The Role Of Chance And Government Economics Essay

There are two extra determiners that influence the diamond: opportunity and authorities. The first represents “ events that are outside the power of houses to act upon ” . These events involve: innovations, discontinuities, political determinations and wars. Opportunity events are of import because they create discontinuities in competition and alterations in competitory advantage, but is the diamond that make up one’s mind how a state exploit these events. Merely the favourable diamond will change over opportunity in advantage. Chance played an of import function in the development of Finnish telecommunication industry. They have the know-how due to the military necessity to pass on without being discovered from Russian ; they have a web with other counties and most of import they have the airy companies who connected the points and make the competitory advantage.

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Government ‘s policies affect all the determiners ; through subsidies and particular policies it can act upon inputs such as instruction, capital market or labour. It can travel and alter purchasers demands presenting criterions and ordinances, but it is besides a portion of demand with its purchases for telecommunications, defence and wellness. Through ordinances and controls it influences related industries and providers but it designs the concern environment with policies such as revenue enhancement and antimonopoly. Policies can act upon the diamond but authorities can non make competitory advantage.

As authorities influences competitory advantage in several ways, it is of import to see some premises while making constabularies.

Since authorities is unsuccessful in pull offing companies, it is deciding that it reminds that competition is played by houses non by political relations. The ground why authorities is non able to be competitory is that it is non truly in the market ; it can non understand wholly how it functions and insulate its determinations from political force per unit areas. Government has to play a partial function, determining the context, the institutional construction and inputs for houses. Successful policies are those that create an environment in which houses can derive competitory advantage. It has to develop and magnify the diamond: making chances and force per unit areas for uninterrupted invention. This could be the instance of Nipponese facsimile industry, in which authorities began an early and sophisticated purchaser making force per unit areas on houses to introduce their engineering. This fact excite the all industry doing it a innovator in new merchandises. Since authorities has no direct cognition of market, it has to affect companies in determination devising. Firms can lend explicating which factors they need and how to make them.

While making policies, authorities has to remind that competitory advantage is comparative. Politicss tends to look inward while discoursing which measures they have to follow burying that trade is international and that national industries have to vie on a planetary degree. Standards are set by companies outside the state, foreign workers attitudes and capablenesss set what is required at place and productiveness is measured comparing with other states ‘ consequences.

Government must hold a long-run position. Competitive advantage is created over a decennary or more, non over political relations rhythms. These two different skylines generate a large job for growing and competition. An advantage is determined by a long procedure of investings and upgrading accomplishments, merchandises and procedures. This long position is impossible in political relations. Its rhythm is based on a short-run skyline of by and large three-five old ages, in which politicians try to command economic fluctuations concentrating on rewards controls, currency intercession or commanding rising prices. These sort of determinations will impact industries but in a fringy manner. Other actions such as subsides or protection will hold short-run effects but, even if they are positive, their long term consequence is to gnaw invention and productiveness.

Competitive advantage depends on the capacity to introduce and upgrade. Policies must non concentrate on develop cost advantage which can make short-run benefits but undermine long-run industries ‘ prosperity. Policies must concentrate on constructing a context in which higher-order advantages, higher degrees of productiveness, lifting degrees of engineering can easy be achieved. Competitive advantage is gained when there are differences. Government has to excite the creative activity of new theoretical accounts and procedures, of client relationships and economic systems of graduated table. A great error is merely follow a theoretical account used in another state. It could non make a sustainable advantage even if the state make a certain province of development. Many houses prefer stableness and an environment where prosperity is guaranteed because they try to avoid alterations. To accomplish this consequence houses pressure authorities in several ways: they demand protection for foreign rivals, they ask for currency devaluation to coerce monetary values or they want to decrease national competition. These demands day of reckoning prosperity, policies must non take consideration of them.

Governmental policies have to see that powerful industries tend to be geographically concentrated. National degree policies tend to be general but on local degree it is of import to be focused on the demands of the industry.

Government must make an environment in which every industry has the possibility to thrive. A diversified economic system is a beginning of advantage, because it creates higher possibilities for human resources, factors development and international fight. Polices must non be based on classification but on productiveness differences.

Government and factor conditions

Government can strongly impact the diamond.

