Sufian ( 2007 ) performed a similar survey to supply new grounds on the comparative efficiency between Islamic banking operation and local banking operation in Malaysia during the period of 2001-2004. Non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis ( DEA ) methodological analysis had been utilized to separate between three different types of efficiency, proficient, pure proficient and scale efficiencies. The survey used intermediation attack to stipulate input-output variables of Islamic Bankss. A sequence of parametric and non-parametric trials were executed to measure whether the local and abroad Bankss were strained from the similar population, as most of the most of the consequences could non decline the void hypothesis at 5 % degree of significance. Finally, Spearman Rho Rank-Order and the Parametric Pearson correlativity coefficients were employed to analyze the association between the competencies tonss derived from the DEA consequences with the traditional accounting ratios. Several consequences were drawn from the survey. The consequences from the DEA showed that efficiency of Malayan Islamic Bankss recovered somewhat in old ages 2003 and 2004 after worsening in twelvemonth 2002. The domestic Islamic Bankss were found marginally more efficient than foreign Muslim Bankss. The survey examines that operating at the erroneous graduated table of operations had been the chief ground for the Malayan Islamic Bankss inefficiency. The administration of graduated table in influential the proficient efficiency of Malayan Islamic Bankss was farther confirmed from the consequences of the correlativity coefficients. The consequences studied and besides indicated that profitableness was significantly and strong positively correlated to all efficiency steps.

Mauro ( 1995 ) studied different states pattern that like Pakistan, Iran and Egypt and found that graft and practical incompetency in the information that created the unproductive economic systems and instead high degrees of upward economic systems besides did non merely Muslim 1s.

In these states, many enterprisers ‘ second-hand financess from their houses for ain use of tip or extravagant, pessimistic return investing. In these scenario bureau issues raised which created hurdle in funding of Bankss.

Bolton and Scharfstein ( 1990 ) and Hart and Moore ( 1998 ) theoretical account arose the issue of bureau deadlock with the incapableness of contractual. In the tribunal jurisprudence the premise of hard currency flow was non consider verifiable the net income of enterpriser ‘s. Bolton and Scharfstein ( 1990 ) , Hart and Moore ( 1998 ) utilized the theoretical account and created the regulation for net income sharing on the footing of their hard currency flows.

Miller and Noulas ( 1996 ) examined the efficiency of big US Bankss and found overall proficient efficiency ( TE ) of around 97 per cent. However, the bulk of Bankss were found to be excessively big and sing diminishing returns to scale. A 2nd phase arrested development analysis showed that pure TE was positively related to bank size and bank profitableness.

Alirezaee et Al. ( 1998 ) utilized information from 1,282 bank subdivisions in Canada to carry on numerical research associating to DEA consequences to try size and found that the mean subdivision competency mark different reciprocally with the figure of subdivisions in the sample and straight with the entire figure of inputs and end products and besides concerned that utilizing relatively trial sizes in a theoretical account with as a little figure of as three inputs and three end products may perchance direct to a extended rise prejudice in competency tonss.

Seiford and Zhu ( 1999 ) examined the public presentation of the top 55 US Bankss utilizing a two-stage DEA attack and consequences indicated that comparatively big Bankss exhibit better public presentation on profitableness, whereas smaller Bankss tend to execute better with regard to marketability.

Cook and Hababou ( 2001 ) examined that both the gross revenues and service efficiencies of bank subdivisions and extended the standard linear DEA mold attack utilizing end programming to deduce optimum efficiency tonss while accounting for shared subdivision resource inputs.

Drake and Howcroft ( 2002 ) reviewed and found that the comparative efficiency of UK uncluttering bank subdivisions utilizing DEA method. This research utilized the basic efficiency indices and extensive the analysis by analyzing the relationship between size and efficiency.

Yildirim ( 2002 ) assessed in 1988 the efficiency of Turkish commercial Bankss and 1999 utilizing DEA method. Consequences suggested that over the sample period both pure proficient and scale efficiency measured showed a great fluctuation and the sector did non accomplish sustained efficiency additions.

