The Problem Background And Statements Cultural Studies Essay

Every twenty-four hours consumers are exposed to 1000s of ads ( Thornson, 1990 ) and this will halter companies to make a alone place and receive attending from consumers. Using famous persons can assist companies to make alone ads and engenders a positive consequence on the attitude and gross revenues purpose towards the trade name ( Ranjbarian, Shekarchizade and Momeni 2010 ) . For many old ages famous person indorsement is applied. Already in 1979 1 in every six commercials used a famous person and in 2001 that per centum grew to 25 % ( Erdogan et al, 2001 ) . The use of famous person indorsements has increased in the last decennaries and at the same clip besides their corresponding hard currency flows did. In the twelvemonth 1996 US companies paid more than 1 billion dollar to famous person subscribers for endorsement trades and licencing rights ( Lane, 1996 ) . The uses of famous persons remain accruing and besides the contracts and payments of the famous person subscribers with patrons keep lifting over the old ages ( McGill, 1989 ) . Endorsement of famous persons is non likely to alter because people and Western civilization have been obsessed by famous persons.

This is emanated from the fact that media overloads society with intelligence and illustrations about famous persons and gives them an amusement map ( Choi & A ; Rifon, 2007 ) .

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The scheme of famous person indorsement has positive effects for both company and famous person. Using a famous person, the consumer receives a positive feeling of security and association. Since his or her graven image is urging the merchandise ; it must be a good merchandise. Consumers would wish to place themselves with the famous person and they buy the merchandise because they would wish to be as the famous person. Ads with famous persons create instant trade name consciousness and it induces personality to a trade name. Unfortunately there can be some booby traps. The famous person his or her image can alter or the famous person could lose the position of a famous person. It could go on that a famous person is backing for many trade names, that this negatively affects the credibleness. Furthermore, it might go on that famous persons negatively appear in the intelligence. How do companies cover with that? Like the issue with O.J. Simpson, where the company tried to avoid possible negative effects by interrupting all connexions with the subscriber ( Till and Shimp, 1998 ) . Or companies could maintain their fingers crossed ; trusting for their trade name image will non be negatively influenced by the actions made by the subscriber in his private life. For illustration Michael Jackson came in 1984 negative in the intelligence ( alleged kid molestation and familiarity ) , but remained a famous person subscriber for Pepsi. Sing to Pepsi, it acquired 8 million gross revenues addition in 1984 due to Michael Jackson as a famous person subscriber ( Gabor et al. 1987 ) .

This thesis is written because famous person indorsement is of major importance to companies.

Every company has an image. By doing a famous person spokesman for the company, they put a important portion of the company ‘s image in the custodies of a famous person. When the famous person later creates a negative image for him or herself, besides the image of the company will be affected. That ‘s why it is of import to pick the right famous person as subscriber for your merchandise. Companies can outlay a cragged sum of money on the famous persons for promotional and image runs. With the aid of famous persons consumer attitude can be changed, purchase purposes can be enlarged and net income can be extended. But the right famous person has to be picked for the right company.

1.2 Problem definition and job statement

Problem Definition:

Sing famous person endorsement some issues remain ill-defined. What is the consequence of utilizing famous persons and how can celebrities efficaciously change the attitude of the consumers towards the trade name? What can be positive effects of famous person indorsement, and what can be negative effects of famous person indorsement. How can the usage of famous person indorsement influence the consumer attitude towards the trade name of the ad and how does the degree of involvement affects this? What function does the negative promotion of famous person subscribers entail? Does it act upon the consumer attitude negatively and/or positively?

1.2.2 Problem Statement:

How does famous person indorsement influence the consumer attitude and how does negative promotion affect this relationship?

1.3 Theoretical model

Explanation of variables:

Independent variable: Celebrity indorsement

Determinants of independent variable: Expertness, trustiness, similarity, liking,

attraction, match-up, significance transportation

Dependent variable: Consumer attitude on trade name

Moderator: Negative Promotion of the famous person subscriber.

