayA® was rapidly accepted by the Highland husbandmans as a quality merchandise that can besides assist better dirt construction and continue dirt birthrate.
Initially SunrayA® was contract manufactured ( harmonizing to OSAKA ‘s specification and preparation ) by a local mill which was an Australian-Malaysian joint venture. Unfortunately or fortuitously instead, when this mill was sold to another local company the agreement ended and OSAKA had to look for another option. By that clip OSAKA had sufficient gross revenues volume to warrant a mill. OSAKA commissioned the building of its ain mill to fabricate SunrayA® in January 1990 and started commercial production in May 1990.
With its ain fabrication installation the Company was in a extremely competitory place. It was able to bring forth a more comprehensive merchandise scope to accommodate both the Highlandss and lowlands market. The works besides had the flexibleness to bring forth any bespoke class to accommodate any harvest state of affairs. Economically the production installation has enabled the company to accomplish a more efficient cost construction therefore puting it in a resilient place against competition.
For the first five old ages the Company relied on poulet manure for its organic base but later developed a agitation procedure to speed up the decomposition of organic waste of works beginning to supply an internationally acceptable organic base since many states purely prohibit the import of organic fertilisers derived from carnal waste in order to forestall transmittal of disease transporting pathogens. Around the same clip OSAKA had besides erected its ain fertiliser granulation works in coaction with the Nipponese. As a consequence the Company switched to fabricating SunrayA® as a farinaceous organic-compound fertiliser from organic waste of works beginning. This was an of import milepost that enabled the company to make out for the export market. In its continue research and development, the Company is now bring forthing the 3rd coevals of environmental friendly bio-organic fertiliser incorporating the good dirt microorganisms.
Initially SunrayA® was marketed to the veggies husbandmans, flower agriculturists and place nurserymans but had finally penetrated the fruit, rice and oil thenar market sectors. Today, SunrayA® is distributed throughout Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak every bit good as exported overseas to states like Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, Taiwan, Greece and the Middle East.
The Company is chiefly involved in the production of organic compound fertilisers under its registered hallmark SUNRAY A® . The company besides manufactured NPK compound fertiliser under the hallmark HAIYASAKI A® for distribution by its related company.
The pattern of intensive cultivation ( turning of harvests all twelvemonth unit of ammunition without remainder for the dirt ) depletes soil foods and its organic constituent. The depletion of organic affair in the dirt bit by bit leads to loss of dirt birthrate. To keep economic outputs it is of import for the husbandman to refill the organic content of the dirt to reconstruct its birthrate.
Fertilizers can loosely be grouped as organic or inorganic ( chemical ) . The term organic fertiliser embraces all types of fertilisers incorporating organic affair that provides alimentary elements required for works growing. The values of such fertilisers lie in their soil-conditioning belongingss whilst their beginning o alimentary elements could be considered as low. Examples are poultry manure, bonemeal, fishmeal, soya bean repast, etc. Chemical fertilisers include all types of fertilisers incorporating elements like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur, etc. Such fertilisers are extremely concentrated and contain definite sums of works food ( s ) in them. Chemical fertilisers are appropriate when big doses need to be supplied to workss. Examples are Muriate of Potash ( 60 % K2O ) , Urea ( 46 % N ) , etc.
OSAKA specializes in organic-chemical fertilisers, which are marketed under the trade name of SunrayA® . The merchandises are manufactured from composted soya bean, tapioca and rice bran wastes and fortified with foods from chemical fertilisers and agglomerated into granules.
SunrayA® is a complete fertiliser incorporating all works foods, required for healthy works growing, including Macronutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur, and Micronutrients like Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Molybdenum, Silicon, etc. It besides contains a significant proportion of organic affair that acts as a soil-conditioner by bettering dirt construction, dirt aeration and H2O keeping capacity of the dirt. The organic constituent besides increases the cation exchange capacity ( c.e.c. ) of the dirt thereby significantly cut downing the rate of leaching of extremely soluble foods like Potassium ( K+ ) .
The chemical munition procedure besides ensures that the merchandise contains sufficient foods required for healthy works growing and maximal harvest output. The merchandise is besides consistent in their alimentary analyses and can suit into agronomically planned fertiliser programmed adopted by the larger commercial agriculturists or plantations.
SunrayA® is both a fertiliser and soil-conditioner. Its regular application to farmland, groves and plantations is guaranteed to better dirt construction and keep dirt birthrate. SunrayA® offers the ideal solution to long-run dirt direction as a precaution against dirt exhaustion under perennial cropping of intensive hard currency cropping. SunrayA® protects the husbandman ‘s investing in land to guarantee that it yields an acceptable degree of income in the long term.
OSAKA Corporation Vision and Mission
OSAKA Corporation is a local fertiliser maker and is toughly aggressive for the mission of company: To go the market leader in the bio-organic compound fertiliser sector in the part and to portion our fabrication expertness with other enterprisers in the less developed states and finally to be listed on the Bursa Malaysia. Supplying the best organic compound fertiliser merchandises and services of other rivals and give a manus to assist the female parent Earth a healthy universe.
OSAKA Corporation ‘s Vision is to supply a solution to sustainable agribusiness & A ; soil direction and to lend our attempt in the environmental, sociological and technological development of the state.
The merchandise Range of OSAKA Corporation:
Organic Compound Fertilizer – A comprehensive scope of preparations to provide for all harvests at all phases of growing.