Using a bootstrapping DEA technique, Casu and Molyneux ( 2003 ) further investigated efficiency across European banking systems and suggest consequence that there had been a little betterment in bank efficiency degrees since the execution of the EU ‘s Single Market Program.

Krishnasamy ( 2003 ) used both Malmquist entire factor productiveness index ( MPI ) and DEA to measure bank efficiency and productiveness alterations in Malaya over the period 2000-2001. The consequences from the analysis indicated that entire MPI increased in all the prohibitions studied. The development of productiveness in these Bankss was attributed to technological alteration instead than TE alteration.

Lo and Lu ( 2006 ) studied engaged a two-stage DEA attack including profitableness and marketability to research the efficiency of fiscal keeping companies ( FHCs ) in Taiwan. Factor-specific traffics and BCC ( Banker-Charnes-Cooper ) theoretical account were united together to acknowledge the inputs/outputs that were most important and to distinguish those FHCs which can be treated as yardstick. Consequences showed that big-sized FHCs were normally more competent than small-sized 1s.

Wu et Al. ( 2006 ) integrated DEA and nervous webs ( NNs ) to analyze the comparative subdivision efficiency of a big Canadian bank and found that the predicted efficiency utilizing the DEA-NN theoretical account has good correlativity with that calculated by DEA, which indicated that the predicted efficiency utilizing the DEA-NN attack was a good placeholder to classical DEA attack.

From this brief reviewed and found that although legion surveies had attempted to measure Bankss efficiency in the West and other parts of the universe, really few surveies had focused on mensurating efficiency in the Arab universe. The deficiency of empirical research in this country confirmed Atiyya ‘s ( 1992 ) found refering the deficiency of empirical research into Arab direction patterns in general. In this probe make full this research spread by through empirical observation measuring Bankss efficiency in the Arab universe.

Scitovsky ( 1954 ) suggested that export produces positive outwardness whose favourable impact was peculiarly important in economic development. Kessing ( 1967 ) , Bhagwati ( 1978 ) , and Krueger ( 1978 ) argued that openness exposes states to the most advanced new thoughts and a method of production dictated by international competitory behaviour and therefore enhances efficiency. Through openness, states manage to get the better of the little size restraint of their domestic markets and harvest in the procedure, with the cost advantage of increasing return to graduated table.

## Chapter 3

## THEORTICAL AND HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION

## 3.1 Theoretical Hypothesis

Samad ( 2004 ) , in the station Gulf War period, i.e. 1991-2001, research observed and compared the public presentation of Bahrain ‘s involvement free Islamic Bankss and the involvement based conventional commercial Bankss. Harmonizing to the research there were non much difference between profitableness public presentation of Islamic Bankss and conventional Bankss of Bahrain.

Kader and Asarpota ( 2007 ) assessed the public presentation of UAE Islamic Bankss utilizing the bank degree informations. To roll up the information for the survey, balance sheets and income statements of 3 Muslim Bankss and 5 conventional Bankss were used during the period 2000-2004. The result of the survey shows that Islamic Bankss of UAE are relatively more profitable than conventional Bankss of UAE.

Samad ( 1999 ) and Hassan ( 1999 ) studied besides disclosed that conventional Bankss compared Bank Islamic Malaysia Berhad was non as hazardous and besides more solvent. These consequences besides match with the hazard return profile, i.e. Bank Islamic Malaysia Berhad was comparatively less profitable and less hazardous.

Rosly and Baker ( 2003 ) In Malaysia studied the profitableness of public presentation of Islamic banking strategies ( IBS ) Bankss in comparing with conventional Bankss of Malaysia and inspected that public presentation of IBS Bankss were better, tantamount to or lowers than the public presentation of the conventional Bankss.

As per above statements therefore develop the hypothesis.