One of the most of import function of authorities is making factors. As we have seen depicting the diamond, every state has a pool of factors endowment but what makes a state competitory is the capableness to make and upgrade this pool. Government has been ever considered the most of import engine in making factors. Its policies chiefly concern countries such instruction or substructures, because of the outwardnesss related to these Fieldss. Benefits coming from these countries involvement everyone and every industry. These additions are excessively generic to be in themselves a beginning of competitory advantage ; for this ground it is cardinal work together with houses to avoid the hazard that authorities make the incorrect factors at the incorrect clip.

Figure 6. Government influence on factor creative activity

Education AND Training

“ Achieving more sophisticated advantages and viing in advanced sections and new industries demands human resources with bettering accomplishments and abilities ”[ 2 ]. Education is likely the lone factor on which policies can hold a long term position. Bettering the educational system is a precedence for authoritiess non merely because it is a societal policy but because it is portion of the economic budget. The effectivity of instruction is partially a map of disbursement and besides of the type of attack used that has to associate industries promoting them in doing attempts in preparation. it is its relation with industries that determines if this system is utile to assist the competitory advantage. Every authorities has to make its specific policies related to its state ‘s conditions but some characteristic are common to many policies.

The system must inquire for high public presentations and pupils are pushed to vie. International competition and globalisation rise criterions and prosperity is non possible without run into them. Open entree to the educational system is of import and it has non to be consider as a possibility to sabotage criterions. The openness of the system is cardinal to keep its verve ; it is of import to prolong pupils with generous fiscal support and to present preadmission plans to lift readying. To run into these criterions it is necessary to hold a pool of well-prepared instructors at all degrees ; it is a governmental occupation make learning a esteemed profession which attract the best professors. In United States for illustration instruction is non seen as an attractive business particularly up through secondary degree because of low makings and wage slowdowns behind the industry.

As the nexus with industries is of import to do instruction a strategic portion of the competitory advantage, pupils must be trained and qualified with some practical orientation. This could be reached thanks to the constitution of great ties between establishments and employees. These ties allow educational establishments being flexible in respond to industry ‘s demands. A governmental control is utile to keep the criterions but can sabotage upgrading. It is of import to remind that professionalism is possible besides thank to the handiness of respected and high value signifiers of instruction besides universities. Firms besides work together with industry association to supply plans to make critical accomplishments for their employees. Governmental policies must force houses in invest in uninterrupted in-house preparation presenting for illustration revenue enhancement benefits.

Another factor that has to be considered is in-migration. Globalization non merely affects competition and markets but besides people. Government has to make policies that allow inward in-migration of skilled forces.


Improvements in engineering are necessary to increase quality, monetary values, efficiency, market incursion and growing. Research and development is a function of authorities because of outwardnesss related to it ; benefits to national economic system are much more than that to single houses. As it is for instruction, due to its function of “ national supervisor ” , authorities can confront merely the basic and general degree of this characteristic. To accomplish a existent competitory advantage authorities should make invention policies that involve besides companies. There are some guidelines that political relations can follow in making these policies:

Policies must be matched with the forms of competitory advantage in industry. A utile policy see the mix of industries, their competitory advantages, their phase of development and their capacity. Successful policies concentrate on commercial relevant engineerings that affect many industries. This type of policies must concentrate on rushing the rate of invention instead than concentrate on the protection of past thoughts. Patent ordinances are cardinal in competition every bit good as avoid stuck in past engineerings.

Government has to concentrate its attending on research universities instead than its ain research labs. Universities offer Numberss of benefits in research: new coevalss of technicians are trained of course through carry oning research, universities ‘ openness facilitate the diffusion of invention, these environment are brooders for new concerns because of the entrepreneurial spirit of professors and pupils. Since governmental labs are by and large far from commercial application, successful policies are those that sustain research in universities through direct or partial fiscal support.

It is cardinal to ease the creative activity of a strong nexus between research establishments and industries. These links can be created through assorted mechanisms such as focal point some research establishment on bunch engineering in which houses are associated to prolong specialised research. Besides the presence of specific contracts between houses and research establishments introduce some subject to pull off interchange. Strong linkages besides encourage research activities within the houses ; this type of R & A ; D is successful because companies are able to work on what they need. Companies can be pushed in making research through direct grants or subsidies as in Germany or United Kingdom or revenue enhancement credits as in the United States. Linkages create besides concerted research which are good if they are done in basic countries, they are a small portion of the entire R & A ; D of houses, they are managed through separate and independent associations and they are approximately shared Fieldss that require immense investings.