Table: The Benefit of Organic fertiliser – Dirt
Benefits to the Dirt
aˆ? Improves dirt construction doing it more crumbly.
aˆ? Increases water-holding capacity of the dirt
aˆ? Promotes soil bug activities
aˆ? Improves dirt aeration.
aˆ? Prevents coating ( caliche ) of dirts.
aˆ? Reduces dirt eroding.
aˆ? Speeds up decomposition of toxicants in the dirts.
aˆ? Helps in equilibrating dirt pH.
aˆ? Reduces toxicity of the dirt
aˆ? Increases works nutrition by providing available hint elements.
aˆ? Increases keeping and use of fertilisers and forestalling leaching.
Table: The Benefit of Organic fertiliser – Plant
Benefits to the Plant
aˆ? Increases seeds sprouting rates.
aˆ? Increases rate of photosynthesis.
aˆ? Produces stronger, faster turning seedlings.
aˆ? Increases entire growing of workss and output.
aˆ? Promotes root development.
aˆ? Increases works resiliency to H2O emphasis.
aˆ? Increase works opposition to pest and diseases.
aˆ? Improves sugar content of fruits and veggies.
Based on the above 2 tabular array, client might non understand and accept organic compound fertiliser, it is because the chemical fertiliser is the best fertiliser and able to supply fastest and shortest grow clip for the works, but the chemical fertiliser brought a harmful side consequence to the dirt ( Vinje, 2012 ; Primavesi,1990 ) . Harmonizing to Blessington, Clement and Williams ( ND ) , organic fertiliser produced from the side merchandise or natural ingredient, because of the over used chemical fertiliser, the land been harm and go a acerb dirt that difficult to turn other works, hence, organic fertiliser is the option of chemical fertiliser in the hereafter ( Blessington, Clement and Williams, ND ; Robert G. Piper, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to the fact sheet in Amazon.com ( 2009 ) , every bit long as the chemical fertiliser brings a batch of benefit to the works but at the same clip it leave some harmful component to the dirt, if the chemical fertiliser continue t use to the dirt for long term, the natural mineral in the dirt will be damaged ( Amazon, 2009 ; Narkhede, Attarde and Ingle, 2011 ; Singh,2009 ) . Therefore, the organic fertiliser will better the dirt construction doing it more crumbly and rebalance the natural mineral inside the dirt and supply a long-run benefit for the dirt ( Jin et al, 2010 ; Calugar and Morar, 2010 ) . On the other manus, the healthy dirt will increases water-holding capacity of the dirt because the construction of the dirt signifier a caking signifier and the component of dirt construction acquire closer to each other to keep the H2O volume and signifier likewise a mini H2O armored combat vehicle for works able to absorb adequate H2O for better growing.
From the old statement, chemical fertiliser will let go of some side consequence to damage the dirt, harmonizing to the Basicofgardening.com ( 2011 ) , the organic fertiliser has one of the benefit that allow to rush up decomposition of toxicants in the dirts. Chemical fertiliser is produced in term of the needful foods for works, but at the same clip the works will absorb extra foods and do the roots of the works damaged ( Calugar and Morar, 2010 ) . Therefore, the organic fertiliser do non let go of excessively much foods at one time, it will slowly release and the micro-organisms will take clip to interrupt the fertiliser to let go of foods for the works, so the root of the works had no opportunity acquire damaged ( Amazon, 2009 ) .
During the planetary fiscal crisis in 2008 and every company that includes international and local companies was affected. Some of the companies unable to get the better of the impact and lend to ruin. Although OSAKA Corporation overcomes the impact but the company still needs to work out the chief job after the impact. So, the inquiry is:
To mensurate the overall public presentation of OSAKA Corporation in Malayan market and suggest the action program for future scheme.
This research will travel through several of stages to be after the new selling program or better the current selling program. The research consequence will happen out the prospective chances for OSAKA Corporation. Decidedly, Recommendations and suggestion will utilize for future betterment during the modified selling program is in procedure.
There are two aims that dialogue with the author of this thesis, the pull offing manager, the general director and the executive selling director. They wish to:
To step and analyze the overall public presentation OSAKA Corporation in Malayan market.
To suggest the action program for future concern scheme in Malayan market.
The research intent is to happen out the best scheme for OSAKA in the phase of reforming and current overall public presentation ; hence it is sensible to give OSAKA a good way for the future action program. The purpose is to supply some illustration and treatment by the supported theory under the selling model by and large. By that, OSAKA will be able to be developed from a powerful foundation and self-reflected its current concern theoretical account. The 2nd research aim is to suggest a action program for OSAKA, it will supplying valuable information of OSAKA presently and to calculate out the way for the hereafter, whether maintain the same concern theoretical account or diversify, the consequence will give OSAKA direction a deeper apprehension about the present. Based on the consequence, it is utile to do alterations adaptable with their current strengths and failings. Some recommendation and suggest will be provide at the terminal of the undertaking.
In this research project-working rubric is “ Measuring the public presentation of OSAKA Corporation and proposing the action program for future scheme in Malaysia. ” It is preferred by both party, the thesis author and the company to figure and develop a competitory selling program for the hereafter. The fact is that the on the job rubric is by and large broad for researching and analysing profoundly, in each item, hence, the working rubric as such will concentrate on some issues which are basically of import for OSAKA at the hereafter concern theoretical account. However, the general needed information for the research will be covered. There are three-research hypothesis in this research undertaking:
OSAKA Corporation should non go on current concern theoretical account.
