Globalization can be defined in many ways, depending from which positions it is seen. In my point of position, globalization is a procedure where the universe is shriveling, going borderless and viewed as a sense of planetary integrity and integrity. Globalisation made everything becomes easier and it has led to great alterations in many sectors since hundred old ages ago. However, it has speeded up over the last century due to the presence of progress engineering in communicating and transit. The use of electronic mails and cyberspace are the illustration of globalization where planetary communicating takes topographic point about instantaneous. Harmonizing to Bottery ( 2006 ) , the definition of globalization is the planet is viewed as a whole and the velocity of communicating had ‘shrunk ‘ it over the last few centuries. Many theoreticians and writers by and large explain globalization as a procedure consisting the motion of the universe ‘s people, images, engineerings, finance and thoughts, such as patterns refering provinces and other institutional policies. ( Al-Albri, 2011 ) . Globalisation excessively is said to be marked by speedy, free motion of people, services, capital, goods, thoughts and cognition across boundary lines.
Some people believed globalization is a negative phenomenon which affects the universe in many ways. One of the common jobs that are ever linked to globalization is environmental jobs. To call a few, planetary heating, ozone depletion and instability ecology system are the impact of globalization. Another illustration of destructive globalization impact ; cultural globalization is seen as the cause of losing one ‘s civilization and linguistic communication since everyone is accommodating and rehearsing the dominant civilization, for illustration ‘McDonaldlisation ‘ . Despite the negative consequence of globalization, another group of people agree that globalization give advantages to the universe, where people get more affiliated and informed than of all time before. Bottery ( 2006 ) draws the attending of cultural globalization ; it provides cultural assortment in one location to eat virtually any national dish, attend any spiritual ceremonial, and listen to any sort of music. These assortments, as highlighted by Bottery, offers instruction with different Windowss through which new positions are gained, besides offers entree to different beliefs and attacks to life, and be a existent strength for religious growing.
On top of that, globalization is non entirely emphases on the progress of engineering, globalization includes environmental globalization, cultural, demographic, political, American and economic globalization and it is a uninterrupted procedure whether human being recognised or non. The procedure of globalization affects states, generate policy mediations and have direct impact on educational institutes ( Bottery, 2006 ) . In a clinch, different types of globalization put different tensenesss to the universe. However, the different types of globalization is linked to another and doing a more complicated universe for people to last.
In an progressively globalised universe, instruction is ranked among the chief concern of nation-states as it plays a singular function in determining and fixing kids for the hereafter. In fact, much money is spent on instruction as a public service due to its importance. In past old ages, in order to accomplish the purposes of instruction, nation-states developed their instruction policy in respects to what they saw as of import to their state. However, in recent context, instruction policy is seen in a different position, where it is become internationalised to the laterality of the planetary economic system over the national political relations. Within the wider context of globalisation, instruction is now regarded as an international service, playing a singular mission in the planetary economic system with investing in people, accomplishments and cognition ( Al-Abri, 2011 ) . Bettering planetary fight has been targeted by nation-states ‘ instruction policy, which is believed that altering instruction policy alongside with the planetary context will assist the nation-state to be more economically competitory with other states.
Harmonizing to Mundy ( no day of the month ) , many states have become more competitory by working difficult to heighten the productiveness of the domestic labor force which can be accomplished by presenting new educational policies, plans and reforms that prepare kids to vie in the planetary labor force ( Al-Abri, 2011 ) . Despite profiting the instruction, the competiveness among these states heightening the production of new instruction constabularies with full of value. In fact, Al-Abri besides states in his article that many surveies have confirmed that there have been new instruction policies that introduce transmutations in course of study, teaching method and rating, seeking to heighten fight among nation-states. Examples of these reforms are engagement in international comparings of trial public presentation, national course of study and productive teaching methods.
1.3 Effect of globalization on instruction policy in Malaysia
The procedure of globalisation has profoundly shifted and changed the ways in which instruction policies are developed, implemented and evaluated. It is certain that globalization leads to a better instruction policy as they realised the importance of giving proper instruction to bring forth skilled worker which will assist to increase the economic province of a state and to vie with other states. For illustration, recent determination in India provinces that Indian Education System has increased fourteen-fold in footings of the figure of universities and 30 three-fold in footings of the figure of colleges, in comparing to the figure at the clip of Independence ( Kumar Singh, 2010 ) .
