The then and now of the UAE economies

Introduction

Dubai ‘s population has grown by about seven per cent in the first nine months of 2010 to make 1.87 million. This indicates that the emirate is back on path in economic recovery. As a fact, the emirate ‘s existent population becomes higher by more than one million during the twenty-four hours as Dubai remains a mark for workers and business communities from neighbouring emirates.

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Aref Al-Muhairi, Executive Director of the Dubai Statistics Centre, projected Dubai ‘s economic system, the UAE ‘s largest after Abu Dhabi, would turn by around 2.3 per cent in 2010 after spread outing in the first half. Surveys show that there was a growing of seven per cent in the first nine months as the population with lasting abode was estimated at 1.87 million at the terminal of September, but the active population is estimated at 2.9 million during the twenty-four hours as many business communities and workers from other metropoliss and emirates stay in Dubai most of the twenty-four hours.

DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF UAE

Entire Population – 8,190,000 ( 2010 National Bureau of Statistics est. )

Age construction

0-14 old ages: 25.3 %

15-64 old ages: 71.1 %

65 old ages and over: 3.6 %

Population growing rate – 3.83 %

Net migration rate – 0.84 migrator ( s ) /1,000 population ( 2005 est. )

Cultural groups –

Emiri ( Emirati ) – 19 %

Other Arab, Iranian, South Asian ( Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan ) – 50 %

Other exiles ( includes Westerners and East Asians ) – 8 %

( Note: less than 20 % are UAE citizens )

EXPATS VS LOCAL POPULATION

Dubai is full of exiles. Majority of the Dubai exiles are Indians and South Asiatic subjects such as Pakistanis, Sri Lankans and Bangladeshis. There are many Phillipine subjects besides.

Majority of the Europeans are from UK. US, Canadian, South African and Australian among the other major subjects in Dubai.

The spread between locals and exiles in the GCC work force has remained immense with the exiles entering a ruling presence in virtually all occupation classs. It is seen that up to 58 per cent of the GCC ‘s work force is made up of exiles.

A

Much like in other GCC states, the UAE Government has been sharply forcing for its Emiratisation plan, which aims to increase the figure of qualified UAE workers in the occupation market. However, because the majority of UAE subjects are absorbed about entirely in the populace sector, the local occupation market will stay dominated by a turning expatriate population. It is concluded that increasing the acceptance of local professional work force in the private sector will play a critical function in accomplishing a sustainable economic development for the UAE. It farther stated that available occupations in the populace sector will non be sufficient to suit the quickly turning figure of UAE professional workers, peculiarly on history of the turning figure of local alumnuss, doing it crucially of import to set up new gateways for locals to be absorbed in the private sector.

UAE – Then AND NOW

The whole universe is developing. There are some states which are developed faster than the others. The UAE was one of these states which showed a recognizable development in the last 30 old ages.

Thirty old ages ago the UAE was one of the least developed states of the universe. Today, it has achieved an income degree comparable to that of the industrialised states. The UAE did non go through through the conjectural development ‘stages ‘ that most developed states seem to hold experienced. Rather, its big oil grosss have allowed her to jump these

phases to the phase of high mass ingestion. Massive oil grosss have enabled the UAE to short-cut the normally hard and drawn-out procedure of salvaging and capital accretion necessary for economic development.

1.3.1 Economic and Institutional Constraints

Before the find and export of oil, the economic system of the Trucial States ( which today form the UAE ) depended chiefly on subsistence agribusiness, mobile animate being farming, the extracting of pearls and the trade in pearls, fishing, and seafaring. The period before the find of oil, hence, reflected the state ‘s limited natural resources, and resulted in a simple subsistence economic system. The era of economic development in the UAE ( or the UAE ‘s First Development Decade ) began in the early 1970s, the federation ‘s formation on 2 December 1971 ( and the constitution

of its formal economic, societal, and political establishments ) co-occuring with a monolithic addition in oil production and oil exports, followed by the explosive rise in oil monetary values in 1973.

