The revolution of engineering and the broad usage of computing machines are altering the nature and even the range of teaching method in every field of cognition. In twenty-first century Malaysian schoolroom, computing machines had become an indispensable tool for linguistic communication instruction and besides to heighten certain cognition. Besides that, computing machine is an electronic wonder that has become a lasting umbilical cord that connects the person to the remainder of the universe. Students nowadays rely on engineering for earning information, to remain updated on current societal issues, to keep inter-personal communicating and every bit besides as a method to larn. A similar tendency can be found in the academic universe. Besides that, the recent effusion of pupils and pedagogues in going active members of societal networking sites ( Stutzman, 2006 ; Tufekci, 2008 ) had drew certain attending to the potency of such web resources to promote and further positive relationships among pupils or even to heighten the credibleness of instructors ‘ battle in the coeval of pupil civilization ( Garrison and Kanuka, 2004 ) . Consequently, these technological inventions have helped to emerge a new type of larning environment, which represents a displacement from teacher-centred to a student-centred theory of acquisition.
Meanwhile, computing machine based telecommunications such as the usage of societal networking system, Facebook can stand for a new type of emerging engineering that offer ESL instructors a cost effectual tool in making larning environments that are able to promote purposeful interaction and communicating among scholars ( Susan, 2008 ) . Furthermore, the engagement of pupil in the acquisition procedure and a displacement off from those high structured or even teacher controlled environment may qualify recent pedagogical patterns in linguistic communication instruction. However, this displacement to student-centred acquisition can merely take topographic point via the effectual direction of the complex interplay between pupil wants and personal ‘s characteristic. In add-on, the acquisition activities ought to be computer-assisted and in relation to the pedagogue ‘s pedagogical orientations.
A assortment of sentiments have been put frontward. In fact, the usage of Web 2.0 engineerings ( i.e. web logs, chirrup, podcasts, wikis, societal web sites- Facebook or Twitter, practical universes, picture sharing and exposure sharing ) are so common among people this modernization epoch. They are crafting online lives that seamlessly meld with their off-line universe. Indeed, the cyberspace is playing an of import function in non lone pupils ‘ societal life, but besides academically. Educators are now choosing Web 2.0 tools similar Facebook as a tool for English lesson. They draw upon their ability to help in making, join forcesing on and sharing content in Facebook by utilizing certain characteristics like ‘status update ‘ . At present, small empirical research has been conducted on the value of Web 2.0 tools like Facebook in instruction ( Crook & A ; Harrison, 2008 ) .
So, it is appropriate at this point to reexamine the potency of Facebook in more item and to see the function of Facebook can play in encouraging and doing more available these desirable acquisition experiences. Therefore, I would wish to analyze Facebook from the position of the potency of Social Network Sites, the advantages of using Web 2.0 engineerings, Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) , Second Language Acquicition ( SLA ) , Interaction Hypothesis, Communicative Language Theory and Communication Mediated Communication ( CMC ) .
To this terminal, the literature reappraisal of this chapter will be sub-divided to two subdivisions. The first subdivision will document the theoretical model based on some linguistic communication larning theories mentioned in the old paragraph. The 2nd subdivision will discourse on current research surveies on Facebook as an educational tool.
2.1 Theoretical Model
Relevant hypotheses about the usage of Facebook in linguistic communication acquisition
2.1.1 The potency of Social Network Sites
Harmonizing to Danah M. Byod and Nicole B. Ellison from Michigan State University ( 2007 ) , societal web sites are defined as web based services that enable persons to construct a profile within the delimited system. It is besides to joint a list of other persons with whom they portion a connexion. However, they claim that the nature of these connexions may change in all sites. So as the terminology excessively.
It is undeniable that Facebook is one of the most successful societal networking sites. What make Facebook different from other societal networking system is Facebook allows users to take the applications that they want in order to heighten their profile page. Furthermore, this societal web site besides supports nomadic interaction. There is another interesting characteristic that differentiates Facebook from other societal web sites is the ability for any developers to construct “ Applications ” . These applications allow persons to put up and design a personal profile to execute other undertakings. For case, compare their film penchants and besides to their chart travel histories ( Danah and Nicole, 2007 ) .