The organic fertiliser non the following tendency of fertiliser
Based on the research rubric, companies are warnings that the procedure of public presentation measuring required while the company in the bad operation and lose control to the chances. However, the public presentation measuring provided a better apprehension of the company ‘s vision and mission. Therefore, the communicating between the company and the employee were acquiring stronger and effectual from the procedure of public presentation measuring. Additionally, non every individual portion of the company considers in the procedure, the procedure merely tested the of import portion of the company such as the information or challenges interrelated to the company ‘s future selling planning. Normally, the public presentation measuring strategy would present an betterment of managerial agreement and member of staff public presentation. The capablenesss desired and gettable in the organisation were located and following by invariably amendment of direction and be aftering new scheme was provided after the measuring and present a chance for the company to turn stronger and more competitory to against challengers.
The strategy is able to supply companies to construct nonsubjective and scheme more effectual. Consequently, improves the processs during the new aims than the consequences of the measuring are narrowly supported. Performance of the company was non a individual clip in the life for a company, it will go on to the hereafter although stop operation, the feedback of the client is the chief thing that the strategy concern about, client was the user of the merchandise or service, they feeling of utilizing the merchandise will supply a large chance for the company to do alterations. The intent of using public presentation measuring strategy is for the hereafter usage intent such as comparing the past selling action, selling planning and the selling scheme.
The construction of Research Design:
This research will get down from the debut of the research, in the debut sector contain the intent of the research, company profile, the research inquiry, nonsubjective and hypothesis. After the debut sector, the Theoretical Framework and literature reappraisal will be the undermentioned sector in this research, during this sector the research methods will de defined with several writer thoughts.
By using the internal and external environmental analysis method, the consequence will demo whether the company the hereafter manager. After the internal and external environmental analysis method is the Marketing Mix ( 4Ps ) , the 4Ps base for monetary value, topographic point, publicity and merchandise. Following, will be the rival analysis while using the competition map to roll up the rivals ‘ information and comparison with the company in term of current rival ‘s scheme, future scheme, rival aim and the capablenesss.
After applied all the analysis method, execution program will take topographic point for the undermentioned sector and eventually the recommendation will given harmonizing to the analysis consequence.
Table: Research Structure
The fertiliser industry had a long history and the importance of economic, there are many research surveies. A batch of research worker around the universe had done the research surveies in fertiliser industry, the analysis about the market potency, and efficiency of public presentation, fiscal support, engineering alterations and the efficiency of productiveness. Important stuff and information have been listed in the undermentioned paragraph.
Most of the resources of The fiscal crisis impact in Malaysia information will be written by Kilmster ( 2008 ) , Romer ( 2011 ) , Goh and Michael ( 2010 ) , Ariff and Abubaker ( 1999 ) , Hawkeye ( 2008 ) , Ting, Nassir, Newell and Hassan ( 2006 ) and Athukorala ( 2010 ) , and some of the intelligence from media. Tenkorang and Lowenberg-Deboer ( 2008 ) , Rahim ( 2002 ) written The demand of fertiliser in planetary and Malaysia and Harnandez and Torero ( 2011 ) given the fertiliser market state of affairs which contain the information of fertiliser ‘s market construction, the ingestion of fertiliser and merchandise behavior in Malaysia and the pricing behavior of the providers and industries ( Harnandez and Torero, 2011 ) .
Harmonizing to the Index mundi ( 2012 ) stated that, the fertiliser ingestion is dropping from 2007 to 2009, the highest ingestion was 326 % of the fertiliser production and the lowest 126.31 % in 2009. In Malaysia, chemical fertiliser is the leader in fertiliser industry, companies such as Agromate Corporation, Behn Meyer Corporation, CCM Corporation and Yara International are the chief chemical fertiliser maker in Malaysia. The Chemical fertiliser had taken more than 80 % of the market in Malaysia ( Rome, 2004 ) . In 2004, The Malaysia authorities defined the agribusiness is the 3rd chief state income for the state and supply inducement to husbandmans to purchases fertiliser.
Presents, the fertiliser industry is more competitory than the past, because the population of planetary is increasing and the demand of nutrient is raised, but the authorities given subsidy to the little husbandman ( Sabri, 2009 ) . Unfortunately, the impact of fiscal crisis in 2008 all the industry was affected, particularly those little local companies due to hebdomad fiscal backup, hence batch of little concern faced insolvent ( Sanpaolo & A ; Turinetti, 2009 ) . International companies will hold strong fiscal backup and able to get the better of the fiscal crisis, the international companies made alterations of the selling scheme to cut down the gross to pull more clients when those local companies still remain in the market.