As a underdeveloped state, Malaysia excessively undergoes alterations in instruction policy to run into the demand of this globalised universe. The instruction policy in Malaysia has experiences assorted series of transmutation, started from the colonization epoch up until today. The ground for alterations is chiefly to suit in the planetary context and to higher the criterion of the land. Traditionally, instruction in Malaysia, once known as Tanah Melayu started as a private enterprise which is chiefly concerned in bring forthing adult male with agencies of cognition and accomplishments for his wellbeing and for his redemption in the afterlife. The instruction system in Tanah Melayu so changed after the British colonization, as the British demands skilled people to work for them in order to work the economic system in Tanah Melayu. They instituted an instruction system in all of the settlements with the intent of assisting the indigens to keep traditional life and to forestall societal unrest through restricted instruction ( Hooker, 2003, cited in Tableman, 2007 ) . In fact, harmonizing to Hashim ( 1996, cited in Tableman, 2007 ) , the British limited instruction to “ making better fishermen and husbandmans, because the British worried that an ‘over-educated ‘ population might arise against colonial regulation. This is the get downing point of revolution in instruction policy in Malaysia, where economic sector is the biggest influence to the revolution. Education is an of import facet in back uping the substructure of a state, therefore holding a reliable instruction system is important to the success of developing states in a planetary economic system ( Tableman, 2007 ) .
Much said globalisation is synonymous with the gap of national boundary lines to the international flow of goods, services, natural stuffs and resources, information and engineering, and human resources. Harmonizing to World Bank ( 1994, as citation in Green, 2002 ) , in the last three decennaries, East Asia has been reported to see a period of economic development which has been described as ‘unprecedented ‘ and ‘miraculous ‘ . Economic growing and educational enlargement is closely related, and these two facets are besides linked to province formation and developmental province. It is supported by Green ( 2002 ) ; the happenstance in East Asia states of economic progress with educational enlargement clearly suggests a close relationship between the two. For illustration, it has been reported that in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, the economic development grew eight per cent a twelvemonth, which is manner faster than other part on the universe ( Green, 2002 ) . By and large, the registration rates in secondary school were below 50 per cent in each state in the early 60 ‘s, nevertheless, these four states have undergone tremendous enlargement in instruction, where each of the states had rather high degrees of basic instruction. In fact, Taiwan and South Korea now have among the highest rates of upper secondary completion in the universe, and a big proportion of those who complete travel on to higher instruction ( Green, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to David and Govindasamy, ( 2005, citation in Canagarajah, 2009 ) , due to economic recession in 1997 in Malaysia, the Malayan authorities took a few drastic actions to reform the economic system states. The demands for more alumnuss and k-workers who could talk English good and who are able to work in transnational companies were listed as of import schemes. Gaining English is a dominant linguistic communication, the authorities decided to increase the competence of utilizing English among the pupils by implementing the use of English linguistic communication to learn Mathematicss and Science. The policy started in the beginning of 2003. Adding to that, the higher instruction establishment requires the pupils to hold at least a recognition in English in the national school scrutiny, before they are accepted to analyze at public universities. In fact, the Malaysian Prime Minister at that clip revealed that 94 % of unemployed graduated in the state are Malayans and they are unable to secure occupations because industrial occupations called for a high English linguistic communication competence ( David and Govindasamy, 2005, citation in Canagarajah, 2009 ) . Indeed, with the promotion of engineering used in the schoolrooms, the manner pupils learn English in Malaysia may be different as it was before ( Hussin, 2008 ) . However, there is complicated issue sing the use of English linguistic communication to learn Math and Science, and the policy is reverted to utilizing Malay and English to learn both topics. Despite the issue, it is singular that English linguistic communication as an of import linguistic communication for people to get the hang, as English is the dominant linguistic communication in trading trade good.
As a underdeveloped state, Malaysia needs to emphasis on the facet of womb-to-tomb acquisition, which is important to run into the divergences in the demand for more cognition workers, particularly in bring forthing skilled workers. In the country of higher instruction, universities have become factors of the competitory advantage of states ( Porter, 1998 ) . Higher instruction plays a critical function in obtaining and prolonging competitory advantage in assorted industries where it is the chief venue that pushes economic systems frontward, besides the function of educating and bring forthing the endowment or human capital. Besides that, due to the same fact to hike universe economic systems, universities have become more self-consciously planetary, particularly universities of the advanced states. The universities peculiarly looking for pupils from different parts of the universe, with different civilizations and values to let new assimilation and at the same clip, local pupils are sent abroad in exchange programme to fix them for planetary callings in the hereafter. Some of the universities besides offering classs of survey that address the challenges of an interrelated universe and collaborative research plans to progress scientific discipline for the benefit of all world. For illustration, many subdivisions of abroad universities are unfastened in Malaysia, such as Monash University and University of Nottingham. The exchange programme besides being held with the abroad universities, which offers the chance of new information and engineering transportation. As a effect, the forces of determining higher instruction cause the motion of people across the boundary line where pupils travel from one developed province to another and from developing or less-developed to the developed states in order to hold a good instruction.