## 3.2 Hypothesis Formulation

Holmium: Islamic and conventional Bankss have no similarity in profitableness.

## 3.3 Key Variables

As per available literature following factors have been identified that affect profitableness of the two Bankss: Return on assets ( ROA ) , Return on Equity ( ROE ) , and Profit Expense Ratio ( PER ) .

## Tax return on Assetss ( ROA )

Tax return on assets indicates the profitableness on the assets of the house after all disbursals and revenue enhancements Van Horne ( 2005 ) and common step of managerial public presentation Ross et Al. ( 2005 ) measured how much the house had gaining after revenue enhancement for each dollar invested in the assets of the house. This measures net net incomes per unit of a given plus, furthermore, how bank can change over their assets into net incomes Samad and Hassan ( 2000 ) . Generally, a higher ratio means better managerial public presentation and efficient use of the assets of the house and lower ratio was the index of inefficient usage of assets. ROA can be increased by houses either by increasing net income borders or plus turnover but can non make through at the same time because of competition and tradeoff between turnover and border.

## Tax return on Equity ( ROE )

Tax return on equity indicated the profitableness to stockholders of the house after all disbursals and revenue enhancements Van Horne ( 2005 ) and measured how much the house was gaining after revenue enhancement for each dollar invested in the house. In other words, ROE was net net incomes per dollar equity capital by Samad and Hassan ( 2000 ) . It was besides indicator Ross ( 1994 ) , Sabi ( 1996 ) , Hassan ( 1999 ) , and Samad ( 1998 ) of mensurating managerial efficiency. By and big, higher ROE means better managerial public presentation ; nevertheless, a higher return on equity may be due to debt ( fiscal purchase ) or higher return on assets. Fiscal purchase created an of import difference between ROA and ROE in that fiscal purchase ever magnifies ROE. This would ever be the instance every bit long as the ROA ( gross ) was greater the involvement rate on debt Ross et Al ( 2005 ) . Normally, there was higher ROE for high growing companies.

## Net income to Expenses Ratio ( PER )

This measured the operating profitableness of the bank with respects to the entire operating disbursals. In our survey, runing net income was defined as net incomes before revenue enhancements and operating disbursals means entire non-interest disbursals. The ratio measured the sum of operating net income earned for each dollar of operating disbursal. The ratio indicated to what extent bank was efficient in commanding their operating disbursals. A higher PER meant bank was doing higher net incomes and cost efficient by Samad and Hassan ( 2000 ) .

## Chapter 4

## RESEARCH METHODS

## 4.1 Sampling Design

This survey is conducted on secondary informations and collected 8 old ages informations of 21 conventional Bankss public presentation of each twelvemonth 2001-2008 except 6 conventional Bankss because these Bankss informations are less than eight old ages and collected 6 full fledge Islamic Bankss data from different public presentation old ages which are as under.

Meezan Bank 1999-2009

Al-Barak, EGIBL, DIB and Dawood 2006-2008

Bank Islami 2004-2008

Furthermore, 12 conventional Bankss have under Islamic banking collected informations from different old ages because these conventional Bankss started their Muslim banking on different old ages which are as below:

Standard Chartered Bank, National Bank of Pakistan ( NBP ) , Askari Bank, Bank Al Habib, Habib Metropolitan Bank, and Royal Bank of Scotland and United Bank Limited ( UBL ) collected informations from old ages of 2007-2009. While Habib Bank, Muslim Commercial Bank, and Soneri Bank from 2008-2009, Bank of Allfah informations 2007-2008 and merely Faysal Bank information 2009 twelvemonth.

## 4.2 Method of Data Collection

Following Beginnings for Data aggregations which are mentioned below:

## Bank ‘s Web sites

Bank ‘s web site for collect their fiscal statements for fiscal informations which used in this research work.

## Pakistan Banks ‘ Association

Pakistan Bankss ‘ association website roll uping the fiscal statements of members Bankss which utilized in this work.

