The Problem Of Trafficking In Women Criminology Essay

Trafficing in adult females for the intent of sexual development is non a new job. It existed for centuries and it still exists everyplace in the universe. “ Sex trafficking is an epidemic which does non restrict itself to one topographic point or one group of people. ” Trafficing in adult females is really serious job and it can non be approached ‘from the behind’/only on the surface. The earnestness of this subject requires careful research and great attending. Women ‘s trafficking as a planetary job appears both in states in political and economic passage, every bit good as in states that are in post-conflict periods. Furthermore, it besides affects the economically developed and states and affects all major industrialized states in the universe.[ 2 ]Many of the development or the ‘third universe ‘ states are seeking to conceal this job ‘under the carpet ‘ due to miss of legislative or deficiency of fiscal beginnings. The question/problem is that although we are cognizant of the being of the victims of trafficking around us in society, why is such small advancement being made?

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However, in the period between 1970 ‘s and 1980 ‘s the seller ‘s finishs were the Western European states.[ 3 ]Victims of trafficking normally were brought from Asia and Latin America.[ 4 ]However, after the autumn of the Communist governments, in the 90 ‘s, there been an apparent alteration in the state of affairs. Now adult females from Eastern Europe represent the chief ‘goods ‘ of trafficking in Western Europe.[ 5 ]This is the instance besides for Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania, two post-communist Balkan states. As much we can state that trafficking in adult females for the so called sex industry is really old affair, the exposure of this job in these two states is non from the distant yesteryear. It started emerging after the post-communist period and escalated in the passage that is presently traveling on in both of the states.

I am working on the subject of trafficking in adult females and the democratic passage, with a particular overview on two states: Bosnia and Albania, because I want to happen out if these states are making adequate and everything that is in their power to battle this job. The inquiries that are needed to be set/appointed here, are, will the democratic passage and the democratic development of the Western Balkan states, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania – the two states I will be taking as a instance surveies, aid in doing this job smaller in scope? Is new and improved statute law and new jurisprudence traveling to assist in battling this job? Furthermore, is the farther development and the possible EU integrating of these states traveling to stamp down this job?

In this paper, I will seek to analyse the job of trafficking in adult females, chiefly refering the sex industry ( harlotry ) , as a planetary job and so mentioning to it on local degree. Comparing two states that are post – Communist states and are still in what seems to be everlasting procedure of passage ; will demo what the place authoritiess are making refering this job. Furthermore, it will demo what more can be done in the field of battling trafficking on local and even on planetary degree ; as a way towards the European Union.

First, in the first chapter, I will turn to this job from the international position. Taking in consideration conventions, studies of many international organisations and besides from non – governmental organisations ; will demo what has been done so far in battling trafficking in adult females in the international society. Second, I will seek to show this job as one of the chief issues of every state. Following, in the 2nd chapter, I will compare two transitional Western Balkan states: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania and how they handle this job. Besides, are these states following the European Union directives in battling trafficking, as portion of the organized offense, as one of the conditions in going a member province.

There is a batch to state on this subject and there are a batch more illustrations on this topic, but due to limited clip and resources, I will maintain my research and my analysis short and within these frames. My research is contained largely from researching the conventions on anti-trafficking that are portion of the international legal system, conventions on the same topic on European degree, the place legislative of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania refering this job, relevant articles refering trafficking in adult females, research documents from international organisations who worked on undertakings of trafficking in adult females ( primary and secondary beginnings ) .


Women ‘s trafficking has been described as a modern twenty-four hours signifier of bondage.[ 6 ]“ Excessively frequently the offense of sex trafficking is ignored because it is termed harlotry. ”[ 7 ]The differentiation between the term trafficking in adult females and the phenomenon of harlotry is form a great importance, taking into consideration the fact that the common people still have psychotic beliefs in the being or non being of these two facets. This is confirmed by the study made for IOM in which the consequences showed that the biggest per centum of the replies ( 61.6 % ) were that harlotry was voluntary and paid and trafficking is forced.[ 8 ]Merely 24.6 % answered that they know the difference between harlotry and trafficking in adult females.[ 9 ]But what is the chief difference in fact? The general feature is the voluntariness in exerting harlotry. It is an sentiment that these individuals ( adult females ) can give up making the ‘oldest concern in the universe ‘ if they want to. On the other manus we can non ignore the economic force per unit area they are in and the forced actions from the sellers. On the contrary, in the state of affairs of trafficking this chance is lost together with the passports, ID cards and other paperss that these adult females used to posses, as is besides the fright of rejection and despise from the household and the community.