Besides that, the fact of Facebook ‘s popularity besides suggests that Facebook is a possible locale to garner everyone. The Facebook environment is so more interesting than schoolroom. Founded at Harvard in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg as a agency for pupils to interact with one another, Facebook has grown enormously to 150 million users on every continent ( including Antarctica ) at the start of 2009 ( Zuckerberg, 2009, P.1 ) . Facebook is highly popular on university and college campuses in the universe broad. One recent study found out that 88.6 % of freshman pupil utilizing Facebook actively, with 90 % of these users logging in at least one time a twenty-four hours ( Brewer, Yu, DiGangi, and Jannasch-Pennell, 2008 ) . So, the potency of Facebook as a societal web site to larn English is so really immense.
Since one of the most current eye-catching technological progresss is societal networking systems, Facebook ‘s environment is so a possible acquisition environment and yet should be examined carefully. As we know, Facebook is an cyberspace sites that allow people to happen each other, portion personal information, portion exposures, and even to interact at any clip or topographic point. The usage of Facebook is really important because it has become an indispensable topographic point for pupils to pass on and interact between each other. Besides directing messages to their friend ‘s message board and posting updates on ‘Status Update ‘ , many pupils are utilizing Facebook to organize group undertakings and activities. Some pupils besides post images, conduct studies via Facebook. The unrecorded confab plan in Facebook provides pupils another option to pass on with their friends. Therefore, Facebook is so a communicating hub for people to maintain in touch with one another. Other than that, they may reach their instructors through Facebook outside the schoolroom excessively.
Despite being a societal networking site for Facebook ‘s users to maintain in touch with their friends or household members, Facebook is an first-class and amazing e-learning platform. Teachers can upload their slides for approaching lessons and even portion some interesting multi-media show by merely tweaking some of the applications or engineerings in the Facebook. With a strong and powerful platform, pedagogues could make some utile applications for Facebook that comes along with better maps or characteristics through the usage of state-of-the-art engineering. For case, they can plan and develop applications that pupils are allowed to confer with their instructors straight. Therefore, it would decidedly increase the efficiency of job resolution.
Meanwhile, there are besides many people who still puzzled on how on-line societal networking site like Facebook can assist to develop the sense of community in the ESL schoolrooms. Some may believe on how Facebook can impact the socio-pragmatic competency ‘s development in ESL scholars. In fact, Facebook can assist linguistic communication scholars to better both facets by detecting and taking portion in ‘Groups ‘ treatment in which the mark linguistic communication is spoken natively. In add-on, we can make a group for that peculiar category to take portion in on-line treatment. Teacher may type a subject on his/her ‘status update ‘ for academic treatment to take topographic point. Not bury to include the dead line every bit good. For illustration, ‘FOR PXET 4313 PARTICIPANTS: Do we pass on to larn a linguistic communication or do we larn a linguistic communication to pass on? Justify your place on the issue. ( Comment until 23 May 2010 ) ‘ . Students are requested to post their remark and instructor will move as a facilitator to steer them and avoid them to run out of path. So, instructor can really measure few things at the same clip. For illustration, linguistic communication facets, adulthood of the thoughts and besides pupil ‘s thought accomplishment. In footings of privateness, this group can be a close group and merely members can see and notice on the contents.
Facebook is considered as one of the Web 2.0 engineerings. So, the following subdivision will discourse on the advantages of utilizing Web 2.0 engineerings in English lesson.
2.1.2 The advantages of using Web 2.0 engineerings
“ Web 2.0 ” , a phrase coined by O’Reilly Media in 2003 ( O’Reilly, 2005 ) . It refers to a sensed 2nd coevals of web-based communicating or interaction. It helps to construct communities excessively. Furthermore, web 2.0 is considered a displacement from a World Wide Web that is “ read merely ” to a Web that is being described as the “ Read Write Web ” ( Gillmor, 2007 ) . Basically, this ‘read, write, web ‘ is unfastened and collaborative. It is non merely a inactive page, yet it is shareable. Furthermore, Web 2.0 forges links between ‘nodes ‘ to construct webs. Web 2.0 dressed ores on the common applications such as web logs, societal networking, picture sharing and even podcasting. It is so a more socially connected web that people can lend every bit much as they can devour ( Anderson, 2007 ) . Since, societal networking system is one of the chief classs in web 2.0 engineerings. Therefore, the usage of Facebook in instruction is considered as utilising Web 2.0 engineerings.
