This chapter describes the research methodological analysis that adopted in this research. This discusses how the combination of study and interview within the instance surveies in this survey were used.
A research design is the program of how the survey will be conducted ( Yin, 2003 ) . It is concerned about the type of informations to be collected and the agencies used to obtain these informations. In Figure 3.1 the stairss of the research process has been demonstrated. The first measure, the literature reappraisal is used to help the research worker to place the research job which will go the focal point of the survey and discuss related literature in the field. In the following measure, the method of research in conformity with research hypotheses, instance survey attack and mix-method is chosen. The 3rd measure, as an instrument of informations aggregation, the study questionnaire and the semi structured interview every bit good as the pilot survey to prove study inquiries are selected. The following measure, the collected information is analyzed with the appropriate statistical techniques. The consequences of the analysis of grounds gathered will be used to polish the conceptual theoretical account and urge a design solution. The 5th measure, the results of the information analysis is interpreted in order to reply the research inquiries and polish the conceptual theoretical account.
Case Study Approach
( Mixed-Method )
Semi Structured Interview
Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM )
Interpreting the Model
Refine Conceptual Model for Knowledge Sharing Practice in a Undertaking
Figure 3.1 Research Methodology Adopted for This Research
The following subdivision will analyze the operational model of this research undertaking.
Theoretical research is explorative, descriptive and explanatory ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . As this survey aims to detect an overview of a phenomenon, an exploratory and descriptive research seems appropriate. This type of research will enable the research worker to better apprehension of what and how the person and organisational motivational factors influence the behaviour of undertaking squad members knowledge sharing. Finally, how impact on the success of the undertaking instance survey that will be explained subsequently. Based on Yin ( 1994 ) , the “ how ” and “ what ” inquiries are asked on a series of modern-day events which the research worker has little or no apprehension.
Anterior surveies in cognition sharing, inductive and deductive positions are suggested ( Wasko and Faraj 2005 ; Kankanhalli et Al. 2005 ; Bock et Al. 2005 ; Chennamaneni 2006 ; Jewels and Ford 2006 ; Nita 2008 ; Stewart 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) , both attacks can be examined harmonizing to their scientific paradigms, the inductive attack that represents an interpretative paradigm and the deductive attack represents a rationalist paradigm. Therefore, this research used a combination of an inductive attack for qualitative informations and a deductive attack based on quantitative informations. It seemed the appropriate manner to understand how organisational and single motivational factors affect in cognition sharing behaviour and besides how knowledge sharing can heighten the success of the undertaking for its instance surveies. Therefore, the findings from the quantitative informations ( study ) for the instance survey are supplemented by an analysis of the qualitative informations ( interview ) .
Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) , in term of epistemology, the instance survey is considered suited for the rationalist and interpretative. This alliance with the intent and epistemology provide strong motive for the choice of the instance survey as a research method for this research.
Case Study Research Approach
There are different ways of carry oning societal scientific discipline research ; the instance survey is one of the most of import of them. In explicating what a instance survey is Yin ( 1993 ) suggests that the term of instance survey refers to an event, entity, single or even a unit of analysis. It is an empirical enquiry that examines a common phenomenon in the context of existent life. The instance survey scheme besides has a great ability to bring forth the reply to the inquiry involves why, what, and how ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to the mentions above, hence, the instance survey was used in this survey for several grounds. The chief ground is that the research worker to obtain information on existent events, individuals or organisations and clarifies complex societal phenomenon. Another ground was that the instance survey can be utile in the usage of multiple beginnings of informations, for case, interviews, questionnaires and observations ( Yin, 2003 ) . The instance survey besides allows research workers to derive a deep apprehension of phenomena by supplying a rich description based on a holistic position.
Therefore, for the intent of this survey, the research design explores the instance survey. In any type of survey, it is of import that research workers should ever take the appropriate range for their research. Previous surveies that work on cognition sharing, for illustration, Bock and Kim ( 2002 ) , Bock et Al ( 2005 ) and Jewels and Ford ( 2006 ) , used the instance survey in their research. This research was conducted as the instance survey ; it was based on the unit of analysis, named, MAPNA Corporation, as a undertaking based company in Iran.