## State Bank of Pakistan

State Bank of Pakistan web site and personal visit for collect the information about entire assets, runing disbursal, net income before revenue enhancement, and net income after revenue enhancement and portion holder equity to cipher the profitableness of banking sector

## 4.3 Methodology

To measure the public presentation of Islamic and conventional Bankss in the Pakistan since Independent t-test is used to compare of two agencies and public presentation of the banking. Using accounting ratios to mensurate public presentation, fiscal ratios have been used rather normally and extensively in the literature. For illustration, bank regulators use fiscal ratios to measure bank ‘s public presentation E.g. ( Samad ( 1999 ) , Samad and Hassan ( 2000 ) , Meister and Elyasiani ( 1988 ) , Spindler ( 1991 ) , Akkas ( 1994 ) , Sabi ( 1996 ) , Ali and Rami ( 2006 ) gave employed ratios for measuring a bank ‘s public presentation. The most of import benefit was that it compensates bank disparities. Banking houses were non equal with regard to sizes. The usage of ratio removes the disparities in sizes and brings them at par.

## 4.4 Statistical Technique

The statistical techniques of T-test were used to research the comparing of profitableness of Islamic Bankss and conventional Bankss.

## Chapter 5

## Consequence

This chapter dwelling of 2 tabular arraies, Table 5.1 represents the group statistics of conventional Bankss and Islamic Bankss, Table 5.2 describes independent sample trial, and Table 5.3 hypothesis appraisal sum-up

## 5.1 Interpretation of Group Statistics

## Table 5.1: Group Statistics

## Group Statisticss

Islamic Vs Conventional

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Tax return on Asset Before Tax

Islamic Banking

55

.010094

.0408207

.0055043

Conventional Banking

167

.016896

.0238656

.0018468

Tax return on Asset After Tax

Islamic Banking

25

.008034

.0283759

.0056752

Conventional Banking

167

.011562

.0172583

.0013355

Tax return on Equity Before Tax

Islamic Banking

38

-2.1402

1.09788

.17810

Conventional Banking

153

-1.3899

1.01827

.08232

Tax return on Equity After Tax

Islamic Banking

15

-2.6619

1.08335

.27972

Conventional Banking

152

-1.7368

.89974

.07298

Monetary value to Expense Ratio Before Tax

Islamic Banking

55

.550955

2.8981245

.3907830

Conventional Banking

167

.965471

2.4642851

.1906921

Monetary value to Expense Ratio After Tax

Islamic Banking

25

.464958

1.5104095

.3020819

Conventional Banking

167

.681080

1.8476879

.1429784

The end product from the t-test by looking at the tabular array above indicates the average values on the variable for the two different groups and use the log on ROE. Here see that return on plus before revenue enhancement 55 sample of Islamic banking have an norm of.0109 while 167 sample of conventional have an norm of.0169 while return on plus after revenue enhancement 25 sample of Islamic banking have an norm of.008 while 167 sample of conventional have mean.0115.

Second, return on equity before revenue enhancement 38 sample of Islamic banking have an norm of -2.1402 while 153 sample of conventional have an norm of -1.3899 while return on plus after revenue enhancement 15 sample of Islamic banking have an norm of -2.6619 while 152 sample of conventional have mean -1.7368.

Finally, monetary value to write off before revenue enhancement 55 sample of Islamic banking have mean of.5509 while 167 sample of conventional have an norm of.9654 while monetary value to write off ratio after revenue enhancement 25 sample of Islamic banking have an norm of.4649 while 167 sample of conventional have a average.6810.

## 5.2 INTERPRETATION OF INDEPENDENT SAMPLE TEST

## Independent Samples Test: Table 5.2

## Independent Samples Test

Levene ‘s Test for Equality of Discrepancies

t-test for Equality of Means

95 % Confidence Interval of the Difference

F

Sig.