Even if substructure is non a beginning of competitory advantage, it is true that the ascent of an economic system depends on a modern and up substructure. Government play the cardinal function in making this status because it is non merely a benefits for national industries but besides for the population criterion of life. In this field, companies play an of import function when it is necessary create some specialised substructure.


As for substructure besides capital is non itself a beginning of advantage, but holding an advanced, structured and efficient fiscal system is of import for the uninterrupted upgrading of competitory advantage. The handiness of capital depends on the nest eggs rate, the size of governmental excess or shortages and the foreign capital flows. In Singapore, authorities had approved a plan of forced nest eggs tied to the societal security system. This plan had generate a pool of capital that is non available for companies. Conversely, the United States had ever discouraged nest eggs promoting ingestion for illustration through the deductibility of personal involvement disbursals.

Efficient mechanisms for apportioning capital are every bit of import as the handiness of it ; but in this sense authorities can back up markets to a certain degree beyond that it is all in their custodies.


The quality and measure of information in a state has become more and more of import because it shapes houses ‘ determinations. Information is a beginning of upgrading competitory advantage because it creates the chance to get the better of inactiveness and stimulates the necessity of houses ‘ invention. It is created by a myriad of beginnings such as company paperss, proficient publications or patent records. Government function is expand the stock of information through statistics, ordinances or other publications ; spread information and signal to companies of import information and issues of great importance.


Every state tend to step in in its economic system through direct or indirect subsidies but they are about ever associated to failure. These policies delay accommodations and invention making dependance. This support makes hard for houses to put and makes them concentrate merely on regenerating subsidies. By and large direct part are good merely when they are partial but revenue enhancement inducements and indirect support are better policies to excite industries. The first force companies to set about undertakings and the 2nd push companies to better their competitory place.

Government works non merely in making factors but has a outstanding function besides in modulating markets for factors or currency. Fiscal or pecuniary policies or ordinances for energy markets are tools to act upon rewards, costs or exchange rate. Politicss use these tools to low factor costs and exchange rates help houses in planetary competition. This is true if we consider economic system as a inactive field where there is a basic engineering and factor represent the major portion of costs ; where everything remain the same, the alteration of monetary values or rates will profit industries. If we consider economic system as a dynamic procedure of invention these policies will sabotage the capableness and the willingness of industries to upgrade and introduce, forcing houses in viing in cost or monetary value sensitive market. This consequences in a loss of competitory advantage. To avoid this hazard authorities policies must supervise these markets instead than intervene.

Policies have to command that rewards rise with or somewhat in front of growing. The consequence is the betterment of new advanced beginnings of competitory advantage, the rise of buying power for more and better-quality merchandises sophisticating the demand. Government must command work force growing. New employees require more and sophisticated good and spread out the buying power but it they besides slow the invention procedure because of their handiness. A similar instance is that of unemployment ; a high rate of unemployment reduces productiveness and ascent. To be an advantage, factor costs must travel in progress of that of other state giving houses a kind of early tendency of planetary markets. Policies must avoid the hazard that factor costs are unnaturally manipulated to decelerate down. Government has to supervise the balance of trade and by and large when it is necessary to set it the most effectual policy is devaluate national currency. In fact these policies will lift exports but they besides lower the national criterion of life as they discount national merchandises to force foreign purchase. They have a negative consequence besides on economic system: they undermine competitory advantage cut downing houses ‘ necessity to introduce and forcing houses in viing in monetary value sensitive markets.

A general regulation is to defy to step in in markets even if good policies are unpopular because of short-run losingss and to follow a reacting attack to what markets generate.

Government and demand conditions

The authorities tend to concentrate on the measure of demand pull stringsing it through disbursement or cost of recognition. As Porter found in his plants[ 3 ], for competitory advantage is non of import the sum of demand but its peculiar conditions. Policies that affect the measure will bring forth counterproductive and unwilled consequences because of the their uncomplete footing. Harmonizing to the theory of competitory advantage, authorities must concentrate on better the quality of demand. It can work on this field in several ways.