Political and Social Stability

Since its formation in 1971 the UAE has enjoyed a political stableness. The bing political constructions appear to accommodate the tribal society of the UAE, and the distribution of immense oil grosss in the signifier of societal and economic substructure, high wages, a high criterion of societal services, such as wellness and instruction, has raised the criterion of life for UAE citizens and well reduced the likeliness of internal political and societal agitation. It is deserving adverting that the UAE Government has maintained a comparatively good record on human rights since the formation of the province. This in bend has promoted political and societal stableness.

The UAE is an active member of many regional and international associations such as the Arab League, the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Relationss with many states of the universe, peculiarly the Western democratic states, have been traditionally warm. Political and societal stableness has gone manus in manus with broad trade policies and has paved the manner for investing ( domestic and international ) in the industrial sector.

Population and Labour Force

The UAE population is basically a little 1. However, after the find of oil and its export in the last four decennaries, it has experienced really rapid growing, the consequence of a combination of high natural rates of addition among the UAE ‘s autochthonal population, and a monolithic inward migration of exiles who now comprise more than three quarters of the population. Therefore, a little autochthonal population, a big exile population, and huge wealth generated by oil are the dominant socio-economic characteristics of the UAE.

In add-on to population size and age composing, societal factors in the UAE have a great impact in finding the size of the UAE labor force. Female engagement in the UAE labor force remains little, 16.3 per cent in 1999. However, inducements and statute law purpose to alter this state of affairs. Greater female engagement is seen as a manner of increasing the UAE autochthonal labor force and decreasing the state ‘s dependance on foreign labor. A two-tier labor market has emerged in the UAE. At the top is the autochthonal labor force, which constitutes about 10 per cent of the entire work force. Below this is an limitless supply of foreign labor. The UAE has reaped benefits from foreign skilled and unskilled workers, who initiated its economic development in the early 1970s and later have come to prolong it.

The employment form in the UAE does non reflect the construction of end product. The oil sector employs merely 1.6 per cent of the UAE labor force, reflecting the capital-intensive nature of the industry. About 39 per cent of the labour force is engaged in community, societal and personal services. The unemployment rate in the UAE ( 0.5 per cent ) is unusually low, which means that the UAE economic system is efficaciously at full employment. The UAE is extremely urbanised. This has been attributed to the bunch of public services, transit and communications, fiscal markets and service-based industries in the metropoliss.

Industrialization

In the procedure of economic development, industrialisation has been considered important to the passage. Industrialization is linked to the thought of exciting forward and backward linkages with the remainder of the economic system. In add-on, industrialisation creates new employment chances. In common with other developing states, the UAE, whose economic system has been significantly dependent on the export of one primary merchandise, viz. oil, pursued a scheme of industrialisation to diversify the beginnings of its national income and cut down its dependance on oil.

The chief factors which have acted as a restraint on UAE industrial development are limited natural stuffs, and the size of the domestic market. On the other manus, the copiousness of natural mineral resources, the ready handiness of fiscal capital, a well-established substructure, a flexible labor and employment policy, the handiness of inexpensive energy, industrial zones and assorted inducements in statute law, plus political and societal stableness have been the chief

resource and inducement for UAE industrialisation.

Educational Institutions

In the past the figure of educated people was lower than the present which is making 90 % of the UAE citizens. The pupils are traveling to schools and colleges to analyze as opposed to the yesteryear where they used to travel to the mosques, but in both state of affairss people are/were willing to larn every bit much as they can/could.

It is no secret that there was small development anyplace in the Arabian peninsula prior to the find of oil. The ground is simple: there was no money for it. The economic system in those yearss was a simple one, based upon pearl diving, fishing, coastal trade and the most fundamental agribusiness. In 1962, when oil production began in Abu Dhabi the state lacked virtually everything: schools, infirmaries, airdromes, havens, a reliable supply of safe imbibing H2O, electricity workss and, most significantly, proper lodging for the bulk of the people.

In 1962 there were merely 20 schools in the state with less than 4000 pupils — and most of those male childs. By the clip the UAE was established in 1971, there were still less than 28,000 pupils and instruction was reasonably good confined to the towns. Today there are over 290,000 kids at authorities schools all over the state.