Another confusion made is that of comparing trafficking as a offense that goes merely beyond national boundary lines. Trafficing besides happens within a domestic district of one state, which is fundamentally traveling adult females from one portion of the state to another. It is frequently the instance where adult females coming from rural environment are traveling to the large metropoliss in hunt for a better life and better net incomes easy become pray for sellers who deceive them with promises for ‘bright hereafter ‘ . In decision, trafficking in adult females is non merely a multinational issue, but a national besides. Hence, under victims of trafficking we put non merely adult females that are transferred from domestic states to foreign 1s, but besides the citizen of one state that are moved within it.

By and large talking, trafficking in adult females for sexual development has ever been a ‘un – solved affair ‘ and a really ‘hard undertaking ‘ for most of the states. Trafficing in adult females and in human existences in general, is on regular footing supported by the corruptness in the domestic authoritiess, as much in the states of beginning of the trafficked victims, besides in the states of theodolite and concluding finish.[ 10 ]This fact is non so astonishing/unbelievable sing the world that the ‘business ‘ of trafficking is the 1 of the most profitable 1s in the universe with approximated income of over 7 billion US dollars per twelvemonth from harlotry merely.[ 11 ]

Furthermore, two chief factors: supplementing and demanding ; advance the growing of trafficking, in peculiar the commercial sex work. “ Male demand for the services of sex workers, combined with male perceptual experiences about adult female ‘s social function, lead to development of adult females. ”[ 12 ]The supplementation side includes such factors as adult females ‘s weaker economic place, deficiency of existent employment and educational chances, increased mobilization of specific parts after struggles and the enlargement of multinational offense, push adult females toward work in the commercial sex industry and to state of affairss where they are at hazard of being trafficked.[ 13 ]

1.1. What is trafficking in adult females?

More than a half of century ago since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was introduced, which proclaimed that “ no 1 shall be held in bondage or servitude ; bondage and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their signifiers, ”[ 14 ]we are informants of the unscrupulous misdemeanors of this human rights. Bing really sensitive and serious job, trafficking requires a definition that will integrate all the cardinal elements of this condemnable act as such. Basically the definition for the term trafficking can be found in international legal instruments dedicated to the topic. For illustration, Article 3, paragraph ( a ) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons ( known as the Palermo Protocol ) defines trafficking in the undermentioned manner:

Trafficing in individuals shall intend the enlisting, transit, transportation, harboring or reception of individuals, by agencies of the menace or usage of force or other signifiers of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of misrepresentation, of the maltreatment of power or of a place of exposure or of the giving or having of payments or benefits to accomplish the consent of a individual holding control over another individual, for the intent of development. Exploitation shall include, at a lower limit, the development of the harlotry of others or other signifiers of sexual development, forced labor or services, bondage or patterns similar to slavery, servitude or the remotion of variety meats.[ 15 ]

This original definition was a theoretical account from which in many states in the domestic condemnable codification the definition for trafficking has been derived. On the other manus, it was deliberately decided that the Protocol non specify ‘exploitation of harlotry of others and other signifiers of sexual developments ‘ more exactly, because there was no consensus among authorities delegates to the dialogues on the common significance of the phrase.[ 16 ]Furthermore, the delegates agreed that nonvoluntary forced engagement in harlotry would represent trafficking, but most of the authorities delegates rejected the thought that voluntary, non-coercive engagement by grownups in harlotry is equivalent to trafficking.[ 17 ]This means that the provinces define merely forced harlotry in their domestic legislative assembly.

