“ He who wishes to contend must foremost number the cost. When you engage in existent combat, if triumph is long in coming, so work forces ‘s arms will turn dull and their ardour will be dampened. If you lay siege to a town, you will wash up your strength. Again, if the run is protracted, the resources of the State will non be equal to the strain. Now, when your arms are dulled, your ardour dampened, your strength exhausted and your hoarded wealth spent, other captains will jump up to take advantage of your appendage. Then no adult male, nevertheless wise, will be able to debar the effects that must result… In war, so, allow your great object be triumph, non drawn-out runs. ”
Sun Tzu, the Art of War
This was a quotation mark from the Chinese General Sun Tzu in the 6 century BC. It is precisely what happened for the failure of the United States of America in Vietnam. The success narrative of the Viet Cong in the run is considered to be one of the most studied and analyzed counter insurgence runs in the universe. It is non merely due to the success but besides the tactics adopted by the Viet cong against the United States. This was a dramatic blow to the image of the United States in the period of the cold war.
At a clip where celebrated names such as Adolph Hitler, Erwin Rommel, Winston Churchill. George S Patton, Bernard Montgomery were melting off, a new moving ridge of names were immerging in the likes of Ho qi min, Mao Se dong, Cheguvera, Fidel Castro and Carlos Marighela were presenting a new chapter in contending. The outgrowth of guerilla warfare was taking over from the conventional conflicts.
This chapter identifies the success of the Viet Cong and the failure of the Americans in the Vietnam run. The followers are some of the major factors that could be derived on the success of the Viet cons.
a. Political instability with in a State.
B. The importance of the media.
c. Lack of cognition of the local imposts and traditions.
d. The importance of the people.
e. Tacticss adapted.
Political instability with in a State.
Once it has been assessed the insurgence has developed the authorities should make up one’s mind how to halt, neutralize such an insurgence. The United States authorities did non place the job in north Vietnam. If the United provinces wanted to stabilise the state of affairs in north Vietnam it had drastically failed. The election run of 1968 witnessed President Richard Nixon being elected to power. His election run chiefly targeted the anti – war demonstrators. He knew that the old authoritiess who were in control would free since there was no clear political purpose and the populace were outraged by the war in Vietnam where the United States were contending a loosing conflict. The Vietnamese identified this and targeted the media to propagate the American atrociousnesss. Even some of the properganda methods adapted by the Viet congs on the US soldiers were effectual during the struggle.
The importance of the media
There was no authorities coordinated machinery with in the United States. At a clip 300 US soldiers were deceasing as an mean hebdomadal. The media was in control and there was no proper supervising of the information released to the populace. Since this was the first clip that so many organic structures were flown back to the United provinces there was terror with in all bureaus of the authorities. No 1 had expected this to go on and the United States was non prepared for this sort of state of affairs. All bureaus within the state and externally were runing independently.
Lack of cognition of the local imposts and traditions
Those involved with insurgence work amongst the population in secret, particularly in the early stages of any run. Local cognition, civilizations and traditions are some of the factors that the Americans were unable to place of the Viet cons. One of the biggest factors of the US for the failure in Vietnam was the intelligence and the information factor. One of the identified jobs was the cognition of the local linguistic communication and this was one of the chief subscribers for the failure of the war. The usage of dual agents by the Viet cons to derive information besides proved to be one of the chief successes for the Viet cons in the war. As for the Viet cons the cognition of the local imposts and traditions were built-in.
The importance of the people
“ The guerilla must travel amongst the people as a fish swims in the sea. ”
Chairman Mao Zedong ( Tse-tung )
The US did non place the difference of the insurrectionist and the people who supported the Viet cons. They were in the purpose that every North Vietnamese was a Viet cong. There was no proper mechanism to place the protagonists and interrupt them from the Viet cons. The purpose here was to deny the insurrectionists information, logistics, Safe basses and popular support. This is achieved both through physical separation but every bit of import is a co-ordinated effort to win the psychological conflict for Hearts and Minds which the Americans did non place. As for the Viet cons at that place methods of winning the Black Marias and heads of the people was wholly different of the Americans. They adopted a system of evacuating full small towns after a bombardment or an onslaught to safety and would handle them and feed them. They had ever emphasized that the cause was to salvage the people from the American invasion.
“ When the enemy progresss, withdraw ; when he stops, harass ; when he tires,
work stoppage ; when he retreats, pursue. ”
Chairman Mao Zedong ( Tse-tung )
This was the tactics that was adapted by the insurrectionists during the Vietnam run. The Americans could non distinguish a normal provincial and a terrorist. To the American every provincial was a terrorist. By killing more provincials the Americans thought they were killing the insurrectionists. Tacticss must be adapted to accommodate the peculiar menace which the Americans were really hapless. The chief ground is that they had ne’er encountered an enemy of this nature and more equally they under estimated the insurrectionists. The country and the tactics of the Viet cons were that of guerilla tactics or normally known as “ Hit and Run ” .