Rome ( 2008 ) stated that, Organic fertiliser is the future tendency in the fertiliser industry it is because in the past 10-year clip, about of the terminal user of fertiliser was utilizing the to the full chemical fertiliser and ne’er tried organic fertiliser ( Rome, 2011 ) . The chemical fertiliser will botch the land which increase the pH and taking to some side consequence that normal people may non cognize, such as Groundwater taint, which able to acquire malignant neoplastic disease if over consume. Harmonizing to Grote stated the instability of food is a chief issue of concern due to the high demand of nutrient and dirt ( Grote et al, 2005 ) . Therefore, organic fertiliser able to neutralize the affected dirt by chemical fertiliser agriculture. Other than that, every state are happening the oil permutation, at this minute, the best permutation for oil is the Biofuel which produced by works such as palm oil and maize. In this state of affairs demand of fertiliser has a important tendency and organic fertiliser is the best pick for planting, because it need to guarantee the dirt is wellness and supply the demand for the works. The demand of nutrient and energy is increasing and the monetary value will impart to increase, so the quality of dirt is of import ( Fixen, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to Rome ( 2011 ) , the planetary is extremely demand of fertiliser because the universe fiscal is retrieving from last twelvemonth and lends the full trade good increased in monetary value every bit good. Based on the Food and Agriculture organisation, the universe production of nutrient will increase at least 3.5 % comparison with last twelvemonth. The ground is the healings in crop and higher plantings around the universe. Sabri ( 2009 ) stated that, the little estate proprietor would buy fertiliser if the monetary value were sensible and the proprietor able to acquire net income after the cost of buying fertiliser ( Sabri, 2009 ) . The fertiliser industry were high competitory due to the market is unfastened for everyone and the barriers for entry market is low, a batch of mediators such as providers and distributor increased the monetary value of fertiliser and impart the ingestion degree of fertiliser decreased ( Yara, 2012 ; Rome, 2011 ) . Malaysia authorities broadcast the new policy to assist the little medium husbandmans with fertiliser subsidies and hope to bring forth more nutrient and gain more income for following planting. Beside that, company demand to set in stamp to acquire the undertaking, this is a good and healthy competition for fertiliser maker that conveying a win-win state of affairs for the whole agribusiness industry.
Based on the studied of Alias and Tasrif, ( 2011 ) , the autonomy degree ( SSL ) of production of rice in Malaysia was at the 65-72 % , which is over the appraisal from the Agro-Food Policy. At the same clip, the authorities subsidy of fertiliser to paddy industry was increase 90 % comparison with the initial phase. The ground authorities still puting money to assist the Paddy industry, because the Paddy industry is a strategic industry, hence, authorities ever offering new policy to give support to paddy industry. Beside the subsidy of fertiliser, the entire sum of land for paddy industry in Malaysia is more than 670000 hectares ( Ramli et al, 2012 ) . Malaysia authorities is giving protection and restriction to the Paddy industry, such as the of import restriction policy, fertilizer support and the monetary value of Paddy.
Hence, fertiliser industry really is holding a positive relationship with the planetary population. The no of population of the universe was increased 0.7 billion quickly from 2002 to 2012 and worldometers estimated the planetary population will increased to 9.2billion in 2050 ( worldbank 2012 ; worldometers, 2012 ) . Based on the information of planetary population increased quickly, the planetary demand of nutrient will impact every bit good.
Jala said “ authorities planned to cut the subsidy payment for fuel, fertiliser and nutrient to assist shrivel its budget shortage. ” ( Idris Jala, 26 September 2012 ) .
The action of authorities would convey a immense impact direct and indirect industry in Malaysia. Maybank- Kim Eng stated that, the monetary value of fertiliser will increased at least MYR80 per ton and the labor cost rise at least MYR40 ( Maybank Kim Eng, 2012 ) . This state of affairs might impact rice production to cut down the production of rice, decreased in the SSL and increase in import ( Ramli et al, 2012 ) . Besides the Paddy industry affected by the new policy, The Malayan plantation industry stated that, the monetary value of rough palm oil was selling at the monetary value that lower than the mean monetary value in the old twelvemonth, plantation companies in Malaysia were confronting a hard state of affairs at the net income border and the cost of bring forthing palm oil is lifting quickly.
Maybank Investment bank estimated the plantation companies will take down the production cost, such as the labor and fertiliser, because the cost labor and fertiliser is the most production cost for plantation, other than that, authorities announced new minimal pay policy, general labor will acquire at least MYR850 per month. Adnan ( 2011 ) stated that, presently in Malaysia, the fertiliser industry ingestion degree is at diminutions state of affairs and the monetary value of the fertiliser was increased due to the monetary value of stuffs increased 4-5 % comparison to last twelvemonth ( Adnan, 2011 ) . The chief component for fertiliser Murate of Potash ( MOP ) was selling MYR1,417/t at 2010 but the monetary value at 2011 was MYR1,500, monetary value was increased more than 5 % and will go on to lift in the hereafter ( Adnan, 2011 ) .
The benefit/advantages of organic fertiliser and dirt attention will be provided by Vinje ( 2012 ) , Primavesi ( 1990 ) , Robert G. Piper, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ( 2010 ) and Blessington, Clement and William ( ND ) given that the advantages of organic fertiliser and the solution of dirt attention. Furthermore, the consequence that chemical fertiliser is written by Narkhede, Attarde and Ingle ( 2011 ) , Singh ( 2009 ) , Jin et Al ( 2010 ) and Calugar and Morar ( 2010 ) . Ramani ( 2007 ) stated that, the chemical fertiliser was holding a large challenges, husbandmans confronting a major job of the healthy of dirt was decreased. Sabri ( 2009 ) mentioned that, most of the fertiliser user in Malaysia was utilizing the chemical fertilizer/mineral fertiliser, either the fertiliser from the import or the local green goods ( Sabri, 2009 ) and Rome ( 2004 ) said that, the Malaysia authorities was advancing the organic fertiliser and agree the organic plantation industry was a possible market.
Ramani ( 2007 ) claimed that, during the twelvemonth 1992, the India authorities stopped the fertiliser subsidy policy ; the husbandman in India was unable to afford the fertiliser for the plantation. Based on the studied of Nayak and Jadhav ( 2012 ) , the India authorities lower the subsidy of fertiliser because the subsidy of fertiliser lend the authorities spent over the budget, the entire sum of subsidy fertiliser reached a immense sum of 900billion rupees, which two clip the estimation budget and expected the lessening of 4.6 % of the GDP of India on 2012 ( Nayak and Jadhav,2012 ) . Ramli, Shamsudin, Mohamed and Radam ( 2012 ) , made a surveies of the impact of the authorities take downing the fertiliser subsidy to the production of nutrient. Some of the organisation besides created to analyze the typical job from the cut subsidy to the impact of the state economic, such as Reuters, the star, new street clip, Maybank investing bank, the Malayan insider, Economic times, Business Monitor International and Business Time Singapore.