1.4 Research Questions:

What is celebrity indorsement and what are determiners of famous person indorsement?

What is the consequence of famous person indorsement on consumer attitude?

How make negative promotion and involvement influence the relationship of famous person indorsement on the consumer attitude?

1.5 Relevance

A battalion of scientific research has been done about the capable famous person indorsement. However, there is some discord and treatment about the exact function that famous person indorsement has on the attitude towards the trade name. Some documents province about the weak relation between the famous person and the consumer attitude towards the trade name ( Cabellero, 1989 ) and some indicate there is a strong relation between these two ( Kahle and Homer, 1985 ) . There is besides a batch of research done about the function of the negative promotion of the famous person subscriber ( Till & A ; Shimp, 1998 ) .This thesis will sum up these documents about it to acquire a clear position on it.

1.5.1 Scientific relevancy

The scientific relevancy is to get better penetration in the field of consumer attitude towards the trade name and peculiarly the functions famous person indorsement and negative promotion of the famous person entail.

This thesis will analyze the consequence ofA famous person indorsement on the attitude of consumers towards the trade name. InA peculiar, theA relationship of negativeA promotion of the famous person and consumer attitude willA be reviewed. A batch of researchA with regard to famous person indorsement has been done ( Erdogan, 1999 ) .A To acquire a clear position on this topic this thesis will show a literature reappraisal. Previous literature and research will be critically analyzed to place the chief issues and theories with regard to famous person indorsement. This paper will build a systematic reappraisal with regard to these relationships to supply selling economic experts with a utile ushers and recommendations for future research.

Practical relevancy

Because this paper can assist to clear up the function of the famous person subscriber, besides the societal and practical relevancy will be served. For companies it is highly of import to place the positive and negative effects of the famous person subscriber on the attitude of the consumer towards the trade name. To reason, this literature reappraisal will critically buttockss and unite the articles which are presently available. A better apprehension of using famous person indorsement, incontestable triggers directors to prosecute a more efficient policy and making the best consumer attitude towards the company. This will ensue in higher consumer purchase purposes, which will positively impact the company gross revenues.

1.6 Thesis construction

This thesis is divided into 5 chapters. By now the content of the first chapter is already presented and familiar, accordingly, merely the content of the undermentioned chapters will be briefly discussed. The 2nd chapter provides the reader with a literature reappraisal on famous person indorsement. Amos, Holmes and Strutton ( 2008 ) presented a theoretical theoretical account which will be the foundation of this thesis. In this paper famous person indorsement will be described on the footing of the trustiness, expertness, similarity, acquaintance and liking. Besides the match-up rule will be put frontward. In chapter 3 the influence of famous person indorsement on attitude will be explained in conformance with theories described in chapter 2. In chapter 4 the moderating function of negative promotion will be described, and in chapter 5 the decision and treatment are presented and recommendations for future research will be given.

2. Celebrity indorsement

A famous person subscriber is “ an person who enjoys public acknowledgment and who uses this acknowledgment on behalf of a consumer good by looking with it in an advertizement ” ( McCracken, 1989, page 310 ) . Friedman and Friedman ( 1979, page 63 ) province that “ a famous person subscriber is an person who is known to the populace for his or her accomplishment in countries others than of the merchandise category endorsed ” . In this paper the first definition will be used.

In this chapter famous person indorsement will be explained with the usage of several determiners. This subdivision describes which factors a famous person should hold to be a solid subscriber. To explicate the determiners of famous person indorsement, this thesis will look at the determiners illustrated in Amos, Holmes and Strutton ( 2008 ) . Besides the beginning credibleness theoretical account and the beginning attraction theoretical account will be used as foundation for choosing the determiners ( Erdogan, 1999 ) . The determiners described in this paper will be: trustiness, expertness, attraction, simularity, liking, the matchup and the significance transportation. The beginning credibleness depends on the expertness and trustiness. The beginning attraction depends on acquaintance, wishing and similarity. In the following chapter the coherence between all these determiners will be farther explained. Besides will be described how famous persons can be effectual, without cognizing of being used as an subscriber for the company ; famous person maltreatment.