The advantages of utilizing Web 2.0 vary. This engineering can supply pedagogues with many good possibilities for prosecuting their pupils in desirable patterns. For illustration, peer appraisal, collaborative content creative activity and motive of pupils via advanced usage of media. All these can be used in the development of reliable acquisition undertakings and even to heighten the pupils ‘ larning experience ( Duffy, 2008 ) .
Besides that, the new Web 2.0 engineerings and web sites, such as a Twitter, Facebook, Wiki or YouTube provide a new chapter in instruction on larning. They give new supports to acquisition, even as they besides dismantle some of the acquisition supports upon which instruction has depended on so much in the yesteryear ( Duffy,2008 ) . If we had agreed that alterations are happening across the acquisition ecology, new conceptualisations would hold required in utilizing these emerging engineerings. However, the impacts of Web 2.0 on the procedures and patterns of teaching method should be taken in consideration excessively.
In short, Web 2.0 is able to demo pedagogues some switching frames of mention to see in relation to future instruction and acquisition. Students and pedagogues are now holding entree to an omnipresent acquisition environment where it is so convenient and possible for them to seek for, locate, and entree elements of larning rapidly. Hence, It is so possible to utilize Web 2.0 engineering to build and form personalized, alone interactions with an educational context ( Duffy, 2009 ) . This dynamic and independent larning environment may propose that Facebook is really possible in future ESL category. The following subdivision will discourse on CALL.
2.1.3 Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL )
Computer-assisted linguistic communication acquisition is ‘the hunt for and survey of computing machines ‘ applications in linguistic communication instruction and larning ‘ ( Levy, 1997: 1 ) . In fact, if pedagogues were to utilize Facebook as a locale for linguistic communication acquisition, so this type of larning method is known as Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) . CALL is used to mention to the usage of engineering in relation to 2nd linguistic communication instruction and acquisition. CALL is besides a method in which a scholar uses computing machine as a tool to better his or her linguistic communication. Since 1980 ‘s till present, most of us are sing integrative CALL. Nevertheless, if pupils were to larn English through Facebook, this method is known as web based CALL.
Furthermore, there are few grounds which may back up my base for utilizing this web based CALL i.e. Facebook to larn English. First of wholly, this type of acquisition is experiential, actuating and it can heighten pupil ‘s accomplishment. Second, this reliable environment can assist pupils to hold better communicating particularly through on-line treatment board or confab room. Third, it may heighten critical thought as there is no right or incorrect reply when they post a remark on Facebook. In fact, it would non be excessively far-fetched to state that Facebook is a societal web system that can assist pupils to understand an thought globally. They can link to the remainder of the universe merely through a few lights-outs on the keys of the computing machine. It will give them unprecedented entree to colossal sum of information.
However, with the increasing usage of computing machine in linguistic communication acquisition, Chapelle ( 1997 ) remind research workers to turn to critical inquiries that concerned on the information that ESL scholars produce in linguistic communication acquisition activities through computing machine. The other of import issue is the quality of this computing machine assisted linguistic communication larning experience. The following subject will research on how Facebook can be an educational tool to assist ESL scholars in geting 2nd linguistic communication.
2.1.4 Second Language Acquisition
Second linguistic communication acquisition ( SLA ) research emphasizes that the facilitation of literacy development can be done by giving multiple chances for ESL scholars to interact in a context with reliable, linguistically disputing stuffs, which are relevant to the personal and educational ends ( Krashen, 1982 ) . Harmonizing to Swain ‘s end product hypothesis ( 1985 ) , the scholar ‘s end product is of import in advancing acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication. Second linguistic communication scholars need chances for what he calls “ pushed out ” . This is to develop specific grammatical characteristic that does non look to be acquired by larning to grok input merely. Therefore, the usage of computing machines in CMC activities appears to supply this indispensable chance that Swain had described.
Furthermore, Warshauer ( 1999 ) besides stated that teaching method of critical enquiry and job resolution may supply the context for “ reliable and collaborative undertakings and analyses ” ( p.16 ) . All these are supported through the usage of electronic engineerings in which ESL pupils can get lingual, societal and technological competences key to literacy in a digital universe.