T

df

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

Average Difference

Std. Error Difference

Lower

Upper

Tax return on Asset Before Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

12.191

.001

-1.511

220

.132

-.0068026

.0045026

-.0156763

.0020710

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-1.172

66.568

.245

-.0068026

.0058058

-.0183925

.0047872

Tax return on Asset After Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

4.987

.027

-.865

190

.388

-.0035282

.0040798

-.0115757

.0045193

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-.605

26.720

.550

-.0035282

.0058302

-.0154966

.0084402

Tax return on Equity Before Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

.747

.388

-4.002

189

.000

-.75031

.18747

-1.12012

-.38050

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-3.824

53.900

.000

-.75031

.19621

-1.14369

-.35692

Tax return on Equity After Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

1.403

.238

-3.729

165

.000

-.92512

.24811

-1.41500

-.43525

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-3.200

15.964

.006

-.92512

.28908

-1.53807

-.31218

Monetary value to Expense Ratio Before Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

2.435

.120

-1.034

220

.302

-.4145158

.4007218

-1.2042606

.3752290

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-.953

81.280

.343

-.4145158

.4348274

-1.2796408

.4506092

Monetary value to Expense Ratio After Tax

Equal discrepancies assumed

.033

.856

-.557

190

.578

-.2161215

.3878421

-.9811510

.5489079

Equal discrepancies non assumed

-.647

35.699

.522

-.2161215

.3342100

-.8941296

.4618865

Table 6.2 displays the consequences of the independent sample trial that SPSS conducts to t-test whether or non the difference between the two sample agencies is significantly different from nothing ( void hypothesis the groups Bankss have non similar in profitableness ) .

The assurance interval of 95 % of the difference provides an estimation of the boundaries of the difference between which the mean difference lies in 95 % of all possible random samples of 21 conventional Bankss, 6 full fledge Bankss and 12 conventional Bankss have under Islamic banking.

## Tax return on Asset before Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.01 which is less than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is non equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is 0.245 which greater than at 5 % or 0.05 significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss return on plus before revenue enhancement is same.

Samad ( 2004 ) applied the t-test and predicted that there was no important difference of return on assets before revenue enhancement ( ROA ) between conventional and Muslim Bankss in Bahrain.

## Tax return on Asset after Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.027 which is less than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is non equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is 0.55 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss Return on Asset after Tax is same.

Samad ( 2004 ) predicted the there was no important difference of return on assets after revenue enhancement ( ROA ) between conventional and Muslim Bankss in Bahrain.

## Tax return on Equity before Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.163 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is.004 which is less than at 5 % or 0.05 significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss Return on Equity before Tax is non same.

Abdus Samad ( 2004 ) predicted the there was no important difference of return on assets after revenue enhancement ( ROE ) between conventional and Muslim Bankss in Bahrain.

## Tax return on Equity after Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.388 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is.000 which is less equal to 5 % or 0.05 significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss Return on Equity After Tax is non same.

## Net income Expense Ratio before Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.238 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is 0.006 which is less than at 5 % or 0.05 significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss Profit Expense Ratio Before Tax is non same.

## Net income Expense Ratio after Tax Consequence

The significance value of Levene ‘s trial for equality of discrepancy F value is 0.856 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 that is significance degree. Therefore discrepancy of Islamic bank is equal to discrepancy of conventional Bankss. In the subdivision of “ Equal discrepancies non assumed ” , t-value is 0.522 which is greater than at 5 % or 0.05 significance degree, hence both Islamic and conventional Bankss Profit Expense Ratio After Tax is same.

Overall consequence showed that Islamic and conventional Bankss have difference therefore, accept our void hypothesis with a position that both Islamic and conventional Bankss have non similar in profitableness.