2.1. Trustworthiness

Trustworthiness refers to “ the honestness, unity and credibility of an subscriber ” ( Erdogan et al. 2001, page 40 ) . But it is besides dependent on what mark group you are concentrating on. Therefore companies ever try to happen subscribers who are widely seen as trusting and who are seen as honest, credible and reliable ( Shimp 1997 ) . Trustworthiness is the most of import factor with respect to credibleness. Attach toing correlativities of trust besides influence the credibleness, and likeability is mentioned as the most of import property ( Friedman, 1978 ) . Advertisers can make the most effectiveness by taking these two factors, wishing and trustiness, into history. Friedman, Santeramo and Traina ( 1979 ) province that when consumers like a famous person, the consumer will automatically swear this famous person. Controversially, Ohanian ( 1991 ) found that trustiness of a famous person subscriber had no relationship with the purchase purposes of the related trade name by the consumer. This tangled decision had to make with the degree of engagement, which will be described in the undermentioned chapter. The trustiness is of major importance for effectual subscribers. If consumers believe what the subscriber is stating and they trust him or her, it will be the most effectual. When a famous person comes negatively into the intelligence, this will impact the credibility and the trustiness of the subscriber, and will negatively act upon the attach toing merchandise.

2.2 Expertness

Expertness of famous person indorsement is being defined as “ the extent to which an subscriber is perceived to be a beginning of valid averments ” ( Erdogan, 1999, page 298 ) . The literature look intoing beginning credibleness in scenes affecting persuasive communicating by and large indicates that a receiving system ‘s perceptual experience of the beginning ‘s expertness positively influences beginning effectivity ( Ohanian 1990 ) . Furthermore, in a merchandising context, an adept sales representative caused a significantly higher figure of clients to buy a merchandise than the non-expert sales representative did ( Woodside and William Davenport 1974 ) . Adept beginnings besides influence perceptual experiences of the merchandise ‘s quality, and the beginning or famous person that is more adept has been found to be more persuasive ( Aaker and Myers 1987 ) and generates more purposes to purchase the trade name ( Ohanian 1991 ) . On the other manus is declared by Speck, Schumann and Thompson ( 1988 ) that expert famous persons generate a higher merchandise callback than famous persons who are seen as a non-expert. The degree of famous person expertness will find its effectivity. The more expertness a famous person has, the more effectual it will be. The expertness of a famous person will non be changed by negative promotion, but his or her credibility and credibleness will be negative influenced.

2.3 Attraction

With attraction non merely the physical attraction is meant. Besides is aimed at for illustration rational accomplishments, personality belongingss, life styles or athletic accomplishments. Physical attraction suggests that a famous person determines the effectivity of persuasion as a consequence of that consumers want to be and place with such subscriber ( Cohen and Golden ( 1972 ) . On the other manus, illustrations are known about famous persons who are non physical attractive, but do stand for the image the company wants to make and hold. There are immense Numberss of physical attractive famous persons who endorse a merchandise. An illustration is David Beckham for the Armani trade name. A batch of people are attracted by David Beckham. Men want to be associated with the association football participant and manner adult male David Beckham, while adult female are physically attracted by his visual aspect. Because David Beckham ever looks stylish, ne’er comes negatively into the intelligence, he is highly believable, attractive and has a high grade of similarity ; people want to be like him. That makes him a good famous person subscriber.