Every counties concern about the oil fuel, so the oil monetary value has a power to impact about all the whole agribusiness industry, for illustration, compound fertiliser contain urea in the procedure, the monetary value of the carbamide was straight affect the production cost of compound fertiliser. Company charged a higher monetary value due to the affect by the oil monetary value, therefore the transit companies increase the menu of transit, on the other manus, fertiliser companies would lift the monetary value of fertiliser because the affect nexus from the high oil monetary value. The alternate beginning of fuel is bio fuel, bio fuel produced from sugar cane, soya bean, oil thenar and etc. Therefore, the high demand of agribusiness merchandises for bring forthing the bio fuel, this is possible to progress the demand of fertiliser for the hereafter. However, the demand of fertiliser still needed to depend on the use of biofuel it is because biofuel and biodiesel still at the beginning phase. Hatfield ( 2007 ) said that, the higher demand of biofuel so the higher demand of fertiliser. Ohlden ( 2007 ) claimed that, the new tendency of agribusiness encourage Malaysia agribusiness industry, in 2005 there are no individual company puting bio-diesel, after the new tendency affected, 32 company acquire the official licence to bring forth bio Diesel and the consequence in 2008 was 2.4 million metric tons of bio Diesel had produced ( Ohlden, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to the Yuen ( 2012 ) , the latest fuel monetary value for RON97 in Malaysia from MYR2.70 increased to MYR3.00 per liter ( Yuen, 2012 ) .
In this sector of the research, some of the theory related with the mensurating the public presentation will by and large presented and construct a basic measure for the intent of this research. After the planetary fiscal crisis in 2008, the procedure of mensurating the public presentation of a company is of import measure that a company should make because it can reexamine the current selling scheme and supply betterment for future use, which besides allows direction strengthen the competitory advantages within the industry.
Concept of public presentation measuring
Harmonizing to Amratunge, Baldry and Sarshar ( 2000 ) surveies, public presentation measuring can besides be defined as the procedure of quantifying the efficiency and effectivity of an action ( Amratunge, Baldry and Sarshar, 2000 ) . Zairi, Letza and Oakland ( 1994 ) stated that, public presentation measuring has besides been defined as a system work with figure to place the class ( Zairi, Letza and Oakland, 1994 ) . Based on Robert ( 2011 ) stated that, the public presentation is to explicate the difficult work to finish the mark and basically to accomplish of marks includes the combined power of work force, pecuniary and utile resources ( Robert, 2011 ) . Eric, Cooper and Ijiri ( 2007 ) , public presentation can specify as common word related to a sector or the whole event of the activities in an organisation throughout a period of clip, public presentation normally compare with the yesteryear or planned event for rating ( Eric, Cooper and Ijiri, 2007 ) .
The significance of measuring is a procedure of stand foring features of a country translate into another feature of a aggregation based on the correspondence with some regulation. ( Ramani, 2007 ) . Krishnaswamy, Sivakumar and Mathirajan ( 2009 ) , “ Measurement is the assignment of numbers to features of objects, individuals, provinces or events, accounting to regulations ” ( Krishnaswamy, Sivakumar and Mathirajan,2009 ) . Based on the both theory, the procedure of measuring does n’t non include the private personal item, the consequence of the measuring merely record and analysis the overall public presentation.
The first demand Tom step the public presentation of the company is the mentality and mark of employees because by and large recognized over the set uping different type of associations. The intent of mensurating the public presentation is to guarantee the action that company took was achieved the planned mark. Harmonizing to Helfert ( 1989 ) said that, the measurement of concern public presentation is much more hard and complexness, because the measurement procedure require to cover with the cogency of capital, operational efficiency and profitableness, the concern value and the security/legal issues ( Helfert, 1989 ) .
The relationship between productiveness and profitableness
An organisation ‘s productiveness power is the basic demand for organisation to bring forth the maximal merchandises or services to derive the highest net income. Most of the organisation mensurating the entire productiveness that the organisation overall able to supply services and merchandise at a selected period of clip, the measuring is to find the efficiency and effectivity of the whole organisation and the intent of the measuring is for the betterment plan for the hereafter, plan is for restructure and supply the higher criterion of life with bring forthing the highest services and merchandise from the limited resources from the organisation ( Foumeny and McGreavy, 1992 ) . Productivity indicates the assurance holding better public presentation than the past and maintains the velocity to better the organisation ‘s failings. The procedure of betterment plan might necessitate to hold some alterations to the current organisation construction and scheme.
There are many definitions for productiveness and it show different significance to different people. Productivity for organisation proprietor it means the organisation net income had increased. On the other manus, to employees, the organisation needs more handicraft from them. To selling director, productiveness is the organisation able to better the merchandise quality with lowest cost of production.
In the public presentation measuring, some of the sector may include into the measuring procedure, such as the productiveness of organisation, the profitableness power of organisation and the organisation resources and capableness.
Measurement of he productiveness of organisation is does n’t intend the entire sum of merchandise produced by the production site, the productiveness of organisation is specifying how efficiency of is the production with the resources that organisation provided.