In the past, post-secondary instruction was government-financed and of class meant traveling abroad to other Arab states or even to Britain or America. At present, nevertheless, the UAE can offer higher instruction at place. In 1977 the Emirates University was set up in Al Ain. Since that clip there have been some 14,500 alumnuss with half of them adult females.

Courses offered include the traditional university topics every bit good as assorted sorts of technology, agribusiness, assorted scientific subjects and a highly-rated Faculty of Medicine which is recognized by Britain ‘s esteemed Royal College of Surgeons. Overseas scholarships are still available for higher grades and are still financed by the authorities.

Early on on, the authorities realized the importance of proficient and vocational preparation for its citizens — both male and female — so that they could assist in run intoing the demands of the local occupation market. To assist run into these demands, in 1988 a system of Higher Colleges of Technology was set up. As in the university and the authorities schools, tuition at the Colleges is free and course of study has been produced in audience with possible employers such as Bankss, air hoses and the local oil industry. Additional proficient instruction and preparation is besides available in establishments such as the Dubai Aviation College, the Emirates Banking Training Institute or the Career Development Centre of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company.

Outside the authorities sector, there exists a broad scope of private schools with an registration of some 150,000 pupils. A figure of these Teach in the linguistic communication of one of the exile communities populating in the UAE and follow the course of study of their states. For illustration, there are English, French, German and Urdu schools fixing kids for life in their place states. In the last few old ages, a figure of universities and colleges from abroad have begun to offer partial or full grade classs through affiliates in the UAE. This means that a full scope of instruction is available for both citizens and exiles.

The President of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed, has said: “ Young person is the existent wealth of the state ” and if the income from oil can be used to make an academically and technically qualified people, there can be no uncertainty of the wisdom of the huge outgo.

All these factors combined together give consequence to a demand for analyzing the involvements and pattern tendencies in higher instruction, of the alumnuss working in the UAE. This undertaking will take at understanding the demands and range of higher instruction among the working alumnuss in United Arab Emirates. This will be achieved by transporting out a study to foretell the demand prognosis for the same amongst the mark population. The information will be collected through questionnaires aimed at organisations. The subsequent chapters will show these study consequence and illations will be drawn from the informations collected to get at the decision sing higher instruction involvements of exiles in the UAE.

Chapter 2

HIGHER Education IN UAE

EDUCATIONAL HUB

The UAE is an challenging instance of educational development because of the multiple beds of instruction, and therefore hubs, that exist. This is different than any other state. The UAE is comprised of seven Emirates, which operate semi-independent of each other. Higher instruction has historically been the duty of the federal authorities under the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. There are three public higher instruction establishments, which serve the seven Emirates through several campuses. In add-on, all private establishments are required to hold licensure and accreditation from the federal accrediting organic structure, CAA. However, the semi-independent nature of the Emirates has led several of them to develop “ free zones, ” which exempt the organisations runing within each zone from federal ordinance. Originally developed to pull foreign investing from corporations, these free zones have been used during the 2000s to pull foreign educational establishments. Now, several emirates, including Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Ras Al Khaimah, have declared purpose to go educational hubs. A description of each Emirate and/or relevant free zone seeking to go a hub is included below.

Abu Dhabi

This Emirate has non been every bit aggressive as the other Emirates in seeking to pull foreign establishments. It has opted for a more targeted attack of pulling and puting in establishments with recognizable names. At present, both the Sorbonne ( France ) and New York University ( USA ) operate campuses in UAE ‘s capital metropolis. NYU accepted its first category of pupils in autumn, 2010. Abu Dhabi seeks to capitalise on the presence of these elect instruction establishments to develop itself into a hub of thoughts.

Dubai

Over the past decennary, Dubai has garnered a great trade of international attending for the aggressive chase of international subdivision campuses and their desire to go an educational hub. Rather than entirely puting in their ain system, assorted sub-hubs within Dubai have targeted the development of IBCs in order to supply a diverse set of educational chances to the local exile population, every bit good as, pull foreign pupils to analyze in Dubai. Soon, more than 25 IBCs stand foring 13 different national course of studies, ( e.g. Indian, American, Australian, British, Russia ) provide undergraduate and graduate grades in Dubai. The IBCs are spread across four different free zones.