Participants in the survey of instance has been carefully selected to run into the research objectives ; the participants selected in the survey deliberately included a assortment of different undertakings in MAPNA. Sing the parametric quantities of this survey, it was recognized that the action could ensue in the instance survey where all topics of the instance survey were selected with similar traits. The scope of possible research participants presented a broad scope of cultural attitudes and purposes are in different organisations ; the factors considered a important impact on cognition sharing behaviour.
This research was developed from a nexus of the instance survey with the study that follows closely the instance survey is explained by Yin ( 2003 ) . Therefore, a information aggregation has been developed utilizing a assorted study and interview method. In the instance survey, members of the undertaking squads have been studied in a undertaking environment in an organisation context. Harmonizing to old surveies ( e.g. Gable 1994 ; Bock and Kim, 2002 ; Bock et al. , 2005 ; Jewels and Ford 2006 ) , while the unit of analysis differs between the study and instance survey, as this survey, an alternate attack to the combination of instance survey and study methods can be justified. Therefore, the integrating of a method of study in the instance survey was considered appropriate for this survey.
In the instance survey illustrated in this survey the unit of probe is the undertaking, embodied by the undertaking director and the undertaking squad.
The Selected Case Study
Choosing a suited instance is one of the most of import challenges in a research. Good instance surveies must include several properties to roll up assorted signifiers of informations ( Yin, 2003 ) . This shows that the instance can be a batch of information resources related to research aims.
Hence, the survey performed within the instance survey. In order to accomplish the research aims, MAPNA as a instance survey was selected. Former to the concluding determination to choose MAPNA as a instance survey, It is interesting to observe that the research worker received the chiefly credence to make this research, based on a preliminary visit to MAPNA directors and discussed about the research that it was conducted in December 2010. The ground of the visit was to acquire a qualitative feel for the organisations, learn more about their missions, ends, and activities, to develop contacts with their executive managers, and to present the research undertaking to the company. The initial visit was good received by the company and therefore has provided extra influence and motive to choose MAPNA as a instance survey. The MAPNA is good known as a undertaking based and knowledge based company, where the company has placed in really competitory environment, and the demand to hold an effectual cognition sharing behaviour among project squad members who do many undertakings in Iran and in other states. This state of affairs matches with the research worker ‘s country of involvement and supply further drift and encouragement to the research to choose this company. The choice of this instance company was motivated by the undermentioned grounds:
MAPNA is good known as a undertaking based company with a related ability to introduce, where the sum of technological alteration in recent old ages is reeling at all degrees of industries. The alteration has placed the company in a really competitory environment, and the demand to be advanced and to maintain abreast with the latest engineerings become critical. This state of affairs matches with the research worker ‘s country of involvement and provide extra force and encouragement to the research worker to choose this company.
More notably, persons within MAPNA may be more-or-less specializer and professional, because of they have engaged in many sort of undertakings.
In this company, in order to optimise knowledge direction attempt, communities of pattern ( CoPs ) have become an built-in portion of its organisation construction. The intent of CoPs in MAPNA Group may supply a manner frontward in enabling experts and practicians to make and portion cognition and best patterns. There is a existent demand for the Group to advance, Foster, and support communities of pattern in order to advantage from making and sharing cognition that may lend to higher public presentation. CoPs are used by many organisations as a agency to capturing cognition, peculiarly the tacit cognition that is non so easy articulated.
Another ground, the big undertaking based companies such as MAPNA has enlargement of undertakings by size, diverseness and geographical distribution. These sorts of companies are frequently implemented with chiseled ends, chiseled methods, and their undertaking direction techniques are much more inferred. It is expected to choose the big undertaking based company instances to cut down the hazard of the participant mistake or prejudice, which is frequently occur in little undertakings, with unprofessional undertaking squad members. It is information rich company characterizes as knowledge-based concern activities.