2.4 Similarity

The beginning attraction theoretical account states that the efficiency depends on similarity, acquaintance and liking for an subscriber ( McGuire, 1985 ) . Similarity is described as a supposed resemblance between the beginning and the receiving system of the message. In other words: if a consumer can place him/herself with the subscriber. Peoples can be influenced more easy by an subscriber who is similar to them. If the famous person and the consumer have common factors or involvements or life styles, a better coherence is created. That ‘s why famous persons are selected upon their features that lucifer good with consumers. Companies besides try to make empathy utilizing famous persons ( Belch & A ; Belch, 2001 ) . Using empathy engender a bond between famous person and the consumer. Besides the degree of strength is increased with the aid of utilizing similarity. For that ground companies might sometimes take non to pick a famous person, but a regular-normal-looking individual whom people can place themselves with more easy. Sing famous person indorsement can be stated: the higher the similarity, the higher the effectivity.

2.5 Wishing

Likeability is the fondness for the beginning as a consequence of the beginning ‘s physical visual aspect and behavior ( McGuire, 1985 ) . Because people like successful famous persons, they are used in commercials and advertizements. And when people like the famous person, they will besides like the attach toing trade name. Celebrity indorsement will act upon the consumer behavior and attitude ( Belch & A ; Belch, 2001 ) and advertizers believe that a famous person can act upon the consumer ‘s vision of the image of the company. In Kahle & A ; Homer ( 1985 ) the procedure of the disliked famous person is explained in an experiment. The experiment contains the illustration of famous person indorsement used with disposable razors by agencies of John McEnroe. He has been the famous person subscriber for this peculiar trade name. John McEnroe is a tennis participant who can rag people ; his celebrated unsmooth linguistic communication on the tennis tribunal is widely well-known. It can be stated that he is n’t the ideal subscriber of a trade name, and John McEnroe can be assigned to the disliked famous person. The company retains him because his image implies wealth and concern for protection of self-interest ; two attributes the company wants consumers to be associated with the ingestion of disposable razors. Despite McEnroe is a disliked famous person, the company can utilize him as a successful subscriber.

2.6 The match-up rule

Cooper ( 1984 ) , Forkan ( 1980 ) , Marchel ( 1987 ) and Hawkins ( 1989 ) show that the matchup between famous person subscriber and the merchandise or company is of major importance. This correspondence consequences in a better callback of the commercial and trade name information and will positively impact the transportation influence with respect to the personification of the trade name ( Rockney and Green, 1979 ) . Advertising a merchandise via a famous person who has a comparatively high merchandise congruent image, leads to greater advertizer and famous person credibility if you would compare it with a less congruous product/celebrity image ( Kotler 1997 ) . The match-up rule consists of two cardinal footings: the sensed tantrum and the image of the famous person ( Misra & A ; Beatty, 1990 ) . When a famous person has a good image and tantrum to the merchandise and company, this will take to greater credibility and so effectiveness. The has to make with the fact that if you combine these two, the link of the famous person and the image the famous person has, you can acquire both things, the celebrity and the link, working for them. What is of great importance for an subscriber, is the lucifer up of the famous person subscriber with the image and message a company wants to stand for and propagates. With the Nespresso commercials, George Clooney has been used as a famous person subscriber. Nespresso wants to be associated with footings as manner, polish, appeal and a excellent quality trade name. In add-on Olivier Quillet, international selling president of Nespresso, hence states that George Clooney is the perfect lucifer for his trade name, because Clooney ‘s profile illustrates these features the trade name wants to be.

2.8 Meaning Transportation

The significance transportation theoretical account is based upon significances and it proposes that the consequence of the famous person subscriber is depended on the intending the famous person brings into the indorsement procedure and the merchandise ( McCracken, 1989 ) . The theoretical account is created to exemplify the procedure of the famous person subscriber. All the famous person subscribers have different intensions. They differ in demographics, personalities and life styles. That ‘s why when you think of a famous person, multiple significances are in the association set. Celebrities can be really valuable in marketing runs of the merchandise or trade name because they provide the client rather a few features when they think of the merchandise or trade name. Celebrities have more consequence than non-known subscribers, because a famous person offers significance of astuteness and power from their character and life style into the indorsement. ( Schlecht, 2003 ) . When companies create a appropriate significance transportation between the famous person subscriber and the merchandise, this will positively act upon the attitude of consumers.