Harmonizing to Prokopenko ( 1987 ) , “ the productiveness is defined as the efficient usage of resources, such as labor, capital, land, stuffs, energy, information in the production of assorted goods and services. Higher productiveness means carry throughing more with the same sum of resources or accomplishing higher end product in footings of volume and quality for the same sum of resources or accomplishing higher end product in footings of volume and quality for the same input. ” ( Prokopenko, 1987 ) .
Harmonizing to the Gordon ( 1982 ) , the relationship between productiveness with efficiency is one of the of import factor affected the organisation public presentations. Organizations need to happen out the efficiency of the productiveness, there are two consequences for the efficiency, low productiveness and high productiveness. Low productiveness means the resources of the organisation do non to the full utilised, in another word of blowing resources. High productiveness means the resources of organisation was to the full utilised and supply the higher net income for organisation. The construct of to the full utilized is utilizing the lowest sum of resources to derive the highest sum of end product ( Gordon et al, 1982 ) .
Harmonizing Armstrong ( 2002 ) defined the profitableness, “ Profitableness analysis classifies, steps and assesses the public presentation of the company in footings of the net incomes it earns either in relation to the stockholders ‘ investing or capital employed in the concern, or in relation to gross revenues. Net income or loss can be defined as gross or income subtraction disbursals. Alternatively, net income can be regarded as the addition in the proprietors ‘ claims or an addition in net assets. ” ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . Based on the surveies of Kulshrestha ( 1972 ) , different organisation had different mensurating facet in term of net income, although the significance is same but the measuring depending on the sum of investing and the field of investing ( Kulshrestha, 1972 ) .
Research methodological analysis
The fertiliser industry has accomplished a extraordinary place in back uping the worlds ‘ basic demand to the whole population of the universe. Hence, fertiliser industry really is holding a positive relationship with the planetary population. The no of population of the universe was increased 0.7 billion quickly from 2002 to 2012 and worldometers estimated the planetary population will increased to 9.2billion in 2050 ( worldbank 2012 ; worldometers, 2012 ) . Based on the information of planetary population increased quickly, the planetary demand of nutrient will impact every bit good. There are three type of aggregation of informations such as the questionnaire/survey, interview and secondary informations aggregation ( cyberspace ) .
The research method of qualitative research was used in this research to assist the seller to understand the profusion, deepness and complexness of consumer ” ( Malhotra & A ; Birks, 2003 ) . The thought of taking this method because this method will able to the full supports to the company and supply convenience for some of the of import direction place conjecture willing to supply of import information during the interview meeting. As a research worker, during the interview those information provided by interviewee may in contain the personal feeling and prejudice, that is a really common issue occur during the interview procedure. Harmonizing Malhotra & A ; Birks ( 2003 ) , researcher needed to modify and garner all the information to a complete sentence ( Malhotra & A ; Birks, 2003 ) .
The research worker selected qualitative research method because the company provides all the information for this research, information will through electronic mail and on-line videoconference because the company based on Malaysia and the research worker is running the research in London. The company will be provided the of import company informations and information. Therefore, the content or sum-up will be based on the reply from the interviewees. Writer was had few conversation with OSAKA corporation company ‘s selling section and the General Director. Most of the informations and information was provided from the company through interview ( email and on-line videoconference ) and some secondary informations research information was acquiring from the Internet, selling book and on-line database. Beside that, author will supply some of the personal thought into because the author wants to demo different thought.
Finally, the consequence and analysis are estimated to construct a better and clear way to the hereafter concern theoretical account of OSAKA Corporation.
From the above sector, qualitative research method is using in the research procedure, therefore the author holding a batch of interview with company direction to roll up utile database and information. The author would garner all the reply from the interview nexus with the selling theories to look more presentable. A series of inquiry was distributed to the interviewees before the interviewer holding the procedure of interview it is because the author expect to have the best reply from the interviewees and salvage some clip for believing. The questionnaire was created to maintain focal point into the research ‘s subject and it will be listed in the appendix sector. Furthermore, there will be some excess inquiry during the interview harmonizing to the respond from the interviewee. Therefore, the author was collected all the reply and personal experience cognition to supply sincere recommendation for the research company.
The whole procedure of interview spent a month from July to August 2012. The author organizes six different interview sectors with the cardinal place direction degree of OSAKA Corporation. The ground of organizes six sector due to the cardinal direction was busy to run the concern daily. The author needs to harmonizing to the clip slot given from OSAKA Corporation for interview. During the interview, all the information provided from the interviewee was recorded for the hereafter analysis usage intent and translated into the word signifier merely. Consequently, the research worker able to finish the research with the information provided by OSAKA Corporation during the interview, the interviewee that included the laminitis and pull offing manager, the general director, the executive selling director, the finance director, and the employee leader.
To acquire the most accurate and dependable mensurating public presentation research, the author invited cardinal place and the employee to supply different experience and feelings for the research undertaking. OSAKA Corporation ‘s laminitis and pull offing manager Mr. Steven Ng Kok Wah ; the general director Mrs. Cilla Lim Siew Ngoh, the executive selling director Mr. Danny Ng Kai Cheong, the aid selling director Mrs. Tiffany Teo Bee Ling, the franchise director Mr. Alan Ng Kai Loon, and the R & A ; D director Ms. Evelyn Ng Yee Wan. All of them populating in Malaysia, where OSAKA headquarter is located.
