Training Needs Anaysis

Training Needs Analysis *Central Cafe *& *O*rganic Introduction Central Cafe & Organic is located in the city centre of Hull, just in the King Edward Street, a few minutes’ walk from the McDonald’s. It is a small-sized organization with 6 staffs, one casher, two cooks, two waiters or waitresses and a human resource manager. In Central Cafe & Organic, it provides the bread, pastries, muesli and cakes with organic whole grains and home milled into flour. It also offers teas, coffee and freshly squeezed juices with the best seasonal organic fruit and vegetables.

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Central Cafe & Organic caters for everyone, customers can find something delicious to satisfy their requirements whether they are vegetarian or not, whether they are gluten intolerant or not, even whether they want to avoid sugar or not. Generally speaking, it is a cafe for every one of all ages. It opens from 9:00AM to 17:00PM on Monday to Sunday for breakfast and lunch but never serve dinner. Additionally, it sells foods and drinks to take away. Because of the start-up of the small business, the cafe is planning and implementing the training needs analysis. {text:list-item} In the past days, life was simple for all of us.

There are less rush, less stress, more goodness, more joy and more pleasure in our daily affairs. Welcome back to this world at Central Cafe & Organic. The mission statement of Central Cafe & Organic is to provide an alternative atmosphere to those who care about their life quality and healthy where people can relax, laugh or simply enjoy a pleasant meal. There are three objectives of Central Cafe & Organic: first of all, Central Cafe & Organic must increase and keep a high level customer service for all the customers. Secondly, the cafe must provide the high standard foods and drinks which are free from additives, healthy and tastes great.

Lastly, the cafe should aim at increasing and keeping the customer growth rate. The organizational strategy of Central Cafe & Organic is the focus strategy, in the Handbook of Strategic Management (2000), Rabin, J, Miller, G. J, and Hildreth, W. B gave a research suggesting that a focus strategy may be the most potent for a small business firm. This is because a small business does not have a economies of scale or internal resources to pursue. The focus strategy includes the customer-oriented strategy; Marek Korczynski (2002) described the customer-oriented as a service work which has important implications both or HRM and for workers’ experience of service work. The nature of the customer in front-line work is investigated – specifically regarding service quality. The strategy approach implemented to check the expertise of staffs, understand the status of the market in order to better develop the organization, the most important is to satisfy the needs and requirements from different customers to make a better customer service. In order to plan and implement the training needs analysis, first of all, the training needs should be linked with the organizational strategy.

Hendry, C, Jones, A, Arthur, M and Pettigrew, C stressed that “In the service enterprises, specific skills training focuses on personal presentation and the provision of good service, from simple politeness in welcoming the customers in a positive and friendly manner through a range of more elaborate interpersonal skills. “ (1991, 61) then, it is important to frame the training needs objectives for whatever collective level or individual level, it will show the objectives for the entire organization, each department and individuals in Appendix 1. text:list-item} There are variety types of methods to be used to observe and assess the training needs, Performance Management, Organizational Needs, Occupational and Job Analysis, Individual Training Needs, Skills and Competencies and Strategic Approaches to TNA. Here, I will use three types of them, including Organizational Needs, Occupational and Job Analysis and Individual Training Needs, which aimed at the objectives of training needs of this cafe. Organizational Needs

Organizational needs assessment can provide an evaluation of requirements in the context of its plans and daily operations of an organization. It can be assessed from several aspects. But all the training needs should be linked with the organization’s strategic mission and the organization should focused on the business objectives clearly which the organization trying to achieve. Moreover, the objectives must be clear understood by all the staffs. For Central Cafe & Organic, following the strategic mission, every staff should ensure the foods and drinks healthy and safe to make customers satisfied.

The staffs should make themselves positive and energy to provide and keep a clear and comfortable environment for customers when they work in the cafe. What’s the most important, all the staffs should learn the skills how to reply the accident, for example, if there is a fire accident happened, the staffs should arrange the customers escaping and pass the emergency exits quickly and safely, moreover, the staffs must be familiar with the structure of the shop in order to show the customers the nearest emergency exit and the emergency number such as 911 when the accident happened.