The preamble to the Malayan Education Act 1996 provinces that instruction plays a critical function in accomplishing the state ‘s vision, which is accomplishing the position of developed state alternatively of developing state, in footings of economic development, ethical strength and societal justness ( McGurnie and Ziguras, 2001 ) . In order to accomplish the position, Malaysia has worked difficult to hike economic system, particularly in transforming the instruction degree to a better criterion. The economic globalization has affected Malaysian higher instruction policy where in 1995 ; the Malayan authorities promotes the growing of private universities and bucked up private sector investing in higher instruction. However, the private sector including foreign suppliers is purely regulated. Malaysia alternatively authorized to keep governmental control over the developing private higher instruction sector in order to run into what the authorities sees as the cultural and economic demands of the state ( National Economic Advisory Council, 2009 ) . Economic globalization causes instruction to be a trade good to neo-liberal economic sciences. Harmonizing to Ward and Eden ( 2009 ) , neo-liberal economic sciences suggests to presenting the sort of competition which makes private concern successful in instruction sector. They want a free-market in instruction, where instruction is bought and sold ; schools are the suppliers and parents and kids the consumers or clients.
In the 90s, non merely private universities and colleges are liberalised, many private schools and international schools are besides built as a consequence to globalization. The policy of private of holding regulated private suppliers in instruction has changed and foreign investors are now allowed to keep up to 49 % of the portions in any private educational company ( See Hoon, 2011 ) . Branch campuses of foreign universities are permitted, in fact attracted many of those private universities to put up in Malaysia. It is reported by 2000, there were 11 public higher educational establishments, 7 private universities, 3 foreign university subdivision campuses, and more than 400 private colleges approved by the Malayan authorities to be unfastened in Malaysia ( Challenger Concept, 2000 ) . Private establishment offers wider pick of programmes to the pupils, for illustration offering their ain sheepskin, foreign-linked grade plans and some of the programmes require the pupils to finish one or two old ages of their surveies either in abroad or completed wholly in Malaysia. Some of these private colleges such as Monash College, are foreign-owned.
Liberalization, globalisation and denationalization of instruction good for Malaysians is questioned on its positive impact to the people, particularly the hapless. In common state of affairs, it is clear that the hapless can non afford to travel to private school which requires high fees. For illustration, one of the private secondary schools in Malaysia, known as Saad Foundation College, required about RM 41 000 ( equivalent to 8200 GBP ) per twelvemonth for non-refundable fees. It is said that private school serves better topographic point to educate the pupils, for illustration supplying less figure of pupils in categories, better interaction between instructor and pupils, and first-class extra-curricular activities. Although private school is good for pupils ‘ lifelong acquisition, it is a disadvantage to the hapless, where they have no opportunity to hold the same sort of instruction and is ever missing. Tooley ( no day of the month, citation in See Hoon, 2011 ) claims in his study ‘Could Globalization of Education Benefit the Poor? ‘ ; that there are private schools available to and supported by the hapless in developing states, which offering hapless parents and kids a better trade, than the national schools. The grounds why people opt to private school irrespective the rich or the hapless, is because private school is said to give a better instruction to the kids. The perceptual experience of society towards private schools is that the instructors in the private schools show a much greater committedness to learning than in the authorities schools. These considerations advocate that private instruction is truly good for all pupils, including the hapless and however, private instruction is turning into concern where investors viing to enroll pupils. In peculiar state of affairss, establishments are passing important part of budget on selling and inscribing pupils instead than educating them. The instruction sector is swept up in planetary marketization and is an advantage to a nation-state, advancing money flows and develops the economic system of the state ( Margison and Wende, 2007 ) .
Globalization is besides impacting methods of educational bringing and support. Traditional schoolroom bringing is now enhanced with electronic larning support. Online classs, practical schoolrooms and Web-based tutorials are some bringing methodological analysiss for distance instruction across boundary lines as a consequence of globalisation. In fact, utilizing ICT in instruction is a current ‘trend ‘ as ICT has changed the manner concerns and industries are conducted, it is besides influenced the manner people work, interact and map in society ( UNESCO, 2002 ) . ICT can be found everyplace, and it is common at place, at work, and in educational establishments and the usage of it increased exponentially ( McGorry, 2002 ) . Explosion of cognition and information in the epoch of information engineering has somehow helped the globalisation of instruction. The debut of computing machines and cyberspace and other technology-mediated acquisition through the usage of VCD, CD-Rom, Email, database, web page, and digital library have helped in the airing of information and cognition to 1000000s around the universe. Due to this fact, Malaysia is seeking to incorporate the usage of ICT in instruction, besides seeking to follow the planetary tendency as other states have long developed the policy of ICT in instruction. The development of the ‘Policy on ICT in Education ‘ in Malaysia is underlying of four major pillars ; human capital, budget, digital learning resources and substructure ( Policy on ICT in Education, 2010 ) .