Mr. Steven Ng Kok Wah provided a overview of the company information, the information included the from the really get downing to show how the concern is running. Mr. Steven Ng Kok Wah, the Managing Director, aged 61, during aged 58 old ages possesses an MBA specializing in international selling from Clayton University, Washington D.C. , U.S.A. He besides holds a Degree of Agriculture, National Taiwan University, specialising in Fertilizer. He is responsible for overall direction of the Osaka Group. He started his calling in agribusiness as a plantation owner owning and pull offing a thousand estates of chocolate and oil thenar in Lahad Datu, Sabah for 4 old ages. Subsequently he spent another 3 old ages as a trader retailing agricultural supplies in Cameron Highlands. He has besides approximately 20 old ages experience in all facets of setting-up and direction of a fertiliser fabrication operation. Mr. Ng has acquired a wide spectrum of experience at assorted degrees in the agribusiness industry. He founded Osaka Corporation Sdn Bhd back in 1988 ab initio fabricating pelletized organic fertilisers but finally constructed a granulation works to bring forth organic compound fertilisers from composted works wastes. He was awarded by the rubric of Darjah Paduka Mahkota Perak ( P.M.P ) on 19th April 2006, which transporting rubric of PMP, in the ceremonial of the 78th Birthday of DYMM Paduka Seri Sultan Azlan Shah, Sultan Perak Darul Ridzuan ( His Royal Highest Sultan Perak ) .
Mrs. Cilla Lim Siew Ngoh, aged 51, is an Executive manager cum General Manager of the Company. She is chiefly involved in the disposal and fiscal affairs of the Company. She has extended experience as a trader in fertiliser and agribusiness chemicals. She holds a LCCA certificated comptroller to assist company in the history and finance section at first when the OSAKA Corporation established in 1988.
Mr. Danny Ng Kai Cheong, is the executive selling director of the company and the general director of Osaka Properties. He achieved a Bachelor of Commerce and major in Commercial Law and Finance from Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. He provided all the information from the Marketing section, which include the program and execution presently. He looks immature but he got the experience on managing the job with client and gross revenues squad. Other that than, he needs to concentrate in the sub-company of OSAKA Corporation to place as a general director on the OSAKA Properties.
Mrs. Tiffany Teo Bee Ling, the assistance-marketing director. She is a Bachelor of Business disposal in Marketing from INTI International University. She is assisting the selling director to be after some of the publicity and selling tactics. Besides that, before she promote to the aid selling director, she had a organisation preparation plan provided by OSAKA Corporation, which mean she had a experience on assorted section, such as the buying, bringing, production, selling and history.
Mr. Alan Ng Kai Loon, the franchise director of AgriStore. He possesses an Bachelor of Chemical technology of University of Sydney. Although he studied in scientific discipline but he got the experience of franchising, he help OSAKA Corporation to be after the franchising program and opened more than 5 shop in Malaysia and gaining a great net income. Ms. Evelyn Ng Yee Wan, aged 26, the R & A ; D director. She got foremost honor in the Bachelor of Bio-medical Sciences in University of Melbourne. She was supplying the thought of R & A ; D section and some of the experiment of new merchandise.
The interview procedure is successful and the respondents had good background and supplying the duty. Hence, the information and information collected from the interview is dependable and utile for the research.
Indeed, the questionnaires method is portion of quantitative research method because of the information of the company does n’t hold much information on the Internet and resources for Malaysia fertiliser industry was non plenty, hence questionnaires method would use in the research. The study was including 16 inquiries for the campaigner to supply utile information from the questionnaire. Related information provided by the respondents were from the company employees and the client of the company such as the terminal user, provider and the distributers. The package of SPSS analyzed information and information from the questionnaire.
Secondary day of the month
Based on the research subject in the beginning is to mensurate the public presentation of OSAKA Corporation whether they continue the same concern theoretical account or demand to alter to other concern theoretical account, during the research procedure there are contained bulk mentions needed. Consequently, the secondary information was by and large founded from interrelated selling books and from the Internet every bit good. The author besides studied about the similar research paper for more thought and information. Furthermore, as cited in old chapter, OSAKA Corporation ‘s research consider as another chief information for this research analysis. OSAKA Corporation ‘s research market includes necessary informations on the analysis of the competition and the fertiliser industry. Therefore, the author is carefully prepared because most of the information and informations are private and confidential for the company.
Dependability and Validity
Harmonizing to the research undertaking, the author demand to stand as a impersonal place and make non stand any side of the interviewees. If the author prejudice to anyone of the interviewees than this research undertaking finished in a personal feeling, hence, the author needed to forestall confounding mentalities from the interviewees and offering single feelings. Based on the studied of Litwin ( 1995 ) stated that, a dependability research will include representative credibility, stableness and credibleness ( Litwin, 1995 ) . During the interview procedure, of import information will drop down by note and recording during the interview than translate into to proper research resources. Indeed, during the interview, the information collected was contained personal feeling but it is the personal thought and experience from the cardinal place direction. The questionnaire distribute to the selected interviewees is chiefly based on the research subject.
All the resources and informations collected contained certain sum of prejudice but the concluding consequence from the analysis is non merely affected by the interviewees. It is because the selling theory book and other secondary informations will take portion in the analysis procedure excessively, so it helps the author to neutralize the information from the interviewees with the selling theories. Based on Malhotra & A ; Birks ( 2003 ) , during the roll uping procedure will incorporate some truth or false information, hence the research worker demand to judge and acquire grounds to back up ( Malhotra & A ; Birks, 2003 ) .
