Poland is a state where the agribusiness has a great portion in the construction of employment. Political and societal alterations are factors which have had influence on this sector. After the accession to the European Union in 2004 new limitations caused alteration in agricultural policy. Farmers and others employees of agricultural sector were supposed to follow these alterations and better their work. After some old ages of being the EU member now is the clip to sum up what alterations can be observed in Polish agribusiness and how Poland looks comparing to old EU states. The undermentioned article is an effort of demoing the image of presents Polish agribusiness. It presents some general informations and tendencies and it focuses particularly on the most popular and of import issues.
The biggest challenges which Polish agribusiness met is transmutation from centrally planned economic system to market economic system present in EU and the procedure of EU jurisprudence application.1 ) After the accession to the EU the figure of farms in Poland decreased. This fact is caused by the procedure of concentration, which is desirable in the economic sciences point of position. On the other manus at that place has appeared a tendency to develop farms with a really small land area, which is connected with EU financess. It encouraged husbandmans to run their ain, little
concerns. Harmonizing to EU criterions usage of fertilisers and other chemical methods in Poland does non hold negative consequence on the environment and quality of nutrient. The ground is limited application of them, caused by their monetary values height. Pollution caused by heavy metals is instead in a local graduated table ( particularly in the Upper Silesia because of industry there ) . In 2008 figure of organic farms was 1 % of all farms. Comparing to Western states aa‚¬ ” 9 % – it is non satisfactory. Nowadays this figure easy increase as enhance demand for organic merchandises. To exemplify this tendency can be used some figures: in 2004 were 3670 farms
registered as an ecological ; in 2006 were 9194.2 )
After the accession to EU, export of agribusiness merchandises significantly increased. The Table 1. below shows the waies of exporting merchandises of Polish agricultural and nutrient sector in million euros for old ages 2004 and 2006.
Table 1. Exports of Polish agricultural and nutrient merchandises and their geographical construction ( million EUR ) 3 )
Direction of export
Other developed states
Commonwealth of independent states
Comparing value of export in the twelvemonth of accession and 2 old ages subsequently a great betterment can be observed. Although the addition has appeared in every geographical construction, it took notice that to other EU members export doubled. The ground might be that comparing to other states, market monetary values are lower. The dynamic growing in Polish export during few months after the accession to EU was caused by predomination in monetary values in comparing to most of EU states. Improvement of export at that clip period was noticed chiefly in milk and pick
( 5-fold addition ) , wheat ( 4-fold addition ) , beef ( 3-fold addition ) , porc ( 2-fold addition ) .3 )
It means that the quality of merchandises in comparing to monetary values is satisfactory. Expansion of EU in 2004 caused the abolishment of imposts barriers and the equalisation of the concurrency between European states. There is a prognosis for the hereafter that export will depend more on the quality, specified merchandises and trade names. Meaning alterations were observed particularly at meat market. Apart from addition in export, higher demand and ingestion of meat inside the state was observed. In 2003 or 2004 a Pole Ate around 72 kg meat per twelvemonth ; in 2008 the
figure addition to 76 kilograms per year.6 )
Meet processing is a major portion of Polish nutrient industry. The chief way is pork production ( 55 % ) , domestic fowl ( 33 % ) and beef ( 12 % ) .5 ) Poland has one of the highest green goods rate of porc in EU ( after states like Germany, Spain and France ) . In 2005 18.1 million hogs were noticed in whole state and porc production came to 2540 000 t.4 ) Despite this immense sum, farm animal sector is non competitory with its diffuse production ( 28.9 hogs per 1 farm when in EU the norm is 189 ; the highest is 1474 in Ireland and 1165 in Denmark ) .4 ) During the last decennary in Poland there was seeable tendency of production concentration and marginalisation of little livestockaa‚¬a„?s proprietors. Slaughter pigs production became really popular among husbandmans because of comparatively high porc monetary value comparing to low monetary value of
Agricultural Policy in Poland caused growing in porc production, export and what is following, export excess. Now the undertaking is to happen new markets.
It is deserving to advert about alterations in cowss engendering and market. After 2004 somewhat addition of monetary value per kilogram beef in purchase in Poland was noticed. In 2007, 718 300 farms had cattle.5 ) On farms specialized in milk from dairy cattles, the production of meat is merely a by- merchandise. Most of strains in Poland are milk strains ( or traversing with them ) so the meat quality is non every bit good as quality of meat from states specialized with typical meat strains. Nowadays around 55 % of beef meat goes for export when in 2003 it was merely 26 % .5 )
Grain are chief portion of harvest production in EU. Poland is the 2nd state in footings of country of cultivation and the 3rd state in footings of harvest.7 ) Much more lower crop in comparing with cultivation agencies that in Poland is low usage of weedkillers and fertilisers. The quality of crop strongly depends on the conditions and habitat conditions, which are non really good in Poland. What is more, utilizing certified seeds is non really common. In 2005 the crop from 1 hour angle was 32.3 dt/ha and it was approximately 63 % of the mean crop per 1 hour angle in EU.7 ) Grain production is non a really profitable investing but it is so popular because of deficiency of easy and existent option ( particularly in little farms ) . Strengths of grain production in Poland are low work force cost, favourable human ecology state of affairs in intending that there is adequate people willing to work in the agricultural sector and lower than in old portion of EU usage of chemical substances.
In decision it can be admitted, that the state of affairs of agribusiness in Poland has significantly improved after European Union accession. Thankss to demand for Polish agro- merchandises in western Europe, particularly in Germany, and thanks to the abolishment of custom responsibilities, the export increased. Together with European grants, it enabled modernisation and productiveness growing.
In my sentiment hereafter in Polish agribusiness belongs to organic farms. There is still a large difference to equalise between Western Europe and Poland in the per centum portion of organic farms in entire agribusiness production. What is more, the growing of demand for bio-products is expected in Poland and in whole Europe as good. Furthermore, Poland has a great chance in this country, because it is seen as an uncontaminated and traditional state. Apart from it Poland should maintain the tendency of farms consolidation, and modernisation of agribusiness in general. Thankss to the low work force costs it is possible to make Western Europe criterions in agribusiness rapidly.