First, the authorities plays an of import function as purchaser chiefly for defence and substructure but besides it demands tonss of other merchandise and services. As in the instance of Germany for the Bundespost or in the US with the buy American Torahs, this attitude is a beginning of jobs when it becomes a guaranteed market for houses because it becomes their focal point of attending. As a effect, houses pressure the authorities to stop dead international competition because they think that this exclusion will profit their industry but in this manner they undermine invention. Merchandises diverge from what is internationally needed and do companies unable to vie globally. This rhythm will do besides governmental support more needed and necessary to assist national houses. Second, authorities as a purchaser is helpful when it provides early demand for advanced merchandises forcing houses in work hard to upgrade as it happened in Japan where governmental usage of facsimile machines pushed companies in upgrade quickly going leaders in that industry. It is besides helpful that authorities facilitate the procedure of invention, supplying for illustration financial inducements ; but it has besides to keep competition promoting the presence of foreign providers. Third, political relations should besides present high criterions for merchandises instead than accept what companies do. These criterions have to look at what could be internationally required. Regulations could impact procedures, public presentations, safety, environmental impact or production. Standards could be set straight presenting Torahs but besides through specific organisations as the Deutsche Industrie Norm or the Nipponese Industrial Standards. There are two types of ordinances: on criterions and on competition which affect pricing, competition and companies ‘ construction. This type of ordinance strongly influence competition and new concern formation. Regulations on criterions force per unit area houses to better quality, engineering and supply characteristics for what is of import for clients. To be a beginning of advantage, ordinances must expect international demands. This will give companies the early mover advantage as it was for Sweden and its environmental protection policy. Advanced ordinances will force houses in making specialised concerns to assist companies to turn to them. These new companies are able to derive international place because they have the lesson learned at place. It is cardinal that companies must hold a long-run position of benefits even if ordinances produce short-run costs and losingss. Regulations are non good when they are behind those of others or they are anachronic because they will retard invention or push houses in the incorrect way. Regulations must be quickly, expeditiously and systematically applied because slow application will blow resources and block invention. Fourth, governmental policies can besides excite consume through plans that sustain demand. These plans will take down the hazard perceived by houses ; promote investings and promote active domestic competition. Policies that give inducements to purchasers are more good than those that give direct subsidies to companies because supplying inducements to purchasers oblige houses in run intoing their demands, stimulate competition and aid besides purchasers in upgrade themselves. Government can besides impact the flow of information that purchasers receive. It can supply accurate information or require companies to give them because information allow better and sophisticated picks and force per unit area for invention. Finally it can act upon demand through foreign assistance. Government can give AIDSs that are more or less linked to the purchase of national goods. These will make a kind of extension of domestic market but it could sabotage advantage because they are by and large non advanced and demanding markets and it could deflect houses from planetary competition.

Government and related and back uping industries

Government affects related industries while act uponing the chief industry. Benefits that policies give to the industry will bring forth net incomes besides in all the interrelated activities. However, there are some policy countries that impact on many industries such as policies for the media or for cluster formation.


Media is the term to place “ all agencies through which houses can pass on to purchasers about their merchandise and services. It includes telecasting, wireless, magazines, newspapers, direct mail and teleselling ”[ 4 ]. Having advanced and advanced media is a beginning of advantage, because they expose companies to the most sophisticated selling channels and to the most advanced procedures. In many states as the United States, there are few limitations on advertisement and selling patterns. This has permitted the American media to be leader in selling besides making the most advanced engineerings. As a consequence American merchandises gained an international advantage working these patterns. States as Sweden, have the inclination to present more restraints on media particularly on telecasting and wireless avoiding advertisement on these media. Even if these policies have societal benefits, they are non good for industries: such policies restrict the sum of information available to consumers cut downing companies ‘ international success and they besides impede media houses to pattern at place what it is necessary to vie globally. Sweden provides a clear illustration of media companies that are non international successful because of national limitations.


As advantage resides in bunch, related and back uping industries can heighten this advantage ; but bunchs emerge and grow of course. Once it begins, authorities policies can merely reenforce it. These policies are most effectual when they improve and support investings in making specialised factors for the bunch such as universities or substructure. Governments besides try to bring forth new industries. Bunchs by and large are more effectual when they are located around a specialised expertness ; if there are some restraints on the type of houses that can turn in the industrial zone, this will restrict benefits. Policies that encouragement bunch formation will be more effectual when encourage and back up local attempts instead than centrally 1s ; because of its national aim authorities is non able to understand where there are the conditions to make local advantage.