Last but non least, harmonizing to 1995, 1997, 2004 and 2009 studies which are published by section of instruction in The United States, “ engineering is an of import enabler for categories organised around complex, reliable undertakings ” and when “ used in support of disputing undertakings, engineering can lend to pupils ‘ sense aˆ¦ they are utilizing existent tools for existent intents ” .These statements indicate that the usage of engineering addition pupils ‘ motive. It besides helps to advance their active battle with English linguistic communication via some reliable and disputing undertakings that are rather interdisciplinary in nature. Hence, this shows that the usage of Facebook might be a tool that is utile to originate learning procedure. Furthermore it is synergistic. The following subdivision will look at Interaction Hypothesis and Computer Mediated Communication.
2.1.5 Interaction Hypothesis and Communication Mediated Communication ( CMC )
The interaction Hypothesis claims that acquisition is promoted when the input which scholars are exposed is made comprehendible through the interaction alterations that arise when the significance is negotiation. By supplying extra possibilities in having input and bring forthing end product in the mark linguistic communication, pass oning through the electronic medium can set up a rich context for linguistic communication development to take topographic point. So, the usage of Facebook is so really possible since most of the pupils love to utilize Facebook.
Computer mediated communicating ( CMC ) provides reliable synchronal and asynchronous communicative channels. It can be in several signifiers, either one-to-one, one-to-many or even many-to-one. For illustration, pupils can utilize to Facebook as a tool to portion their texts or multimedia stuffs among their schoolmates or even general populace. This is a method of communicating excessively. Immediacy can besides be conveyed through computer-mediated communicating excessively. Facebook appears to be an ideal and effectual medium for pass oning immediateness in both verbal formats, including self revelation, nice remarks, and birthday salutations. Meanwhile, gestural formats include personal exposures and ocular gifts such as Hatching Eggs or Flowers. Facebook potentially provides a manner for instructors to construct positive relationships with pupils.
Other than that, Salaberry ( 1996: p.22 ) adds that computing machine mediated communicating to the set of pedagogical issues in relation to research on computing machine assisted acquisition. He states that this tool of larning generates high degrees of interactivity. To sum up Section 2.1, it is therefore of involvement to analyze the potency of Facebook in ESL schoolrooms with regard to the relevant hypotheses and recent penetrations of Second Language Acquisition and Communicative Language Learning attack.
2.2 Related research surveies
Recent surveies on Facebook in ESL schoolroom are fewer. However, there are still some good surveies done in this country, which are critical to see more research workers make the best out of this powerful new tool in learning. A glimpse through literature reveal that Facebook, a signifier of computer-mediated communicating has made its manner into linguistic communication acquisition. Most of the research workers reveal that utilizing Facebook is a signifier of effectual communicative tool in twenty-first century. While this advanced attack to linguistic communication instruction and linguistic communication acquisition still suffers from deficiency of extended theoretical research.
2.2.1 Research on “ Facebook in the Language Classroom: Promises and Possibilities ”
This research was done by Geraldine Blattner and Melissa Fiori from USA and the diary can be found in International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, January 2009, Vol. 6. No.1. Harmonizing to their findings, engineering is so an built-in portion of our day-to-day activities. Windham ( 2005 ) besides reported that many pupils expect the usage of engineering to be portion of Higher Education. Meanwhile, Georgina & A ; Olson ( 2008 ) pointed out that many research recognizes its importance due to this tendency. Hence, since pupils have a positive feeling of pedagogues who implement and integrate hi-tech e-learning tools in schoolrooms pattern ( Imus et al. , 2004 ) , many modules from assorted subjects are discoursing on how to set pedagogical patterns to reflect norms and outlooks of ESL scholars.