Research Result and Analysis of Finding
Harmonizing to the Ferguson ( 2008 ) , the fiscal crisis was a unmanageable factor to everyone for every 10 -20 twelvemonth ( Ferguson, 2008 ) . The lone thing that company able overcome the fiscal impact and faster the recovery of normal activity. Based on Terazono, during the fiscal crisis on 2008, the monetary values of fertiliser dramatically decreased, at the clip the fertiliser industry was bead to the bottom line of net income border, the monetary value of natural stuffs was increased to a historical high monetary value degree, some of the fertiliser maker needed to corporation to assist the company able to last in the crisis period ( Terazono, 2012 ) . Indeed, the fiscal crisis brought a immense impact to every industry, fertiliser industry confronting a immense spread of demand and supply of fertiliser, harmonizing to the Financial clip ( 2012 ) , the fertiliser confronting a immense spread between the supply and demand of fertiliser, the universe fertiliser industry had invested more than ?60 billion to the new production sites ( Financial, 2012 ) . Some of the transnational companies invested into the chief natural stuffs for bring forthing fertiliser, such as the BHP Billion brought Saskatchewan Potash Corporation at $ 40 billion ( Keenan, 2010 ) . The immense investing provided a clear manager to the fertiliser industry around the universe. The investing of Saskatchewan is the biggest investing that BHP made in the history of BHP, the company invested that immense money to the natural stuffs, the chief ground is because the universe population is increasing quickly and based on the United Nations the entire population of the universe will make 9 billion on the following 35 twelvemonth ( Keenan, 2010 ) . Keenan ( 2010 ) surveies was proven that the surveies on Rome ( 2011 ) is right.
Table: The demand of fertiliser for the universe
Beginning: Heffer and Prud’homme, IFA group, 2012.
From the tabular array above, IFA had determined that the fertiliser industry back excessively the old public presentation and off from the fiscal crisis in 2008. The universe demand of the universe in 2008/09 was at 154.8 metric ton and after two twelvemonth the economic downswing the entire demand of fertiliser back to 172.2 metric ton, the recovery rate between the biennial was 8-9 % of the universe demand for fertiliser.
Table: Appraisal of fertilizer demand by regional
Beginning: Heffer and Prud’homme, IFA group, 2012.
IFA stated that from 2008 to 2012, the south asia regional was increased 8 metric ton, the consequence of demand was taken more than half of the universe demand for fertiliser comparison with other regional ( Heffer and Prud’homme, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Heffer and Prud’homme ( 2012 ) , the universe demand will increase to 190 metric ton in the following 4-5 twelvemonth clip ( see tabular array ) .
Table: Entire sum of universe fertiliser ingestion from 2008-2011
Foods ( Mt )
Phosphorus ( P2O5 )
Potassium ( K2O )
Beginning: IFA Fertilizer Outlook, 2008-2012.
The IFA promoting the G8 authorities to put more in the agribusiness field to bring forth more nutrient than avoid the deficit of nutrient. IFA announced three statements that required the G8 authorities to set in more attempt to the agribusiness industry. First, increasing the land for farming and bring forth healthy nutrient for the hereafter nutrient security, at the same clip the IFA besides require to cut down the chemical side consequence to damage the natural stuffs inside the land and increase the productiveness of nutrient by advancing the system of fertiliser use and the fertiliser cognition to the husbandmans ( Enger, 2012 ) .
Table: The Price of the fertiliser affects the entire demand. Price * Demand Crosstabulation
% within Price
% within Price
% within Price
% within Price
% within Price
From the research determination, monetary value is a sensitive factor that affected the demand of fertiliser in Malaysia. Based on the consequence, 90 % of the client decided the monetary value was the chief factor for them to put any order. Based on the study of Heffer and Prud’homme ( 2012 ) , husbandmans were put back the fertiliser order and waiting for the monetary value of fertiliser bead back at the sensible monetary value ( Heffer and Prud’homme, 2012 ) . Distributor and retail merchant increased the monetary value of chemical fertiliser and compound fetilizer due to the monetary value of the chief natural stuff increased excessively high. During the fiscal crisis twelvemonth, the alternate merchandise for the both fertiliser was extremely demanded.
Data Analysis of the questionnaires
The questionnaire of the research was distributed to 50 respondents and all the answering wage attending and answered the full inquiry in the questionnaires. The study was including 16 inquiries for the campaigner to supply utile information from the questionnaire. Related information provided by the respondents were from terminal user, provider and the distributers. SPSS package used as a information analysis tool in the research, pie chart and saloon graphs method was showed in some of the analysis consequence.
Table 5: The information from the respondents
Table 6: The history of company established of respondent
Table 7: Please take the industry/specialize of your company * How many metric ton of fertiliser you purchases in yearly? Crosstabulation
How many metric ton of fertiliser you purchases in yearly?
401 or Above
The Industry type
% within industry type
% within industry type
% within industry type
% within industry type
From Table 7, the bulk of distributer able to took 400 metric ton a twelvemonth, therefore the chief mark client for fertiliser maker is distributer, the ground of distributer able to put immense sum of merchandise because distribution had big web and able to administer the merchandises faster than retail merchant or straight sell to stop user.
Measuring the current tendency of fertiliser market in Malaysia.
Table 8: Statisticss
Which of the type of fertiliser you purchased the most in the last 12 month?
Table 9: Which of the type of fertiliser you purchased the most in the last 12 month?
Chemical Fertilizer and Organic Fertilizer
Chemical Fertilzier and Compound Fertilizer
Organic Fertilizer and Compound Fertilizer
Table: Crosstab trial between the fertiliser type and industry type.
% within fertiliser type
% within fertiliser type
% within fertiliser type
Percentages and sums are based on respondents.