Furthermore, the Protocol makes a clear differentiation between sex work and trafficking and between trafficking and smuggling, which is addressed in different protocol. Smuggling concerns easing illegal stay or entry, while the purpose of trafficking is the development of human existences under forced labor or slavery-like conditions. Yet, trafficking does non ever affect the illegal crossing of boundary lines.[ 18 ]It can besides look within a state ; in other words without traversing any national boundary lines.[ 19 ]Furthermore, “ in many instances trafficked individuals enter a state lawfully, for illustration as tourers, partners, pupils, domestic workers or au braces. ”[ 20 ]Sometimes they merely become illegal when they remove themselves from the power of their users, e.g. in the instance of au braces or adult females who are forced into harlotry by their hubby.[ 21 ]Hence, trafficking is a offense against the individual, while smuggling is chiefly a offense against the province, conflicting upon its boundary lines.

Another definition we can take in head is the U.S. authorities definition of trafficking in individuals which encompasses “ All Acts of the Apostless involved in the conveyance, harbouring, or sale of individuals within national or across international boundary lines through coercion, force, snatch, misrepresentation or fraud, for intents of puting individuals in state of affairs of forced labour or services, such as forced harlotry, domestic servitude, debt bondage or other slavery – like patterns ” .[ 22 ]

In other words, the definition of trafficking consists of three nucleus elements: the action of trafficking, the agencies and the intent.[ 23 ]If all the elements of human trafficking are present, the fact that an grownup ab initio consented is irrelevant.[ 24 ]It is besides considered trafficking if the victim had no existent or acceptable alternate but to subject to the maltreatment.[ 25 ]

1.2. Trafficing in adult females as a international job

The international community is actively working on the issue of contending this signifier of organized offense. The United Nations, the Council of Europe, OSCE and the EU, every bit good as some other international organisations, became involved in covering with this affair on a planetary program.[ 26 ]On international program many Conventions were produce for the intent of battling the offense of trafficking in adult females. In the system of United Nations the start was made foremost with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948. Among the other conventions on UN degree is the 1949 United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, which “ deems harlotry and the ‘accompanying immorality ‘ of the traffic of individuals for the intent of harlotry incompatible with the self-respect and worth of the human individual. ”[ 27 ]The chief aim of the Convention is to supply effectual steps against all signifiers of trafficking in adult females and the development of harlotry.[ 28 ]Another convention that is of import is the 1979 Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which in Article 6 prescribes the duty for all the province parties to “ take all appropriate steps, including statute law, to stamp down all signifiers of traffic in adult females and development of harlotry of adult females. ”[ 29 ]

Connecting human rights with the job of trafficking resulted in the demand of the UN for a multi – disciplinary attack in the battle against trafficking in adult females. For that, in June 2000 the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was issued ; later that twelvemonth Protocols for Preventing the Trade with Women and Children and Against Illegal Trade and Transportation of Immigrants were issued.[ 30 ]They were adopted in 2001 and with that started the new epoch of the work of the national establishments ( Law enforcement establishments ) .

In the same manner, other international organisations besides incorporated the issue of trafficking in their ain constitutions/organizational constructions. The International Organization for Migration ( IOM ) adopted the Convention concerning forced labour ( Convention no.29 ) in 1930 and the Abolition of Forced Labor Convention in 1957. On European degree, the most recent legal instrument introduced for battling trafficking in adult females is the Council of Europe ‘s Convention on Actions against Trafficing in Human Beings,[ 31 ]adoptive 2005. Following this farther, the European Union besides made instruments about the issue of trafficking: Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on battling trafficking in human existences,[ 32 ]instruments such as Investing in People, European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights ( EIDHR ) and European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument ( ENPI ) ,[ 33 ]etc. In decision, a common statement from all the EU member provinces is that under trafficking should be put all the instances where the 1s that commit this offense are enrolling their victims for forced labour or harlotry, no affair the agencies, even by merely temptation or mistreating their weak state of affairs or place.[ 34 ]

Other international organisations that are involved in the affair of trafficking are OSCE ( The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe ) , UNDP ( the United Nations Development Program ) , ICITAP ( International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance ) , OPDAT ( The U.S. Department of Justice ‘s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training ) , USAID ( The United States Agency for International Development ) , ICMPD ( The International Centre for Migration Policy Development ) .