Culture Endorsement Consumption

The significance transportation theoretical account is divided in three phases. In the first phase the significance associated with the famous person moves from the subscriber to the merchandise or trade name. Meanings of the subscriber become linked with the merchandise in the encephalon of the client. Then is determined if the symbolic features of the famous person are the 1s sought for the merchandise and has to be chosen if a famous person represents those symbolic belongingss. Once the famous person is picked, the ingestion procedure will get down and via the usage of a promotional run the famous person will be linked to the merchandise. In the last phase the consumers link the famous person with the merchandise, and the merchandise with themselves. Celebrities play a function in the last stage of this theoretical account while they have generated the ego.

2.9 Celebrity maltreatment

Normally, famous persons are good paid for their engagement sing to commercials or trade names. But nowadays companies can besides do usage of a famous person, using new smart selling schemes. The thought of this smart methodological analysis is utilizing the famous person in an action, without the famous person cognizing he or she is informed about. A company creates a ( strangle clasp contract? = “ wurgcontract ” ) in which the famous person can gain a immense sum of money. But the contract is being created in such a manner that it is impossible for the famous person to hold on. For illustration: being 3 yearss a hebdomad fulltime available for publicity intents. So the famous person will reject the proposition. Subsequently, the alleged company patron Tells in the media that the famous person rejected a immense sum of money and generates free promotion.

For illustration: the company PaddyPower offered Tiger Woods about 75 million dollar for a 5-year contract. The direction of Tiger Woods refused this trade, after which PaddyPower extensively brought this into the media ‘s attending. Not merely the chitchat documents began to compose about this mammoth refused contract, but it besides reached the national and international intelligence and a batch of hunt engines and intelligence sites linked and referred on their web site to the PaddyPower web site. This resulted in a batch of website-visitors, mammoth grow of trade name consciousness and promotion for PaddyPower with nothing costs of this selling scheme.

3. The effects of famous person indorsement on consumer attitude

In this chapter the relation is described of famous person indorsement on the consumer attitude. This will be described on the footing of determiners described in the old chapter. Expertness and trustiness are described in the beginning credibleness theoretical account. Similarity, wishing and acquaintance are described in the attraction theoretical account. They will be used to analyze the consequence they have on the consumer attitude towards the trade name. The determiners of the match-up rule and the significance transportation will be used for explicating the multiple merchandise indorsements theoretical account. Furthermore will be taken into history in what manner involvement influences this.

3.1 Background of attitude

Celebrities are being used as subscribers, creative persons or spokesman for companies. With the usage of features like expertness, trust, similarity, likeability and acquaintance, the consumers will see famous persons as a beginning of persuasive information and this creates a high grade of security for consumers ( Surana, 2008 ) . For the effectivity the physical attraction is besides of major importance ( Khatri, 2006 ) . Research has shown that the usage of famous persons affects consumer attitude. ( beginning ) An attitude will demo us if we are attracted to something. Harmonizing to most research workers an attitude exists of 3 parts: affect attitude, behavioral attitude and cognitive attitude ; besides remembered as the ABC theoretical account of attitude. Affect refers to the manner a consumer feels about an attitude object. Behaviour involves the individual ‘s purposes to make something as for an attitude object and cognitive attitude refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. This theoretical account emphasizes the relation between the knowing, feeling and making ( Solomon, 2006 ) .