Government and house scheme, construction and competition

To make the best environment for houses, authorities can do policies on direction, creative activity, ends and competition.

First, authorities can act upon the international attitude of companies. Having a sustainable and advanced competitory advantage requires that houses have a planetary attack. Policies must ease this attitude modulating foreign direct investings, export and import and promoting an international mentality. It can be done supplying and circulating information, avoiding limitations on currency, on foreign investings, on the flow of skilled forces in and outside the state. Internationalization push houses in puting in other states or in outsourcing some productions ; these things could be seen as a manner to destruct national place. This could be true merely when the diamond is non well-exploited and companies outsource the extremely -productive goods. If the planetary scheme is used to outsource less sophisticated merchandises and engineerings it is a normal measure of uninterrupted ascent that enhance productiveness and do the state less sensitive to interchange rates.

Second, governmental policies can impact ends and aims. Tax policies have to promote persons ‘ attempts, non destruct them because of high revenue enhancement rate. Many states try to associate revenue enhancements and public presentations and, even if it could be positive for motive, tie rates to short-run net incomes could restrict long-run investings and invention. Persons are motivated besides through labour market policies. Make human resources a nomadic factor is non necessary to derive advantage unless the industry is mature or worsening. Peoples must be committed to their profession to heighten productiveness ; the range this aim, authorities can present labour Torahs or revenue enhancement interventions of developing benefits. Commitment is purely linked to meritocracy. Advancement based on virtue influence the motive of persons push them in constructing new accomplishments, take hazards and do attempts. Government must let an unfastened entree to the educational system supplying fiscal assistance for meriting persons. Company ‘s ends can be influenced through policies that stimulate investings in R & A ; D, new installations and preparation, because they boost productiveness, create spillover in related industries, rise returns and rewards. Tax interventions of long-run investings provide investors a motive to put in companies for a long period. Government can besides impact corporate administration patterns. When stockholders can act upon direction merely selling portions, trading and coup d’etat are encourage and direction is pushed to underinvest to keep stock monetary values to avoid them. Policies that allow debt holders to keep equity and that support a meaningful function of stockholders will profit long-run productiveness growing and committedness to constructing competitory place. Other of import policies that authorities can present to act upon company ends are ordinances on compensation methods or on accounting.

Third, authorities have to back up competition. Keep a strong domestic competition is necessary to prolong an international competitory advantage. Government must make a strong antimonopoly policy. Rivalry is utile to heighten the advantages of the diamond, if there are no ordinances on amalgamations and acquisitions or on trusts companies can seek to make a dominant domestic rival. Having a national title-holder is non the solution to be international competitory, because it will non hold pattern to vie and it will inquire governmental sustain. Government have to get rid of all policies that regulate competition as monopoly, commanding entry or repairing monetary values. Without competition houses will non be able to introduce, they try to protect what they have to the hurt of merchandises that will be less advanced and sophisticated. Politicss must besides avoid every type of protection to houses for illustration to further local industries or to let an established one to set. Protect “ infant industries ”[ 5 ]is a hazardous policy ; it can be effectual merely where there are no constituted local rivals and a strong presence of foreign challengers, a state of affairs that by and large appears in developing states. Policies that allow accommodation to established industries besides fail in the bulk of instances, because the they postpone the procedure of restructuring, they allow companies to remain in section where they are no more competitory and they create in houses the necessity to have ever governmental support. Besides cooperation has to be regulated, because it can cut down competition and advantages. Cooperation is utile when it is done to avoid waste of clip and resources. To be good it has to be made through independent entities on specific subjects ; the best sort is perpendicular cooperation, because it boosts invention.

Fourth, authorities policies must prolong new concern formation. New start-ups are of import to keep the procedure of invention: they employ new engineerings, they use new inputs, new accomplishments and they provide new occupations. New concern formation can be enhanced through policies that sustained thoughts formation, ordinances of rational belongings, Torahs that facilitate the handiness of venture capital and simplification of bureaucratism.