This company has started implementing new direction systems such as cognition direction and undertaking direction systems.
Surveies have shown that medium or big organisations normally have more resources to implement formal cognition sharing schemes ( Dulipovici, 2009 ) . Therefore, the instance survey focuses on one such organisation and the ground is that they normally have coincident, ongoing undertakings and that may significantly cut down the continuance of the informations aggregation ( Dulipovici, 2009 ) . The big undertaking based company has the undermentioned features including mammoth range of work ; infrastructure new undertaking ; implemented by several undertaking squad members, single and group ; complexness of the procedures ; knowledge-worker based in the among, comparison with some industries, which make a more appropriate environment for research in the field of cognition direction. Hence, the big company is an ideal instance survey to utilize to analyze the factors enabling the cognition sharing behaviour among project squad members.
In add-on, the location of the instance survey is besides another motive in choosing MAPNA. The instance survey is situated in an country where the costs are within the restraints of the research worker, the potency for communicating dislocation will be decreased, and the likeliness of a rich information aggregation will be increased.
The instance survey descriptions are expected to supply informations for construing the capableness and willingness of the undertaking teams to portion cognition.
Overview of MAPNA foundation
MAPNA Group is an acronym as a big undertaking based company in Iran. It was incorporated in 1992 under the Persian authorities supported.
MAPNA Group consists of the parent company and besides 32 subgroup companies that it has grown to go an acronym as a big undertaking based company in Iran. Since its foundation in 1992, MAPNA has been actively involved in the development and building of assorted types of power workss, oil & A ; gas, railroad transit and other industrial undertakings ( such as refineries, gas sweetener installations, grapevines, cogeneration workss, LNG workss, etc ) .
MAPNA industry power works electrical and control systems, gas and steam turbines and their accessory equipment, turbine blades and vanes, turbo-compressors, power generators, heat recovery steam generators and conventional boilers, lading and rider engines, and so on.
Furthermore to several old ages of experience from assorted sorts of mega undertakings, as mentioned above, MAPNA Group has entered into the planetary market such as Oman, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon through EPC, EP and IP undertakings abroad ( MAPNA one-year study 2011 ) .
MAPNA and Knowledge Management
In MAPNA, cognition direction in order to do admittance to organizational cognition direction and workflow procedures with the purpose of implementing cognition direction schemes has formed. The company, has designed the organisation has to let the usage of power of human resources and can cut down employees resistance to the procedure of implementing cognition direction to ease and rush. Because the successful execution of cognition direction processes in MAPNA needs employees ‘ aid and support. Hence, since the beginning of 2009 twelvemonth, the undertaking squad consisted of 17 people from assorted degrees group, after the preparation, have been responsible for implementing cognition direction in the company. In the mid-2009, VP R & A ; D to spread out its activities in the field of cognition direction, to make unit “ Development of Knowledge Management ” that can run different applications of cognition direction, civilization edifice and execution of educational personal businesss is active. Therefore, the cognition direction squad in 89 old ages has designed chart of KM. Harmonizing to this chart, each of the companies in the Group after completion of activities within the construction, civilization and engineering, with the nucleus cognition will be. Assorted engineerings used in the company to develop knowledge direction include:
Web-based system aimed at easing cognition direction and automated physique procedures and organisations in conformity with the demands under the rubric “ Knowledge Management Organizations, ” which has several cardinal characteristics.
Published resources related knowledge countries of company ‘s concern through the environments such as intranet and extranet.
Create knowledge bank beginnings in order to inform about the Group ‘s research accomplishments.
Make the research workers ‘ bank with the purpose of placing Group ‘s experts.
Three dimensions of instruction, communicating and wages systems and inducements, are developed cultural cognition base of Group. Note that making the appropriate cultural alterations, necessary to implement successful cognition direction in the organisations ; MAPNA ‘s cognition direction squad has ongoing plans that some of the most of import are the undermentioned:
Knowledge sharing is portion of mundane pattern in the employees ‘ occupation.