3.2 Source credibleness theoretical account

One of the chief ends of advertizements is to carry and seek to positively alter the attitude of consumers towards the trade names ( Solomon, 2002 ) . For altering the attitude of consumers and attraction of the trade name, the credibleness of an advertizement is of major importance. Consumers suppose that famous persons are believable with respect to the information they endorse about the merchandises or trade name ( Goldsmith et al. 2000 ) . Harmonizing to the beginning credibleness model the effectivity of a message depends on the sensed degree of expertness and trustiness of an subscriber ( Hovland et al. 1953, page 20 ) . Consumers suppose that famous persons are believable with respect to the information they endorse about the merchandises or trade name ( Goldsmith et al. 2000 ) .Attitude towards ads is being defined as “ a leaned inclination to react in a systematically desirable or unwanted attack towards advertisement in general ” ( Haghirian, 2004 ) . There are documents which have concluded that famous person indorsement has a positive influence on attitude ( Seno and Lukas, 2005 ) . When an subscriber is successful he or she is able to better attitudes or purchase purposes positively, credibleness is here of major importance. Harmonizing to Liu ( 2007 ) an subscriber who scores high on expertness and trustiness is able to affect the attitude and purchase purposes. Because consumers believe an subscriber is believable, they suppose that the info this famous person tells, is an accurate place on the issue. Besides an subscriber who is an expert in the field, consumers will hold a favorable attitude towards the trade name or advertizement. Danwshvary and Schwer ( 2000 ) besides conclude that the indorsement of a certain merchandise will better the consumer behavior and attitude.

3.3 The beginning attraction theoretical account

Beginning attraction refers to the subscriber ‘s physical visual aspect, personality, likeability, and similarity to the receiving system, therefore to the perceived societal value of the beginning ( Solomon 2002 ) . This is attractively quoted by the celebrated philosopher Aristotle: “ Beauty is a greater recommendation than any missive of debut ” . Companies want to utilize famous persons because they combine two of import things: they have the famous person position and consumers are attracted to them. Consumers like looking to ads where an attractive individual or famous person is in it. The beliefs and purchase purposes of consumers can outdo be changed with the usage of physically attractive famous person subscribers ( Baker and Churchill 1977 ) . Furthermore this behavior can outdo be explained by the aura consequence, where a individual who performs good on a peculiar dimension, for illustration physical attraction, automatically scores high on other dimensions ( Solomon 2002 ) . Most documents told us that attraction of subscribers create an attitude alteration ( Baker & A ; Gilbert ( 1977 ) , Caballero and Price ( 1984 ) , Chaiken ( 1979 ) , Petty and Cacioppo ( 1980 ) .

In Kahle & A ; Homer ( 1985 ) , a survey had been done to rate famous persons on physical attraction, engagement and likeability. The topics got a twosome of booklets to read with advertizements of famous persons in it and got a questionnaire sing to the attraction, likeability and engagement of the famous persons. The consequences of this survey were that participants who saw an attractive subscriber liked the merchandise more than participants who saw an unattractive beginning. Besides looking to the likeability Kahle & A ; Homer ( 1985 ) stated that participants had a more positive attitude to the liked famous person than the disliked famous person. The trade name callback was besides higher the attractive famous persons, the same was described for the liked famous person. With regard to the engagement, Kahle & A ; Homer stated that high-involved topics could remember the merchandise better than the low-involvement participants.

3.4 The effects of multiple merchandise indorsements of famous persons on attitude

Normally, a company uses merely one famous person as subscriber for their merchandise. But famous persons can endorser multiple merchandises for several trade names. Because 1000000s of dollars are spent on a annual base on famous persons as subscribers, the impact of multiple merchandise subscribers is of import to analyze. An illustration of a multiple merchandise subscriber is David Beckham who promotes merchandises for Armani, Pepsi and Adidas. McCracken ( page 311, 1989 ) states that the famous person subscriber takes on significances that carry from ad to ad, does backing multiple merchandise affect those assigned significances such that the consumer perceive the famous person to be less believable and less sympathetic. In chapter 2 the significance transportation and the match-up rule are put frontward. With regard to the significance transportation, it is really indispensable that the famous person stands for his merchandise and his affinity with it. When a famous person subscribers for multiple merchandise, the significance transportation loses its strength and the attitude of the attitude of the consumer will diminish. Consumers might believe of that the famous person merely subscribers for the money, without the buttocks ground if he or she truly likes the endorsed merchandise or trade name ( Belch & A ; Belch, 2001 ) . Studies investigated and concluded that when a famous person is backing for four different type of merchandises or trade names, the credibleness, trustiness, expertness and likeability of the famous person is influenced negatively, and so the attitude ( Redenbach, 2005 ) . When backing for multiple trade names the famous person will finally harvest a deficiency of inducements.