Globalisation has invented more progress engineering which greatly benefits the instruction sector, from the ministry to the pupils. One of the illustrations the execution of ICT in Malayan Education policy is the launching of Smart school. The aim of the establishing smart school is to hold a learning establishment that has been reinvented in footings of instruction and larning methods and school disposal system in order to fix the pupils for the Information-Based Society ( Policy on ICT in Education, 2010 ) . Through the execution of the usage of engineering, creativeness and better direction of information is facilitated where pupils, instructors, decision makers and parents are better prepared for the challenges of the ‘information age ‘ . In fact, these besides allow the immature to acquire familiar with the ICT universe at a much earlier phase in life by utilizing tools such as personal computing machines, scanners, pressmans, and multimedia merchandises. Besides doing the pupils going more engineering understanding, smart school offers more interesting and enriching larning environment and they get to appreciate the power of engineering in their instruction and life.
The launching of Smart School is non merely approximately ‘physical engineering ‘ or ICT intermediation in instruction and acquisition, it is besides reforming the instruction policy into a better one. Many facets are rearranged, for illustration the national course of study and teaching method are given the highest importance, with the function of instructors, decision makers, parents and the community enhanced. As for pupils separately, creativeness and enterprise are prioritised. Integrating the use of ICT in instruction, for illustration, the handiness of ICT equipment including computing machine sets and computing machine technicians is so helps the instruction and acquisition procedures easier, more merriment and effectual, every bit good as doing communicating more efficient. As a underdeveloped state, utilizing engineering in instruction is still missing and within the test period, these installations are utilized in the procedure of instruction and larning specifically for Malay Language, English Language, Science and Mathematics at the initial introductory phases of Smart Schools and from at that place on implemented in phases for other topics ( Shaharuddin and Abidin, 2009 ) .
Despites the advantages, the job with the smart school execution in Malaysia is with the budget. To transform all the schools in Malaysia to ache school clearly requires much outgos and a big budget. Government need to pass a batch of money to for electronic installations and new book, besides regular care of the installations. The investing of the authorities on this policy is hazardous, as there is ever a spread between the coveted and existent degree of effectivity of incorporating ICT in instruction. In fact, there is still misunderstanding of smart schools, where it merely focuses on holding computing machine lab and broadband connexion, without developing the course of study to fit the pupils towards k-economy competence. As elaborated in the Smart Schools design, smart school involves making an enrichingA course of study which will heighten critical thought accomplishments ; aA pedagogyA that seeks to do larning more interesting, motivation, stimulating, and meaningful ; a holisticA assessmentA system and teaching-learning materialsA which will suit pupils ‘ differing demands and abilities.
Globalization makes instruction easier to entree and scholars can larn through online and acquiring information from all over the universe. The traditional manner of learning where instructor and books are the chief resource, is deviated presents. The innovation of scientific and advanced manner of acquisition has modern adult male to acquire entree to knowledge and information fast and efficient. The progress of engineering promotes independent scholar and it gives more chances for pupils to research their ain involvement despite restricted to the course of study provided. However, the downside of utilizing engineering in instruction is it cut downing the interaction with the community or other people. Peoples tend to concentrate more or the stuff additions, as cited Mohd Abbas ( 2002 ) , modern adult male is alienated from himself, from his fellow work forces, and from nature. He has been transformed into a trade good, experiences his life forces as an investing which must convey him the maximal net income gettable under bing market conditions. Nevertheless, in this globalization epoch, such state of affairs is inevitable.
In analyzing the consequence of globalization, researches agree that it has both good and bad effects on instruction policy, particularly in developing state like Malaysia. Globalisation should non be isolated from instruction, as it helps the state in bring forthing good skilled workers and hike state ‘s economic system. Government plays the biggest function in educating the people and it is of import for the authorities to supervise and put on instruction, guaranting that instruction is available for all people. With the progress of engineering, people are holding better larning experience, with the easy entree on extra information, despite of what they have learnt in conventional schoolroom. Although some people thinks globalization is endangered a state, one should believe it is a healthy tendency in functioning a better topographic point for world, where we can copy and followed the good things, and take the negative effects of globalization as challenges.