On the other manus, there are the non-governmental organisations, which are of import in constructing civil society by furthering ‘governance ‘ , whereby actions are framed non merely by authoritiess, but with the engagement of other organisations, with which information is shared.[ 35 ]Non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) around the Earth are engaged in battling trafficking by taking portion in assortment activities including bar, prosecution, protection, rescues/raids, reintegration, and repatriation.[ 36 ]“ NGOs frequently work with few resources yet can be effectual in congratulating the activities of authoritiess, or even taking the topographic point of authorities attempts. ”[ 37 ]NGO ‘s appear to be ‘watchdogs ‘ against trafficking in adult females. Worldwide NGOs in this country are Amnesty International, The International La Strada Association ( La Strada International ) , Anti Slavery International, The ChurchesA? Commission for Migrants in Europe ( CCME ) , Global Alliance against Traffic in Women ( GAATW ) , Save the Children – Europe Group, Terre des Hommes International Federation, ECPAT International, etc. “ It is helpful for NGOs that engage in preventative and rehabilitative work with adult females, kids and communities to be able to place common features of trafficking. ”[ 38 ]

Despite the international degree of contending against the offense of trafficking, every state has prescribed this act as a condemnable 1 in the domestic condemnable codifications. Almost all democratic states are signers of the conventions mentioned above and had implemented them in their place legislative. This is the instance besides with Bosnia and Herzegovina[ 39 ]and Albania,[ 40 ]which incorporated trafficking in adult females in their condemnable codifications as a punishable offense by all agencies, which I will demo subsequently in the paper.


The geographical map of Southeastern Europe, measure by measure, has been altering in the past decennary. The autumn of the Fe drape created a flow of migration from E to west,[ 41 ]and frailty – versa, if we consider the international missions and particular deputations shacking in the Balkan part. Conducive factors that have helped do the job of trafficking in adult females have been “ globalisation of economic sector, followed by globalisation of offense, every bit good as the eruption of struggles in the part. ”[ 42 ]The atomization of Yugoslavia intensified the impact of procedures of passage, globalisation and regionalization.[ 43 ]Turbulent cultural struggle, external intercessions ( frequently affecting force ) , and the relentless usage of force by condemnable elements, provided moving ridges of challenges to civil society in the part.[ 44 ]The Yugoslav wars intensified the graduated table of multinational organized offense, here including trafficking in adult females chiefly for harlotry, and the degrees at which condemnable webs preyed on the population.[ 45 ]The country has been military, politically and economically divided: new provinces have been created and new boundary lines established.[ 46 ]The states of SEE have been earnestly affected by the jobs of organized offense and corruptness, which have been the chief obstructor to further development and regional stableness.[ 47 ]

Because of the limited economic resources available, authoritiess in the part have non been able to set up an effectual control over economic fraud and other signifiers of organized offense, including trafficking in adult females.[ 48 ]Therefore, “ organized condemnable groups in the part have successfully exploited insufficiently controlled boundary lines, corruptness, a legislative vacuity and the deficiency of regional cooperation in the battle against organized offense. ”[ 49 ]

To stress, within the construction of organized offense the states are classified weather they are states of beginning, finish or passage. The inception states of trafficking of adult females can be classified by the parts of the universe. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania are portion of the East Europe part and are largely considered arising states, although the trafficking to and within the state is stacking up. On the other manus, as finish states for trafficked adult females are the Western European states, the Nordic states, the Middle East, even United States of America, where the adult females from BIH and Albania are trafficked to.

2.1. The instance of Bosnia and Herzegovina

For Bosnia and Herzegovina the prostration of the communism was non the lone upset of the society. Right after the disintegration of Yugoslavia, BIH experienced a civil war on its district. Therefore, it is forgivably to state that BIH went through dual passage period. Furthermore, the dislocation of the societal, economic and political construction ensuing from the civil war in BIH caused the enlargement of assorted signifiers of organized offense, including trafficking in human existences.[ 50 ]On the other manus, “ in the pre – war period this sort of offense was non present in BIH to the grade to which it is now, harmonizing to official statistics and available beginnings. ”[ 51 ]The two dramatic alterations in the state ‘s yesteryear brought up rise in trafficking in adult females. The state was and still is “ a fertile land for the condemnable maltreatment of adult females ”[ 52 ]chiefly for sexual development.