Facebook ‘s popularity is incontestable. As Prensky ( 2007 ) stated that the twenty-first century will be characterized by tremendous and exponential technological alteration. So, as an pedagogue, it is of import to take in consideration the advantages of such educational technological tools to heighten linguistic communication instruction. It can assist to abandon our pre-digital inherent aptitude and let go of us from comfort zones excessively. As Prensky ( 2008 ) strongly claimed: “ We must acquire our instructors – hard as it may be in some instances – to halt lecture, and get down leting pupils to larn by themselves ” ( p. 3 ) . As Knobel ( 1998 ) besides province:
“ It is of import to acknowledge that larning webs are much more than mere substructures: they are besides relationships. What makes for a computer-learning web is both the being of hardware and package wired together, and the “ approaching together ” of people in larning relationships mediated by the web as substructure. ”
The acquisition web that is referenced by Knobel has taken in consideration the Social Network Communities ( SNC ) . It is undeniable that Facebook is a immense SNC that had boasted more than 100 million of members.
Geraldine Blattner and Melissa Fiori besides suggest that future attempts should concentrate on different ways to use Facebook and other emerging engineering possibilities. So, this research on researching the potency of Facebook is ESL schoolroom is up-to-date. It shall reexamine the documents on instruction and larning with Facebook excessively.
2.2.2 Research on Teaching and Learning with Facebook
Equally far as the issue is concerned, Facebook is having a batch of attending from university or college decision makers as a really possible enlisting tool, alumni tool, and besides as a manner to assist new and current pupils acclimate to and boom in university and college life ( Eberhardt, 2007 ) . Many Faculty members are paying attending to Facebook excessively. Nonetheless, “ Teaching and Learning with Facebook, ” hosted by Stanford psychologist BJ Fogg besides suggests that many pedagogues are interested in the potency of Facebook in learning and larning. Although the connexion between the usage of Facebook and pupil battle is non yet available in the literature, there is good informations on the usage of engineering and pupil battle. For illustration, from the research by Laird & A ; Kuh ( 2005 ) , they find a really positive nexus between the usage of informational engineering and battle in effectual educational patterns such as academic challenge, active and collaborative acquisition, and battle in effectual educational patterns.
Based on a presentation at the “ 2009 Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education ” conference in Charleston, South Carolina, Caroline Lego Munoz from Fairleigh Dickinson University, The United States and Terri L. Towner from Oakland University, The United States have presented their findings about instruction and larning with Facebook. They province that Facebook ‘s networking and its societal communicating capablenesss can really profit both the pedagogue and the pupils by tapping into assorted of larning manners. Facebook can even supply another option to the traditional talk method. Furthermore, Facebook can assist to make an on-line schoolroom community that increase the interaction between instructor and pupil.
2.2.3 Research on “ Meeting Students where they are: Inviting Facebook into the Classroom ”
Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe ( 2007 ) suggest that Facebook is used in keeping those bing offline relationships or even solidify the offline connections.Although these relationships may merely a weak tie, there is some usual offline elements among persons who friend one another, for illustration a shared category at school.
Facebook offers the potency for changing degrees of self-disclosure based on personal pick. While Petronio ( 2002 ) states that instructors must analyze civilization, motive, single differences, state of affairss and gender when make up one’s minding how much to self-disclose. Mazer, Murphy & A ; Simmonds ( 2007 ) suggest when a teacher self-discloses certain information on Facebook, such as images and messages, pupils perceptual experiences of instructor and pupil similarity addition and they may experience more comfy pass oning with the instructor in and out of the schoolroom. Therefore, when pupils perceive a instructor in trying to further positive relationships with them via the usage of Facebook, it may hold a positive influence on larning results ( Mazer et al. , 2007 ) . However, instructors ‘ self-disclosure on Facebook and their instruction manner in the schoolroom should be consistent. Indeed, the basic constituents of a relationship must be present in a face-to-face context for these relationships to go on virtually through mediated relationships, including Facebook ( Clark, Shu- Yueh & A ; Boyer, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Gass and Selinker ( 2008 ) , advancing a community of scholars is really utile as it frequently brings positive impacts towards affectional acquisition. Furthermore, pupils ‘ motive is a brilliant forecaster of success in English linguistic communication categories. Besides that, this Social Network Community can besides impact critical facets of 2nd linguistic communication development itself.
Last but non least, pulling from the above interactionist SLA research surveies and the assorted recent surveies on, it is obvious that many linguistic communication chances in Facebook. As there is non any old survey on the potency of Facebook in ESL schoolroom done in Malaysia to day of the month, the present research hopes to ticket melody on my proposition on why Facebook should be integrated into Malayan ESL schoolroom.