The Nature And Extent Of Domestic Violence Criminology Essay

It is of import to indicate out here that an grownup is classed as any individual over the age of 18 old ages old. Family members are said to include female parents, male parents, boies, girls, brothers, sisters or grandparents. It is besides of import to indicate out that utilizing the term ‘family members ‘ does non merely intend that those straight related are included in this definition of domestic force, as in-laws or step-family members are besides defined as being household members ( Home Office, 2010 ) .

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The Association of Chief Police Officers ( ACPO ) and the Crown Prosecution Service ( CPS ) besides use this definition of domestic force ( ACPO, 2008 ) . It is non uncommon, nevertheless, for assorted other bureaus to hold different definitions of domestic force. This can turn out to be a considerable job when trying to plan and present services specifically aimed at undertaking the job of domestic force ( Humphries, Hester, Hague, Mullender, Abrahams and Lowe, 2000 ) . This is a job that will be considered in more deepness in Chapter 4 when analyzing the deductions of taking a multi-agency attack to undertaking domestic force.

The extent of the job

Harmonizing to the Home Office ( 2010 ) :

‘Domestic force histories for 14 % of all violent incidents ‘

‘One incident of domestic force is reported to the constabulary every minute ‘

‘One in four adult females and one in six work forces will be a victim of domestic force in their life-time with adult females at a greater hazard of repetition exploitation and serious hurt ‘

‘Domestic force presently claims the lives of around two adult females a hebdomad ‘

Write about it being a ‘hidden ‘ or a ‘silent ‘ offense? Difficult to research/get statistics? ? ? ?

The victims

The definition of domestic force given by the authorities states that domestic force occurs “ irrespective of gender ” ( Home Office, 2010 ; ACPO, 2008 ) . This would propose that victims of domestic force are every bit likely to be male as they are female. However, whilst it is true that both work forces and adult females can be victims of domestic force, statistics show that in most instances of domestic force the victims are adult females. On top of this, the authorities follow the statistic ‘one in four adult females and one in six work forces will be a victim of domestic force in their life-time ‘ with ‘with adult females at a greater hazard of repetition exploitation and serious hurt ‘ ( Home Office, 2010 ) but fail to indicate out that the former portion of the statistic is based on ‘one-off ‘ events ( Women ‘s Aid, 2010a ) . With adult females being at an increased opportunity of repetition exploitation, the spread between the extents to which adult females experience domestic force compared to work forces is likely much wider than authorities statistics tell us. It is for this ground that the chief focal point throughout this piece of work is on force against adult females. In add-on to all of this, it is one time once more critical to emphasize that, given the concealed nature of domestic force, it will ever be hard to cognize precisely how many people – work forces or adult females – are victimised in their life-time because of domestic force.

The nature of the job

It is foremost highly important to indicate out domestic force is seldom a ‘one-off ‘ event and, as mentioned antecedently, adult females are peculiarly likely to see repetition exploitation ( Home Office, 2010 ) . Second, in every instance of domestic force power and control over the victim are unusually apparent. These points entirely stress the fact that domestic force is a annihilating job ; nevertheless, by looking farther into the nature of the maltreatment it is clear that this lay waste toing job is besides terribly complicated.

It would be just to state that physical force is the first thing that comes to mind when sing the type of maltreatment that a victim of domestic force may endure. However, by looking at the Government definition of domestic force it becomes clear that most instances are much more complicated than this, as physical force is merely one component of domestic force and domestic force can happen with or without it. Other properties of domestic force, as stated in the Government definition, include endangering behavior and/or ‘psychological, physical, sexual, fiscal or emotional maltreatment ‘ ( Home Office, 2010 ; ACPO, 2008 ) .

The ‘Wheel of Violence ‘ ( or sometimes referred to as the ‘Wheel of Power and Control ‘ ) reiterates this thought as it has been developed to demo the different types of behavior that constitute domestic force ( Women ‘s Aid, 2007 ) and all of these behaviors are based on power and control. The ‘Wheel of Violence ‘ suggests that there are eight different ways in which a culprit can derive power and control over their victim. These are: ‘using coercion and menaces ‘ , ‘using bullying ‘ , ‘using emotional maltreatment ‘ , ‘using isolation ‘ , ‘minimizing, denying and faulting ‘ , ‘using kids ‘ , ‘using male privilege ‘ and ‘using economic maltreatment ‘ . A ‘Wheel of Non-Violence ‘ ( or sometimes referred to as the ‘Wheel of Equality ‘ ) has besides been developed to demo what a non-violent partnership looks like in comparing ( Women ‘s Aid, 2007 ) . This wheel is besides made up of eight constituents which include dialogue and equity, regard and trust and support. Both of these wheels have been developed by the ‘Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project ‘ but are widely used by many bureaus in the United Kingdom in an effort to explicate the nature of this complicated job. During a three-day period of detecting the work of the Sunflower Centre, a multi-agency support Centre in Northampton, a transcript of these wheels were provided and are included in Appendix 2.

The point that is seeking to be conveyed here is that in every instance of domestic force lay waste toing injury is caused to the victim and when sing merely how many victims there are, it is clear that something demands to be done to undertake this immense and complicated job. However, because of the complicated nature of this job, it frequently ‘requires a response often affecting more than one bureau ‘ ( Dominy & A ; Radford, 1996: 43 ) . This is why, before discoursing any multi-agency enterprises that attempt to undertake force against adult females, it is of import to see which bureaus come into contact with victims of domestic force, why they may come into contact with them and how they, as a individual bureau, effort to undertake the job.

Agencies concerned with undertaking domestic force

Gill Hague, Ellen Malos and Wendy Dear ( 1996: 23-28 ) give an penetration into who the ‘major participants ‘ are when it comes to covering with domestic force. They province that there are legion bureaus that come into contact with victims of domestic force including those bureaus ‘who specialise in the issue and those in which domestic force work forms merely a little per centum of their responsibilities ‘ ( Hague et al, 1996: 23 ) . The bureaus listed in the work of Hague, Malos and Dear is provided here, nevertheless, a assortment of beginnings will be used to explicate why these peculiar bureaus on a regular basis come into contact with victims of domestic force and how they attempt to undertake the job.

Women ‘s Aid and local adult females ‘s safeties

Women ‘s Aid are a nucleus bureau in trying to undertake domestic force as they are a national charity that specialise in force against adult females. They work hard to assist adult females who have suffered or are enduring force in legion ways. First, they work hard to protect victims of domestic force by guaranting that there are equal Torahs, policies and patterns in topographic point for victims of domestic force. Second, they try to forestall force against adult females through their on-going promotion runs and educational programmes and thirdly they provide legion services for victims of domestic force both locally ( such as local safeties ) and nationally ( such as the National Domestic Violence Helpline ) . Women ‘s Aid aid about 250,000 adult females and kids every twelvemonth!

( Women ‘s Aid, 2010b )

Other adult females ‘s and community administrations

Local Governments

The Police



Victim Support

Other voluntary sector administrations

Health Service professionals



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