Knowledge demands of the organisation, seasonably are targeted, identified and collected.
Knowledge direction organisational construction fits the demands of cognition direction are designed and continuously developed.
Organizational cognition decently to be developed by employees in the organisational merchandises and services.
Technological cognition needed to decently pull off the organisation has established and available to all cognition workers to be exposed.
Status of the cognition direction is monitored continuously for betterment needed to use for cognition direction adulthood.
Harmonizing to MAPNA ‘s background from the execution of assorted undertakings, the tacit and expressed cognition in power works, industrial, oil and gas, and public-service corporation undertakings will be captured. This cognition available to senior directors, center directors, undertaking directors and squad members and others that are involved in undertakings. CoP ‘s launched with the purpose of using cognition to work out organisational jobs and determinations, including the of import activities in this country have been carried out.
The procedure of cognition direction in MAPNA:
Knowledge direction procedure or knowledge life rhythm ( KLC ) in MAPNA is conceived as consisting of five phases: cognition acquisition, cognition appraisal, cognition organizing, cognition sharing, and cognition reuse in all organisational degrees.
MAPNA GROUP consists of the parent company and besides 32 subgroup companies active in the development and building of undertakings power workss, oil and gas, rail transit and other industrial undertakings.
Sing the diverseness of Fieldss of activity of this group and classs of proficient cognition transferred and licence can be said that the province of cognition of the company ‘s high degree and at national degree is matchless.
Research methods can be classified in different ways ; it can sort between qualitative and quantitative research ( Williams, 2007 ) . Research workers frequently do either qualitative or quantitative research ; some research workers have proposed uniting qualitative or quantitative research methods or assorted method in the individual survey. This survey selected a instance survey attack uniting both qualitative and quantitative ( assorted ) method. As a consequence of the assorted methods research attack, research worker incorporate methods of roll uping or analysing informations from the quantitative and qualitative research attacks in a individual instance survey ( Creswell, 2003 ) . In order to obtain a mixture of informations, the research worker could administer a study incorporating closed-ended inquiries to roll up numerical or quantitative informations and carry on an interview with open-ended inquiries to roll up the narrative or qualitative informations ( Williams, 2007 ) .
Using the assorted methods research is to pull on the strengths and minimise failings of the quantitative and qualitative research attacks ( Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004 ) . Mixed-method attack is besides used to enable triangulation of informations. Particularly, the triangulation may be used to compare the consequences of quantitative study informations and content analysis of the interview. Therefore, it confirms the findings and improves the overall cogency of consequences. Last, each person informations aggregation method is used to reply one of the four research inquiries in this survey.
Knowledge direction research workers have applied qualitative and quantitative attacks as their chief techniques for informations aggregation, since their purpose is ever to entree facets of human behaviour, which are frequently concealed ( Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 ; Chennamaneni, 2006 ; Jewels and Ford, 2006 ; Keshavarzi, 2007 ) .
Datas were collected in two parts. In the first portion, the study instrument was used. After the study, in the 2nd portion, the interview was used to increase the cogency of the study, dependability and design. In add-on, the research worker used pre-test questionnaire developed to measure the instrument and optimise its benefit. In this survey, pre-test study was conducted to concentrate on the cogency of researching cognition sharing in the undertaking sphere. Furthermore, the study examined the patterns of cognition sharing between undertakings, peculiarly to better understand the organizational and single factors that influence undertaking squad members ‘ cognition sharing behaviour in undertakings utilizing the variables.
The comparative importance of undertaking squad members ‘ cognition sharing behaviour of each of the propositions contained in the questionnaire study that has been quantitatively analyzed and compared with the qualitative feedback from the interviews conducted.
The supplement portion of the research instrument contains semi-structured interview to informations garnering from cardinal source such as undertaking squad members and undertaking directors. The sample consists of different undertaking in the instance survey. A qualitative attack was performed to place the factors that influence on cognition sharing pattern in undertakings. It is non-standard tools, which frequently indicated as qualitative research interview ( King, 2004 ; Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . In this instrument, the research worker has a list of subjects and inquiries to cover the research objectives that are different in assorted interviews ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . It depends on the respondents and the status between them and interviewer.