Some positive effects of multiple merchandise subscribers of a famous person are the transportation of positive merchandise images and besides the consumers ‘ form of the clients response is positively influenced so ( Redenbach, 2005 ) . Other positive effects are that famous persons stand for a different mix of features, like life style and demographics. Using multiple famous persons in coaction, it ismore easy to successfully stand for a specific trade name. For illustration the company L’oreal matches their extended merchandise lines on the famous persons and their features ( Redenbach, 2005 ) .

4. How does negative promotion influence the famous person indorsement on the consumers ‘ attitude?

Verder is mij duidelijk geworden uit de literatuur dat er een groot verschil bestaat new wave negative promotion mbt lage- nut hoge engagement. Het is verstandig dat ook Te beschrijven in dot hoofdstuk ( amplification likeliness theoretical account, pheripheral/heuristic processing, central/systematic processing / beginning effects theoretical account.

Previous chapters have described the positive effects on the usage of famous person indorsement. But the usage of famous persons is ne’er without hazard. One hazard with regard to the usage of famous persons is the possibility of negative promotion sing the famous persons. If a famous person is strongly associated with the trade name, than the happening of the negative promotion about the famous person can act upon the attitude and purchase purposes of consumers towards the trade name. What the chairing function of negative famous person indorsement is towards the consumers ‘ attitude will be described in this chapter. Because the degree of high or low engagement of consumers is of major importance, the amplification likeliness theoretical account will besides be explained and applied on negative promotion.

“ They ‘re worlds. When you sign on to a famous person, you sign on to the whole bundle:

the good, the bad, and the ugly. ” ( Conrad 1995 )

There can be three possible effects of negative promotion of the subscriber. Negative promotion can hold negative effects. If an subscriber is interrelated with drunkenness several times, like for illustration David Hasselhoff, this will negatively act upon the related trade name he is backing. The 2nd consequence of negative promotion is that it can hold positive effects. When something happens to the subscriber which is negative for them, such as left out of consideration after a false switch on the skating rink, it can hold a positive consequence sing the attitude of the consumers. Consumers feel empathy for the subscriber, and so for the trade name they endorse.

The last consequence of negative promotion is that the subscriber is fired from his activities for the trade name. The trade name will make this, to demo the consumers that they disapprove the behavior of the subscriber, so people will hopefully non associate the negative promotion of the subscriber with the trade name or merchandise and their attitude will non be influenced negatively. These effects will be described.

4.1 Negative effects of negative promotion on attitude

The ground why houses use famous persons is that celebrated persons have famous person equity. Celebrity equity is the consciousness and associations and houses hope those to be transferred to the trade name. That ‘s the most of import facet famous persons do hold and non-celebrities do n’t harmonizing to the paper of Agrawal & A ; Kamakura ( 1995 ) . However, when a house marks on to a famous person, the possibility ever exists that the famous person becomes involved in an so called unwanted event. McCracken ( 1989 ) states that the effectivity of the subscriber depends upon the significances that the famous persons bring to the indorsement procedure ; besides seen as significance transportation. When an unwanted event occurs, it can alter the effectivity of the famous person as a spokesman, and will act upon the mark market ‘s consciousness and attitude towards the trade name.