Dubai Knowledge Village / Dubai International Academic City:

Launched in 2003, Dubai Knowledge Village ( DKV ) is owned by TECOM Investments, which is a subordinate of Dubai Holding, and is one of TECOM ‘s many concern Parkss. It was founded as portion of a long-run economic scheme to develop the part ‘s endowment pool and go a knowledge-based economic system. This instruction hub is set up to complement TECOM ‘s other concern Parkss, including, Dubai Internet City and Dubai Media City. DKV has attracted 15 international universities from Australia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Russia, Belgium, UK, Ireland, and Canada. It is besides place to about 150 preparation institutes and larning centres, HR development centres, professional preparation institutes, R & A ; D organisations, and e-Learning companies.

To account for the demand to supply more campus installations due to the rapid enlargement of higher instruction in DKV, TECOM created Dubai International Academic City ( DIAC ) . Approximately one square stat mi, DIAC is located in Dubai Academic City, and is set-up as a free zone for higher instruction. Currently place to over 20 international universities, including Cambridge College International Dubai, University of Phoenix Dubai, and University of Exeter, among other, DIAC caters to over 4,000 pupils.

Dubai International Financial City

Dubai International Financial metropolis has been one of the fastest turning fiscal hubs in the Middle East and one of the largest importers of foreign academic plans. To assist accomplish its mission, the DIFC created the DIFC Center of Excellence with intent of going “ hub for excellence and professional development and instruction. ” To accomplish this end, the Center has partnered with several taking concern schools to offer a assortment of MBA grade plans. Plans have their ain offices and offer their ain grades, but portion academic infinite.

Dubai Health Care City

Dubai Health Care City desires to function as a hub of medical instruction in the part. When the metropolis was ab initio designed, the purpose was to import medical plans from several establishments, every bit good as, make a teaching infirmary. The economic lag has caused this free zone to prorogue the development of the instruction infirmary. In bend, Harvard University, which presently offers go oning instruction classs, has delayed the offering of academic grade plans. Presently, the lone IBC offering grades is Boston University ‘s Institute for Dental Research and Education, which is offering Master ‘s grades and certifications in ; Endodonticss, Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontology, and Postdoctoral Prosthodontics.

Dubai Silicon Oasis

Silicon Oasis was established by the Government of Dubai in 2004 to go a hub of technological research and production. It has non declared an involvement in going an instruction hub, nevertheless, it is home to the subdivision of a successful American establishment, Rochester Institute of Technology ( RIT ) . RIT, a technology-based educational establishment, was recruited to back up the overall mission of Silicon Oasis. The establishment began by offering engineering and management-oriented alumnus grades in 2008, and in 2010, accepted its first category of undergraduate pupils.

List of public universities and colleges:

Higher Colleges of Technology

Zayed University

Dubai Medical College for Girls

Michigan State University in Dubai

List of private universities and colleges:

Centre for Executive Education, Dubai Knowledge Village

London Centre for Human Resources Management

Hult International Business School

RIT Dubai

Cass Business School

Heriot Watt University

Al Ghurair University

Dubai School of Government

American College of Dubai

Skyline University College

American University in Dubai

British University in Dubai

Canadian University Of Dubai

Manchester University Business School

Dubai University College

European University College Brussels ( Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel )

Mahatma Gandhi University

MAHE-Manipal

SAE Institute

Birla Institute of Technology & A ; Science, Pilani – Dubai

University of Wollongong in Dubai

S.P.Jain Center Of Management, Dubai

Institute of Management Technology, Dubai

The Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management

Murdoch University International Study Centre Dubai

Emirates Aviation College

Boston University Dental School

Dubai Aerospace Enterprise University

Dubai Medical College for Girls

University of Dubai

University of Waterloo

Islamic & A ; Arabic Studies College Dubai

Middlesex University – Dubai Campus

Universal Empire Institute of Medical Sciences

DATA COLLECTION

The primary informations for the survey was collected via method of questionnaire. A questionnaire was directed to some of the major companies in UAE to find the demand prognosis and the mark population of the survey ( attached below ) .

QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

( This questionnaire study is conducted by Akash Jatania, Ankita Lamba and Sneha Maturu, concluding twelvemonth pupils of BITS – Pilani, Dubai in partial fulfilment of their undertaking under Prof. Dr. Tanmay Panda. The study is meant for academic intent and the information collected will be confidential and the information will be used merely for academic surveies. )

Entire figure of employees – _________________________ .

Percentage/ Number of employees holding makings up to Bachelor ‘s degree – ________________________________ .

Nationality of the bulk of employees from the above population – ______________________________________ .

Name OF THE Company: ____________________________ .

Appellation OF THE RESPONDENT: _________________ .

Activity OF THE Company: _________________________ .

S. NO.

Company Name

Entire No. of Employees

No. of Alumnuss

Major Nationality

Target Population

1

Asea Brown Boveri, Abu Dhabi

150

30

Indian

30

2

Abu Dhabi Cables

80

17

Indian

17

3

Aluma

30

15

Indian

15

4

BMTC

95

63

Indian

63

5

Chalmers

540

270

Indian

270

6

Cluttons LLC

50

50

British

0

7

Dafnia

78

31

Indian

31

8

DBA Group

8000

4800

Indian

4800

9

DUBAL

4000

1000

Indian

1000

10

EmQube

3

3

Indian

3

11

ESMA Group

75

25

Indian

25

12

ESMOD Dubai

12

11

Gallic

0

13

FabTech

700

105

Indian

105

14

Food Fortes

102

72

Indian

72

15

Frequency Events

5

5

Indian

5

16

Giordano

260

223

Indian

223

17

Gulf Sea Food

120

16

Indian

16

18

Gulf Wireless & A ; Television

48

16

Indian

16

19

Herbiger Service

63

32

Indian

32

20

Icon Management

6

6

Indian

6

21

Infratech Control

9

8

Indian

8

22

Jones Lang LaSalle

110

35

Arab

0

23

Kingsmen

102

30

Indian

30

24

Microsol International

250

25

Indian

25

25

Orient Express Lines

20

19

Indian

19

26

Procal

20

9

Indian

9

27

Redcube Systems

16

8

Indian

8

28

Reitz

3

3

Indian

3

29

Roto Packing

206

47

Indian

47

30

Schaefer Power

10

6

Indian

6

31

Schering Plough/ MSD

200

200

Egyptians

0

32

Serck Sevices International

400

78

Indian

78

33

Six Sigma Solutions

10

10

Indian

10

34

SRFO

130

26

Indian

26

35

Star Elevator

317

31

Indian

31

36

Super Cement

56

10

Indian

10

37

Tasnee Petrochemical

2500

875

Indian/ Saudi/ European/ American/ Philippine

100

38

Telephony Telecom

150

112

Indian/ Pakistani/ Bangladeshi/ Nepali/ Sudani

25

39

United Diesel

170

60

Indian

60

40

Western Digital

6

3

Indian/ Pakistani

3

41

Zarca Interactive

300

195

Indian

195

42

DNV

128

115

Indian

115

Sum

19530

8695

Indian

7537

Table 2.1: Datas Collected through the questionnaire

Inferences DRAWN FROM THE COLLECTED DATA

The tabular matter of the informations clearly indicates that the bulk of the employees in the companies are of Indian nationality.

The consequences are as follows:

Number of companies surveyed: 42

Entire population of the above mentioned companies: 19530

Number of alumnuss from the entire population: 8695

Percentage of Alumnuss: 44.52 %

Number of alumnuss of who are Indian subjects: 7537

Number of alumnuss of other nationalities ( including British, French, Arab, Egyptian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Philippine, Saudi, Sudani, American and European ) : 1158

Percentage of Indian alumnuss: 38.59 %

Fig 2.1: Distribution of nationalities of Graduate employees in companies

In this mid semester study, from the informations collected so far we can reason that the bulk of the alumnus employees are Indians who are working in UAE. Further analysis on the mark population will be done in subsequent chapters, which will be introduced in the concluding study. It will include a specific study catering to the demand and range of higher instruction amongst corporate executives in the United Arab Emirates.

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