Then, the staffs also must learn some basic skills for first aid in order to avoid the damages happened on customers. In order to improve and keep the customer rate, all the staffs should learn how to greet customers when they come into the shop, the staffs should give customers the feelings of passion, friendly, comfortable and relax. To achieve this objective, the staffs should learn smile sweetly and kindly to customers. When something happened on customers unsatisfying with the foods or drinks, staffs should obey the rule of ‘customer is always right’ without argument and solve the problem calmly.

One of the most important points for the organization, all the staffs should exercise their capabilities of team work and keep cooperation and communication with everyone in the cafe. The organizational needs assessment can help the organization to realise the strengths and weakness of current strategy and process, and even can improve the entire operation of the organization. Occupational and Job Analysis Occupational and Job Analysis responds to the employee needs and be helpful to achieve the organization’s strategic objectives.

According to (2002, p73), “job analysis is a systematic process of obtaining valid job information to aid management in decision-making. ” It referred to information collection, HR selection, training and other HR functions. HR Managers Many cafes are small-sized where they only sell a variety of organic foods and drinks. When the cafe prepare to hire a person to manage, it should consider about their responsibilities for the cafe. It involves the staff requirements, and should be in charge of the recruitment, interview and arrange them into the appropriate position.

A successful cafe manager should have the ability of making staffs motivated and having variety excellent skills, for example, be knowledgeable on all the products they sell, social skills, organizational skills, communication skills and cooperation skills, besides, they must find a balance point between the organization and the staffs’ needs, have the ability to solve problems when some accidents happened. What’s more, except the casher, managers also should have financial skills to monitor the cost of their products and daily sales. Waiters/Waitresses Central Cafe & Organic is a small-sized cafe, it only have two waiters or waitresses.

Providing high quality service to customers is one of the strategic objectives of the organization. So the competence of waiters/waitresses is very strict. First of all, uniform is very important, all the staffs including waiters/waitresses should wear the uniform and keep cleaning every day, it is a symbol of the organization and can represent the discipline. Generally speaking, the manager of the cafe prefers to employ the experienced waiters/waitresses, waiters/waitresses should be trained the abilities of removing used dishes and glasses from tables, and take them to kitchen for cleaning.

They must have professional skills to serve foods and drinks to customers, prepare and serve the specific dishes to the tables required. they must clearly know the areas for stuff stocking, for example, the tableware, table linens, napkins and other usual stuffs. When customers require, they must supply as soon as possible. When there are customers coming into the shop, they must welcome customers with smile and passion, and escort customers to the tables.

After arrange customers at the table, waiters/waitresses should present the menu to the customers, when customers have questions with the menu items, waiters/waitresses should explain the cooking methods to them, so waiters/waitresses must have the knowledge of their foods and drinks. After customers finished the meals, waiters/waitresses should prepare the checklist of the total meals’ costs for customers, moreover, they should consult with customers to ensure whether they enjoy the meals and satisfy the services, and also can ask for some more useful opinion to better develop the organization. Cooks

Cooks are very important for catering trade, delicious foods and drinks can attract and keep more customers. As a cook in Central Cafe & Organic, they must have the abilities of judging the quantity and quality of the variety products needed finally, sensitive sight and taste to determine the fresh level and quality of the materials and products. They must be knowledgeable about the food sanitation, healthy level, and cook and serve foods and drinks as customer required in the traditional cooking or with their special methods, and the appropriate temperatures for storing foods and raw materials in fridge.

They must keep the kitchen, the utensils and the equipments clean and in well working condition, and can have a good cooperation with others in the kitchen. What’s more, as cooks, they must have a better health, because they are always required to have the abilities to stand for long periods of time, to lift up about 50 pounds of stuffs. Cash*i*ers Central Cafe & Organic is a small-sized cafe shop, so only one cashier is enough, but the cashier has very high responsibility for the organization.