This will impact the purchase determination and gross revenues rate of the merchandise, and so the house value. Harmonizing to Till and Shimp ( 1998 ) , negative information about a famous person resulted in a diminution of attitude towards the trade name and the alteration of attitude will be largely influenced by the association set size, the timing of the negative information, and the strength of the nexus between trade name and famous person. With regard to negative information and unwanted events, besides hurts can restrict a ( athletics ) famous person ‘s part in the activity bring forthing celebrity, which can cut down the person ‘s famous person position and, for this ground, effectivity as an subscriber and the attitude towards the trade name.

– ( illustrations Mike Tyon, O.J. Simpson )

– oplossing dice bedrijven gevonden hebben: gebruiken new wave bugs bunny / Paddy mouse, cartoon-figuren dice immuun zijn voor negatieve publiciteit

4.2 Positive effects of negative promotion on attitude

Langmeyer and Shank ( 1993 ) stated that negative promotion of a famous person subscriber could besides ensue in positive effects for the company. The populace, and so the consumers, reacted really positively to Sven Kramer towards he ‘s being left out of consideration after a false switch on the skating rink. Firms seemed to acknowledge his favorable entreaty and right media visual aspects after the dramatic race. And he received legion post-incident indorsement offers. While holding a hurtful constituent from the point of view of the famous person, some types of unwanted events may increase the effectivity of the subscriber and, as such, heighten the attitude.

4.3 Disposal of famous persons after negative promotion

*nog Te schrijven*

CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS IN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES: IS NEGATIVE INFORMATION ALL THAT HARMFUL?

Does Gender Impact the Perception of Negative Information Related to Celebrity Endorsers? A

Agrawal, Jagdish, and Wagner Kamakura. ( 1995 ) . “ The EconomicWorth of Celebrity Endorsers: An Event Study Analysis, ” Journal of Marketing 59 ( July ) , 56-62.

Till, Brian D. , and Terence A. Shimp ( 1998 ) . “ Subscribers in Ad. The Case of Negative Celebrity Information, ” Journal of Advertising 27 ( 1 ) , 67-82.

4.4 The degree of engagement: the amplification Likelihood Model

The Elaboration Likelihood Model ( ELM ) assumes that one time a client receives a message, he or she begins to treat it. There two paths that can be taken, the Central Route to Persuasion ( high-involvement ) or the Peripheral Route to Persuasion ( low-involvement ) .

The amplification likeliness theoretical account is a two-process theoretical account of response to advertisement stimulations. It explains how attitudes are formed and alter on the footing of the degree of engagement. The Elaboration Likelihood Model explains the procedure of the advertizement and publicities taking to the persuasion by indoctrinating attitudes. The forming of the attitude is depended on the sum of amplification, the processing and the relevant information. The theoretical account consists of high and low amplification. High amplification means that the consumer thinks carefully about the determinations and rating and takes into consideration the qualitative degree of statements. Low amplification means that the consumers do non believe profoundly about the determination devising and measure looking to simple positive or negative indicants. The Elaboration likeliness theoretical account is a map of two chief basicss, viz. the motive and the ability to treat the message. Motivation is the willingness, engagement and the demands of the consumer. The ability is holding the cognition, being academically capable and holding the possibility to treat the message. Harmonizing the Amplification Likelihood theoretical account, there are two chief paths that can be followed: the cardinal path and the peripheral path.

Central path

When the consumer finds the information in a persuasive message to be relevant or somehow interesting, he or she will carefully go to to the message content. The individual is likely actively to believe about the statements presented and bring forth cognitive responses to these statements.

Peripheral path

The peripheral path is taken when the individual is non motivated to believe profoundly about the statements presented. Alternatively, the consumer is likely to utilize other cues in make up one’s minding on the suitableness of the message. These cues might include the merchandise ‘s bundle, the attraction of the beginning, or the context in which the message is presented. Beginnings of information immaterial to the existent message content are called peripheral cues because they surround the existent message.

Consumers do non carefully see the message

Consumers are non motivated to believe about statements presented

Major determiners of attitude alteration are Peripheral Cues

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