Finally, policies affect the openness of markets. Governments must let houses to come in foreign markets, non merely to react to some demands but to seek sections where companies have competitory advantage. Trade policy must extinguish unjust patterns such as modulating exports and imports or unnaturally divided markets. To make this nonsubjective authoritiess can present policies that abolish barriers, extinguish compensatory duties or curtail foreign investings. All these redresss have to be impermanent to avoid the hazard of going counterproductive, weakening both domestic invention and internationalisation. The openness of market is non merely of import for national houses who want to spread out internationally but besides for foreign companies who want to come in domestic market. Foreign investings are non ever wholly healthy. When foreign houses enter national markets with acquisitions or set uping production installations, domestic competition is non ever stimulated. Restrictions are helpful when an international rival attempt to get a domestic leader, when the other state restrict market entry to foreign companies or it is engaged in unjust trade patterns. Governments must retrieve that foreign investings are non needfully the solution for national competitory jobs.

Institutions for coactions

Institutions for coaction are formal and informal organisations that promote cooperation and coordination and simplify the exchange of information and engineering between companies involved in the industry. Their function is to better the concern environment ; in fact their aims are develop relationships based on trust, promote the constitution of criterions, aid houses in making and sharing common values, attitudes and ends. These organisations can be grouped in two types: general and cluster-specific. The first represents those who have a national function, their activities affect many industries. The 2nd is composed by all the organisations that are related to a specific industry. Include an establishment in one class or another is non easy, because they by and large have pursue both general and bunch aims, as could be the instance of labour brotherhoods or universities.

Table 2. Institutions for coactions, illustrations



University web

Industry associations

Chamber of commercialism


Competitiveness councils

Professional associations

As individual house activities become dearly-won and uneffective, because of market imperfectnesss such as monopolies, imperfect information or dealing costs, groups of persons or companies respond making these sort of establishments. When the authorities fails in assisting its industries, the private sector use these organisations to supply the equal support that companies need to hike productiveness and fight. Even if these organisations are non portion of the diamond theoretical account, they have a cardinal function in impacting every portion of it, authorities included. They affect factor conditions bettering the handiness and the quality of inputs ; they can promote the regulations of the game to heighten fight. Promoting criterions or educating clients they increase the size, the edification and the outlooks of demand side. They have a large impact on related and back uping industries because they work to construct trust and collaborative relationships between different histrions.

There is a difference between the organisations that are created in advanced and developing economic systems. In developing states these establishments have more a function of gap-filling because of the presence of more market imperfectnesss and governmental failures. In advanced states the high presence of extended and frequent market minutess and the constitution of governmental establishments and substructures make these organisations focus on coordination demands and on the necessity to uninterrupted invention of industries.

Government in developing states

Even if all the policies positive for advanced states are suited besides for developing economic systems, they have first to get away to the factor-driven phase. In these states bunchs are based on natural resources, inexpensive labour or on other basic factors that are non utile to prolong advantage in clip, because they are sensitive to interchange rates and factor costs. These factors will non guarantee growing because of the edification of the demand and the autumn of resources in advanced economic systems. Developing economic systems have so to upgrade all faces of the diamond because weak parts will constraint national development. To better the diamond authorities has to assist houses in making advanced factors as instruction, capablenesss or substructure and sophisticate the demand and back uping industries. For illustration, policies that augment the disbursement rate in instruction have no positive relation with development, because it the quality that give the consequence and non the sum of money.

To better the advantage authoritiess have to do many picks. First, they have to make up one’s mind on which sectors and industries they have to concentrate, because holding limited resources they can non make everything. They have to make up one’s mind which 1s could supply some competitory advantage. Second, they have to better the pool of factors, because trusting excessively much on the natural resources available could be excessively hazardous for the development. Third, they have to excite the development of upstream, downstream and related industries. Fourth, they have to better demand ; they have to place industries where there are sophisticated and typical demands ignored by foreign companies in which national companies can turn to go international competitory. An of import determination to do is if they want their economic system to develop around national companies or foreign multinationals. Foreign transnational have evidently the strength to make new occupations, new engineerings and avoid capital hazard but, even if they are a beginning of development, they can non be the exclusive engine because they normally made investings based on factor costs and this is non a symptom of stableness. The growing of national companies is evidently much slower and besides more hazardous but it is necessary to do the state a place state for some industries. Governments in these states tend to utilize free trade zones to pull foreign investings. If it is non structured around bunchs, these policies will avoid economic betterment. Government should promote the formation of autochthonal companies bettering the macroeconomic conditions that make the state “ the topographic point for development ” .

Figure 7. Example of policy countries.


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