The cashier must have the experienced financial skills, for example, operating a cash register or the similar equipments, counting currency, maintaining records and making change accurately. Except the financial skills, they must have the abilities of well communicating with other staffs to create a high efficiency working environment and customers in order to handle the concerns, requests and complaints of customers. Individual Training Needs For individuals of an organization, the training needs can be observed and assessed by the staffs’ jobs on their specific tasks, and arrange the requisite training needs for their crucial tasks.

The manager always compares the capabilities the staffs have had and the capabilities they must have, and then the performance gap will appear and the particular training will be given to the specific staffs. {text:list-item} Planning for all the staffs From the above training needs analysis of Organizational Needs, the staffs must know some basic knowledge of working in a cafe, such as providing comfortable environment for customers, high quality services, capabilities of solving emergency problems, first aid knowledge and other stuff. These trainings are required, but there is no need to rent a room and pay for trainers.

It belongs to on-the-job training; the staffs can train themselves by Staff Handbook and practice. Planning for HR Manager After the training needs analysis for the HR Manager, generally, the manager must take care of all the aspects of the organization, from the small incidents of waiters/waitresses to the more important affairs of the organization operation, so the manager need the on-the-job training of Multi-skills. Planning for Waiters/Waitresses Waiters/waitresses need lots of skills and abilities and their performances will be supervised strictly.

HR Manager always employs the experienced waiters/waitresses in order to have an easier training. It also belongs to the on-the-job training, manager or other staffs can give some guidance or advice to them and their working process will be supervised by all the staffs. The working process is a training process. Planning for Cooks A cook in a cafe is always full of experience, but in order to satisfy more customers’ taste, they should be sent to the specific classes or workshops to receive a skill learning and exercise. It belongs to off-the-job learning, it will spend some money and time to take this training.

But it will bring more customers and profits to the organization. Planning for Cashiers Cashier is so important for a cafe to manage the financial affairs, so the training for the cashier must be precise. They must be sent to receive the training of financial skills and the particular equipment using to have an off-the-job training. Maybe the training process will cost some money, but it is necessary and worth to do. 1. 4 Evaluation Evaluation is “A process for establishing the value or worth of something” (Bramley, 1996) There are four main steps of evaluation to evaluate the training, reaction, learning, behaviour and results.

Reaction *Level *Evaluation This is the most common form of evaluation carried out-largely because it is relatively quick and low-cost approach. It is usually undertaken with a self-complete questionnaire. (Bee, Roland, 2003). The questionnaires are easy to design and mainly contain the aspects of: the performances of the trainers, the extent to which learners feel that the learning objectives have been met, the effectiveness of the learning methods used and the quality of learning materials, facilities and the administration.

The evaluation will be separated into different levels on each aspect to be evaluated, and it should be carried out at the end of the training to be an objective evaluation. Learning Level Evaluation It is most commonly carried out in situations where it is important that the learner reaches a certain standard before being able to operate in the ‘real’ world. (Bee, Roland, 2003). This measures change in the trainee’s knowledge, attitudes and practices and will also exam what trainees have learned in the training process. Geoffrey Moss, 1991) *Performance Level Evaluatio*n & Results Level Evaluation (Bee, Roland, 2003) these two levels can be combined because they are often carried out together and both of them provide information on the impact of the learning intervention on how learners perform in the workplace after the training. For example, the way staffs do their jobs and the contribution they do for the organizational objectives. In this evaluation, the most common approach is self-assessment and manager assessment or the combination of the two ways. Conclusion

Actually, Training Needs Analysis is an easy way and a plainprocess for an organization to have a better development. When start up a business, training needs analysis is very necessary. First of all, the mission, strategies and the objective of the organization should be ensured, because all the affairs of the organization will progress and develop surround the organizational mission, strategies and objectives. There are three ways to observe and assess the specific training needs analysis, Organizational Needs, Occupation and Job Analysis and Individual Needs.

Through these methods analysing, the organization will decide who should have training and then give a specific training to the particular staff. Before plan and implement the training program, job description and the key tasks of each position should be identified, then compare the capabilities staffs have had with the capabilities jobs require, the performance gap will appear and the specific training needs should be planned and implemented. And referred to the evaluation of the training, it is a necessary process to exam and ensure whether the training has achieved the strategic objectives and whether it is worth to do. References

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