The semi-structured interview format was preferred to either wholly structured or open-ended interview format in this survey. The open-ended inquiry can let the interviewee to discourse what he or she wants alternatively of what the interviewer wishes ; a officially structured inquiry does non let for the free evocation of feedback and can put on the line losing information that might go relevant. The semi-structured interview procedure besides allowed new inquiries to emerge as a consequence of what was said by the interviewee. A semi-structured interview is suited when the research worker is following one or more cardinal inquiries, such as was done in this research.
The interviews were semi-structured in order to supply greater in-depth apprehension of the major factors that influence the procedure of sharing cognition. In add-on, the semi-structured interviews promote interviewees to joint themselves in their ain nomenclature. The scope of inquiries was developed from the literature reappraisal and covered the countries of cognition direction and undertaking direction.
The survey is based on 30 adept interviews has been chosen on purposive sampling in different undertakings largely located in Iran and include subordinates of MAPNA Company. The information has been collected during the twelvemonth 2010 and 2011 in semi-structured face-to-face interviews with directors responsible for cognition direction and/or undertaking direction.
As mentioned above, the inquiries were open-ended and each interview lasted from about 45 proceedingss to one hr. With understanding from the interviewees, the interview was voice-recoded. The treatments focused on the inside informations of cognition sharing procedure at the instance survey ( undertakings ) , the undertaking success, and the perceptual experiences of others involved in the same procedure.
The research worker attempted to verify the determination by literature reappraisal, the attack in reacting to the spread, and the conceptual model, to increase the credibleness of the research. It was extremely supported by adept judgements that the research worker found in the interview. However, the consequences after confirmation by the research supervisors will be applied. All interactions were documented in item in order to ease their analysis.
The study instrument was developed on the footing of antecedently validated graduated tables. A pilot trial was conducted with some of the undertaking directors and experienced forces from MAPNA that the research worker was assured of the cogency and dependability of the study instrument. All study inquiries were tested in the pilot survey. Respondents were given the chance to notice on specific inquiries and the questionnaire in general. Participants ‘ recommendations were assessed and alterations were incorporated into the study instrument. The intent of the pilot trial was to measure the relevancy and lucidity of the inquiries included in the instrument.
Merely really little alterations to the building of study were necessary harmonizing to the remarks from more than 30 participants in this pilot survey.
A comprehensive study instrument was assembled to mensurate the concepts of research theoretical account. The chief portion of the research instrument contained close-ended inquiries ; a transcript of the study instrument is in Appendix A. All points intended to mensurate the hypotheses were adapted from old instruments that have been validated and used in anterior surveies on cognition direction, cognition sharing and undertaking direction ( Ajzen, 1991 ; Davis, 1993 ; Taylor and Todd, 1995 ; Lee, 2001 ; Teigland and Wasko, 2003 ; Bock et Al, 2005 ; Wasko and Faraj, 2005 ; Kankanhalli et al. , 2005 ; Jewels and Ford, 2006 ; Hammoud, 2008 ) or making inquiries based on treatment with practicians, experts and guideline on the preparation of a questionnaire for concepts based on Theory of Planned Behavior ( TPB ) . The questionnaire assembled by persons who have experienced in sharing cognition across undertakings. The questionnaire consisted of two subdivisions and cover missive. The cover missive provided instructions for finishing the questionnaire and a warrant that the information could be used for academic and research grounds merely. The first portion had inquiries to roll up demographic information from respondents and the 2nd portion consisted of 79 inquiries to mensurate variables that have been developed based on literature reappraisal. The graduated table used to mensurate each concept had a figure of points and were based on a five-point Likert graduated table with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” . The operational steps for each concept are discussed below. Questions had been translated from English to Farsi utilizing the method of interlingual rendition, back-translation and alteration ( Brislin, 1970, Jones, 1987 )