## Table 5.3 Hypothesis Assessment Summary

## Hypothesis

## F

## Sig.

## T

## df

## Sig. ( 2-tailed )

## Empirical Decision

H1: Islamic and conventional Bankss have no similarity in profitableness

12.191

.001

-1.511

220

.132

-1.172

66.568

.245

Accept

4.987

.027

-.865

190

.388

-.605

26.720

.550

Accept

.747

.388

-4.002

189

.000

-3.824

53.900

.000

Cull

1.403

.238

-3.729

165

.000

-3.200

15.964

.006

Cull

2.435

.120

-1.034

220

.302

-.953

81.280

.343

Accept

.033

.856

-.557

190

.578

-.647

35.699

.522

Accept

## Chapter 6

## IMPLICATIONS, FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION

## 6.1 Deductions

The survey examined that Islamic banking is playing cardinal function in funding and advancing the different economic and societal sector activities with the doctrine of Islamic Shariah in Islamic banking patterns.On the other manus conventional Bankss are backed by longer and dynamic history, alone place and besides promote the societal and economical activities in Pakistan so in this manner competition arises between Islamic and conventional banking to advance the societal and economical activities within Pakistan. Therefore, conventional Bankss are get downing Islamic banking to advance the banking industry It is predicted that the competition will originate to widen in the approaching clip where both the Bankss will competition will be caput.

The survey provides insight about the public presentation in footings of profitableness Islamic banking in comparing to conventional banking in the state so the consequences indicated that Islamic Bankss profitableness are non equal to conventional Bankss because Islamic banking construct itself is new in the economic system as compared to the conventional banking. So there is still a border for the Islamic banking to turn and spread out consequently in the different sectors depending upon their alone services offering and enhanced services in the field of banking.

On the brighter side the banking industry is still moneymaking and can pull different Numberss of Bankss irrespective of the convention they use. So due to the emerging tendencies in the planetary and local banking systems the key to endurance is to offer exceed the notch merchandises and services to the clients. Banks have to be more flexible, dynamic and efficient in their offering every bit good as procedures.

## 6.2 Recommendations

This research can besides be applied in different sectors to find the profitableness in the local economic system with sections like cement sector, sugar sector, and pharmaceutical etc.

This research is good and gives an penetration sing the investing, funding and strategic counsel for depositors, investors, creditors to cognize the bank ‘s public presentation every bit good as about the functionality and creditability of both Islamic and conventional Bankss profitableness.

Bottom line is that if the Bankss need to last in the competitory universe Bankss have to make a alone merchandising proposition in order to vie with the other Bankss. The techniques and methods that we have discussed can besides be customized for the different industry and sector of the Pakistan economic system.

The study non merely comprehend the different convention of the banking industry being practiced in Pakistan but it can besides turn out smattering in the bigger image of the economic system and different parametric quantities can be used consequently for the quantitative every bit good as qualitative analysis.

## 6.3 Decision

Examination of the empirical analysis makes it possible for us to cast some visible radiation on our findings and pull some decisions. Our analysis of profitableness steps indicates that conventional Bankss are more profitable and are significantly different from Islamic bank in Return on Equity ( ROE ) . However, conventional Bankss are non significantly different from their opposite number in footings of Return on Asset ( ROA ) and Price to Expense Ratio ( PER ) . Further analysis of ROE reveals that Islamic bank is acquiring closer to conventional Bankss in an upward tendency ; it is non impossible that in the close hereafter that Islamic bank might surpass the conventional Bankss. Furthermore, in a separate survey of one to one comparing of each of conventional bank in the group with Islamic bank reveals that Islamic bank outperforms some of the conventional Bankss in the selected group. Overall, ROE is found lifting for Islamic bank and plumping for the conventional Bankss chiefly due to the difference in equity base and net income degree of the Bankss. The survey found that conventional Bankss are more profitable and besides more competent comparison to the norm of the Islamic Bankss. The facts that Islamic Bankss in Pakistan have no longer history and do non keep lead airs in the monetary division with its little portion in the taken as a whole fiscal ownerships of Pakistan, as compared to conventional Bankss the ratio is still dawdling behind that of conventional Bankss. Analysis of efficiency steps further strengthens our determination.