“ Economic adversity, planetary market incursion and transitional economic conditions along with struggle and post-war injuries have transformed many traditional relationships into service exchanges. ”[ 53 ]Furthermore, the about four twelvemonth long war caused prostration of the economic system and societal prostration which emerged in great unemployment. Therefore, people in BIH, largely adult females, felt jeopardized for their endurance so they started looking for any sort of occupation merely to back up their households. Sexual development for harlotry, and human trafficking in general was a tabu in BIH until late. In early 1998, human trafficking to BIH did non officially exist, “ it inhabited an unseeable Hell – unacknowledged, unreported and nameless. ”[ 54 ]Harmonizing to experts of nongovernmental organisations ( NGO ‘s ) and the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina ( UNMIBH ) , trafficking foremost began to look in 1995.[ 55 ]Human Rights Watch research workers foremost learned of trafficking of adult females to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1998, while on a research mission to look into post-conflict favoritism against Bosnian adult females.[ 56 ]As public attending began to increase and more instances emerged, trafficking eventually became visibly in the early 1999.[ 57 ]In fact, by early 2000, “ human trafficking for forced harlotry had become blazing and ill-famed, but this visibleness did non ensue in coherent anti – trafficking policies. ”[ 58 ]

Another factor that bolstered trafficking in adult females was the station – war peacekeeping missions and the international influence in BIH. The placing of peacekeeping forces in BIH encouraged the sex industry at that place, particularly in the early old ages after the war.[ 59 ]This is a really sensitive issue refering the fact that the peacekeepers and other material of the international missions enjoyed unsusceptibility,[ 60 ]plus there were deficient grounds of such behaviors by the missionaries. Along with this, the deficiency of province duty refering the engagement of members of the peacekeeping force in trafficking, undoubtedly contributed to the job.[ 61 ]UNMIBH has “ denied any engagement of its forces in trafficking but acknowledges that several members of its staff have been let travel for sexual misconduct. ”[ 62 ]The publicity of harlotry by the forces of UN, who were straight involved in the sex industry and the sexual development of Bosnian adult females, was beliing with their chief mission of protecting them and supplying them with a peaceable life. There is no uncertainty that there was a bing correlativity between the phenomenon of trafficking in adult females and the colony of a peacekeeping force in BIH, but it would be incorrect to detect the colony of peacekeeping force as a primary cause of the phenomenon.[ 63 ]Trafficing in adult females, as a job and concern, existed and exists in other parts of the Balkan, every bit good as all over the universe, where peacekeepers were and are non based.

To reason, BIH has been politically unstable during the station – war period. Laws have been made to command sellers, but regional struggles still exist and the deficiency of cooperation between entities, and entities and the province in general, in stamp downing organized offense has been high.[ 64 ]The high net incomes available, the low hazard of detainment and minor punishments exacted have made trafficking in human existences for the intent of harlotry really attractive on the ‘black market ‘[ 65 ]in BIH.[ 66 ]Today, the deficiency of political will has been replaced with the “ edifice of coaction between BIH jurisprudence enforcement bureaus and the creative activity of new BIH province establishments for implementing the jurisprudence. ”[ 67 ]Furthermore, BIH is now take parting in regional and international enterprises against organized offense, particularly within Stability Pace ( a benchmark for conveying peace and normality to the part ) in Southeastern Europe[ 68 ], as a manner towards making EU and sing its topographic point as future member state.. The local authorities is seeking to harmonise the domestic legislative with the international and to better the cooperation between the entities and the province. However, the suppression of trafficking in adult females is non merely a legislative job, but besides a practical one.[ 69 ]In add-on, another hereafter in battling trafficking is consciousness of the job, such as public instruction, that the province has to do certain to supply it.

2.2. The instance of Albania

Human trafficking is comparatively ‘new ‘ societal phenomenon, which emerged in Albania after the early 1990 ‘s right after the failure of the absolutism government of Enver Hoxa. The “ procedure of democratisation started in Albania merely in 1990, after the autumn of the Berlin wall, when independent political parties were created and the freedom to go for citizens was granted. ”[ 70 ]The economic and political instability increased in 1997 with the detonation of civil upsets and shortly after the war in Kosovo in 1999 that brought many refugees to Albania.[ 71 ]From so on, this phenomenon spread quickly in the states in passage or development including Albania.[ 72 ]With the sudden intensive influence from the Eastern and Western European states, it is apprehensible for a state that was one time in entire isolation, furthermore, was a hapless one, to go a mark for many organized condemnable groups and face new and different moving ridge of criminalism. The isolation encouraged the Albanian people to travel across the boundary lines of their fatherland. Dreams for better lives, occupations and instruction for their kids were overpowering for many Albanians, while others sought reunion with household members that has already migrated to Western states.[ 73 ]However, “ Albania ‘s function in trafficking appears easy to impute to the hard political and economic passage from an autocratic to a pluralistic system. ”[ 74 ]Other factors than alterations to the system of administration, which facilitated the rise of trafficking in Albania[ 75 ]were the bad economic conditions.