Undertaking success: This variable measures the degree of undertaking success as how the undertaking sing the accomplishment of the undertaking objectives to mensurate the clip, cost, range, quality and stakeholders ‘ satisfaction ( Olson, 2004 ; Schwalbe, 2007 ; PMI, 2008 ) . The stakeholders of a undertaking are clients, patrons, the executing organisation, undertaking squad members and other stakeholders who are actively involved in the undertaking ( PMI, 2008 ) . For intents of this research, undertaking success was defined as categorical and was measured by the complex of five indexs: clip, range, cost, quality and stakeholders ‘ satisfaction that the features of the step success of a undertaking taken from old surveies ( Hammoud 2008 ; Lee, 2009 ) . The points measured respondents ‘ perceptual experiences of their part to the cognition sharing behaviour that influence in the success of a undertaking. A five-item graduated table was constructed to measure the success of the undertaking. These points were measured on a graduated table of 5-point Likert, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Knowledge Sharing Behavior: Items to mensurate knowledge sharing behaviour were adapted from the instrument used by Lee ( 2001 ) , Teigland and Wasko ( 2003 ) and Bock et Al ( 2005 ) surveies. Lee ( 2001 ) reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.758 for the graduated table of silent cognition sharing and 0.901 for the sharing of expressed cognition graduated table. Bock et al. , ( 2005 ) besides reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.93 for purpose to portion silent cognition graduated table and 0.92 for purpose to portion expressed cognition graduated table. These steps have given rise to the degree purpose to portion knowledge graduated table have been adjusted to reflect existent sharing cognition. A six-item graduated table was constructed to measure cognition sharing behaviour. These points were measured on a graduated table of 5-point Likert, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Knowledge Sharing Purpose: Items to mensurate the purpose to portion cognition have been adapted from the instrument used by Bock et Al ( 2005 ) survey. They reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.93 for purpose to portion the tacit cognition graduated table and 0.92 for purpose to portion expressed cognition graduated table. A six-item graduated table was constructed to measure the purpose to portion cognition. The points measured the respondents ‘ perceptual experiences of their part to the cognition sharing behaviour. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Perceived Behavioral Control: Items to mensurate sensed behavioural control were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Taylor and Todd ( 1995 ) . Taylor and Todd ( 1995 ) reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.70. A six-item graduated table was constructed to measure sensed behavioural control towards knowledge sharing. These points have been adjusted to reflect the behaviour of cognition sharing. The points assessed the perceptual experiences of respondents about their beliefs that it is easy or hard to do a part to the cognition sharing behaviour. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Subjective Norm: Items mensurating subjective norm have been adapted from the instrument used and validated by Bock et Al ( 2005 ) . They reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.82 to mensurate normative beliefs sing the sharing of cognition. A six-item graduated table was constructed to measure subjective norm cognition sharing. These points assessed the perceptual experiences of respondents about their beliefs that undertaking squad members to concentrate force per unit area on their actions expected them for their part to the cognition sharing behaviour. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Knowledge Sharing Attitude: Items to measure the attitude toward sharing cognition have been adapted from the instrument used and validated by Morris et Al ( 2005 ) and Bock et Al ( 2005 ) . Morris et Al ( 2005 ) reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.85, and Bock et Al ( 2005 ) showed an internal consistence dependability of 0.91. A five-item graduated table was constructed to measure the attitude toward sharing cognition. These points assessed the respondents ‘ feelings about their beliefs that they had positive or negative perceptual experiences towards sharing cognition. These points were rated on a Likert of scale 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Perceived Reciprocity Benefits: Items to measure the sensed benefits of reciprocality have been adapted from the instrument used and validated by Wasko and Faraj ( 2005 ) and Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) . The internal consistence dependability was showed by Wasko and Faraj ( 2005 ) , they studied cognition sharing behaviour in electronic webs was 0.90, while the internal consistence dependability reported by Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) was 0.85. A three-item graduated table was constructed to measure sensed benefits of reciprocality to the attitude towards knowledge sharing. These points assessed feelings of respondents about their beliefs that sharing cognition with undertaking squad members would take to their future demands of cognition respected. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Perceived Enjoyment in Helping Others: Items to measure the sensed enjoyment in assisting others were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Wasko and Faraj ( 2005 ) and Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) . Wasko and Faraj ( 2005 ) reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.88 and Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) showed an internal consistence dependability of 0.96. A four-item graduated table was constructed to measure the sensed enjoyment in assisting others to the attitude towards sharing cognition. These points assessed the respondents ‘ perceptual experiences and feelings about their beliefs they would acquire pleasance and satisfaction from assisting undertaking squad members with their demands for cognition. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Perceived Organizational Commitment: Items to measure the sensed organisational committedness were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Lin and Lee ( 2006 ) survey. Lin and Lee ( 2006 ) reported an internal consistence dependability of 0.89. A five-item graduated table is constructed to measure the sensed organisational committedness to the attitude towards sharing cognition. These points measured the perceptual experiences of respondents about their beliefs that they would acquire responsibility and duty to portion cognition with undertaking squad members. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Knowledge Self-efficacy: Items to measure the cognition self-efficacy were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) survey. The internal consistence dependability showed by Kankanhalli et al. , ( 2005 ) was 0.96 and convergent dependability was 0.86 each point for their Knowledge Self- efficaciousness step. A four-item graduated table was constructed to measure the cognition self-efficacy to comprehend behavioural control cognition sharing. The points assessed the cognition self-efficacy of respondent with respects to portion cognition with undertaking squad members. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Perceived organisational clime: Items to measure the sensed organisational clime were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Bock et Al ( 2005 ) survey. The points assessed association, innovativeness and fairness dimensions of the organisational clime in which the respondent answered. The internal consistence dependability showed by Bock et Al ( 2005 ) for association, innovativeness and equity were 0.89, 0.87 and 0.87 severally. A ten-item graduated table was constructed to measure the sensed organisational clime ( association, innovativeness and equity ) to project squad members ‘ subjective norm to portion cognition. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Top direction Support: Items to measure the top direction support were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Thong et Al ( 1996 ) and Park et Al ( 2007 ) surveies. The internal consistence dependability showed by Park et Al ( 2007 ) was 0.90. A five-item graduated table was constructed to measure the top direction support to project squad members ‘ attitude toward sharing cognition. These points assessed the top direction support of respondent with respects to portion cognition with undertaking squad members. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Wagess and inducements: Items to measure the top direction support were adapted from the instrument used and validated by Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) survey. The internal consistence dependability showed by Kankanhalli et Al ( 2005 ) was 0.96. A five-item graduated table was constructed to mensurate the sensed organisational wagess and inducements to project squad members ‘ attitude towards sharing cognition. These points measured the perceptual experiences of respondents about their beliefs that they would have organisational wagess and inducements for their part to the cognition sharing behaviour with undertaking squad members. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Information Technology: Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) by Davis ( 1989 ) introduced the construct of sensed easiness of usage of and usefulness the engineering, which have been widely tested. The steps for the sensed easiness of usage and perceived utility of information engineering are adapted from Davis ( 1989 ) and Davis ( 1993 ) graduated table for information engineering is derived from Chennamaneni ( 2006 ) survey. Therefore, foremost, a five-item graduated table was constructed to measure the utility of respondents ‘ perceptual experience of the engineering to portion cognition with undertaking squad members. These points were measured on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Very Infrequently ” to 5 “ Very Frequently ” . Second, a seven-item graduated table was constructed to measure the respondents ‘ perceptual experiences about their beliefs that the easing information engineering for sharing cognition is available and easy to utilize. These points were rated on a Likert graduated table of 5-point, with ground tackles of 1 “ Strongly Disagree ” to 5 “ Strongly Agree ” .
Harmonizing to aforesaid concept steps, a sum-up of all factors are considered and grouped into variables presented in Table 3.1.