For some Albanians who had lost belongings, human trafficking and peculiarly development of adult females, became a manner of re-accumulating the wealth they lost, while for others, trafficking was considered as a solution to stop their poorness and agony.[ 76 ]Womans faced the greatest impact of unemployment every bit good as extra load of keeping their households as their partners sought employment through out-migration.[ 77 ]Hence, adult females became progressively vulnerable and these factors emerged trafficking, particularly for adult females who turned to harlotry with the purpose of making it merely temporarily.[ 78 ]The one time traditional values of the Albanian society were lost. Women easy become quarry of sellers with the aid of their close household, which most of the clip promised to happen them hubbies[ 79 ]as a manner out of the heavy state of affairs they were in. In add-on, as in-between work forces sometimes figured the partners of these adult females, who saw ‘easy money ‘ by selling their married womans, “ without being cognizant of the effects of the trafficking. ”[ 80 ]

Furthermore, the heightened trafficking of Albanian adult females, within and out of the state, has been facilitated by the eroding of societal controls in society and the ‘chronic ‘ failing of the province.[ 81 ]The authorities was incapable of projecting its authorization to contend offense, protect offense victims, command its boundary lines and curtail corruptness among its security forces.[ 82 ]As shown above, trafficking in adult females for sexual development surfaced as new job in the early 1990 ‘s. In that clip few people believed in the dainty of lifting and that trafficking will intensify in a step that is today.

During the passage from communism and absolutism, Albania was non merely a theodolite state for the trafficking of human existences, but besides a beginning state.[ 83 ]Trafficking of Albanian adult females was and continues to be widespread.[ 84 ]“ The absence of legal commissariats and official statistics on trafficking inhibited acknowledgment of the job. ”[ 85 ]“ In 1995[ 86 ], legislators added punishments for harlotry and operation of installations for harlotry to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, but did non include a definition on trafficking. ”[ 87 ]It was necessary for betterments to be implemented in the legal system and the reform was the first of import measure in battling trafficking. Amendments in 2001, nevertheless, began to convey Albanian jurisprudence in the line with the Palermo Protocol[ 88 ], and farther stairss in 2004 boosted up that procedure.[ 89 ]Albanian penal statute law refering trafficking has been bettering continuously in conformity with international statute law and the international attempts of the Albanian province.[ 90 ]The confirmation of several conventions refering this issue, “ demonstrates that the legal model of the battle against the trafficking of human existences, particularly of adult females and kids, is about complete. ”[ 91 ]The confirmation of these conventions facilitated more effectual regional and international cooperation in the attempts against organized offense and constitutes a concrete measure in the procedure of doing Albanian statute law compatible with international criterions.[ 92 ]However, despite the inclination for international cooperation, “ international aid for the Albanian Government has non been good coordinated.[ 93 ]Following this farther, guaranting of complementarities, avoiding duplicate and easing the effectual usage of resources, will perchance better this coordination.[ 94 ]Furthermore, presenting statute law and pattern in conformity with European Union criterions “ remains imperative and is an of import measure towards the eventual free motion of people across boundary lines ”[ 95 ]and the credence of Albania to the Union.

2.3. Analysis and possible hereafter betterments

As already mentioned, the developing passage states, as BIH and Albania, are non exclusion of the influence of trafficking in adult females. Furthermore, they are a fecund land for this ‘business ‘ .



Following the democratic development, go outing from the on-going passage, and the execution of the international instruments for battling trafficking in adult females, and in human existences in general, can be really helpful for states such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and Albania in stamp downing this major job. The steps taken by the place authoritiess and legislators of these two states can better the control over trafficking, cut downing it, by implementing the international legislative and possibly doing more rigorous punishments for the violators/ felons.


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