The Motives Behind Mergers And Acquisitions Finance Essay

As one of the corporate restructuring attacks, amalgamations and acquisitions ( M & A ; A ) is viewed as a wealth creative activity scheme. Weston and Weaver ( 2001 ) suggest that companies deal with new challenges every bit good as chances more expeditiously with an M & A ; A procedure. They besides point out that the success of an M & A ; A may take to the gross sweetening, profitableness betterment and therefore the value creative activity of the company as a whole. Companies tend to hike growing through M & A ; A when they can non happen a manner to utilize internal growing chances ( Jovanoci and Braguinsky, 2002 ) . Arguments for M & A ; A are chiefly about its effects on market value sweetening. However, unsuccessful M & A ; A may take to the consequences of bead in portion monetary value and value devastation. Therefore, prudent analysis and consideration is necessary before continuing with any M & A ; A program.

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The motivations for M & A ; A are assorted. Companies make M & A ; A determinations for a mix of several grounds alternatively of merely 1. As summarized by Andrade, Mitchell and Stafford ( 2001 ) , common motivations for M & A ; A are as follows: accomplishing synergisms such as economic systems of graduated table ; obtaining monopoly power by bettering competition place ; demand of market subject ; managerial concern and other bureau cost ; geting benefits from variegations. Among the three major motivations, synergism, bureau and hubris motivations, Berkovitch and Narayanan ( 1993 ) believe that the latter two motivations lead to the negative unnatural return for geting companies. Consequently, to guarantee our motivations for M & A ; A will bring on good consequences is of import.

Synergy merely means that the value of the combined company is more than that of the amount of two companies when they are operated separately ( Weston and Weaver 2001 ) . The premise involved in synergy motivation is that directors of both geting and mark companies make determinations for the interest of stockholders. In other words, they try to maximise stockholders wealth ( Berkovitch and Narayanan 1993 ) . As suggested by Larsson and Finkelstein ( 1999 ) , synergy realisation, instead than anything else, is the cardinal index when mensurating the result of M & A ; A. Beginnings of synergism includes gross revenues sweetenings and cost decrease. Companies benefit from increased market power caused by M & A ; A. The combined house additions monopoly power, or at least becomes more competitory than earlier. As suggested by Andrade et Al ( 2001 ) , companies may besides anticipate growing caused by more efficient managing of assets. Cost decreases, such as economic system of graduated table, are another beginning of synergism. More efficient proficient and selling expertness is helpful in cut downing cost every bit good.

Hubris hypothesis merely states that directors of the geting company ever pay excessively much in acquisition ( Roll, 1986 ) . One of the accounts is misevaluation of the mark. In this circumstance, M & A ; A may be taken even if there is no synergism. The observation of negative unnatural returns may partially duo to acquisitions lead by hubris motivations. Narayanan et Al ( 1993 ) observed negative returns to geting company ‘s stockholder in about half of all the instances. Since synergism generates positive returns for stockholders, the observation of negative return indicates the being of hubris and other motivations.

Agency motor focal points on the involvement of the directors alternatively of the wealth of stockholders when doing M & A ; A determinations. Some of the directors concern more about their ain involvement. Datta et Al ( 2001 ) documented that a positive relationship between the equity-based compensation for directors and stock public presentation has been found. Furthermore, by doing M & A ; A, directors tend to increase the size of the company. As noted by Moeller et Al ( 2004 ) , Jensen ( 1986 ) made the statement that instead than payouts to stockholders, empire-building directors prefer doing acquisitions. Negative unnatural returns are expected in this instance every bit good.

Besides synergism, hubris and bureau consideration, other motivations, such as variegation, are besides of import in explicating the cause of M & A ; A. DeLong ( 2001 ) argues that amalgamations which aims to hike activity and geographics variegation has a better public presentation by 2.0 to 3.0 % than other types of amalgamations. It is good accepted that variegation in unrelated industries reduces hazard whereas geographically diversification offers new growing chances ( DePamphilis, 2007 ) .

Overall, our company aims to better competition place and addition synergisms from the acquisition of J Sainsbury plc. First, an addition in the market portion within the retail industry could be anticipated. J Sainsbury plc consists of Sainsbury ‘s and Sainsbury ‘s bank. As the largest concatenation of supermarket in the UK, Sainsbury ‘s has a concatenation of 509 supermarkets and 207 convenience shops. Therefore, by geting J Sainsbury plc, our company will derive new growing chances every bit good as more powerful distribution ironss, which will further profit us by hiking gross revenues and cut downing competitions. Second, geographically variegation offers us new growing chances within the UK market. Furthermore, since UK market are characterized by good record of corporate administration and corporate societal duty, and at the clip Sainsbury is a responsible company with good client relationships, we could take the acquisition as a good opportunity to better our public image. Finally, as a mark of several unsuccessful coup d’etat commands, Sainsbury is surely a valuable mark. Therefore, by taking this acquisition successfully, we may win back the investors ‘ assurance.

Part two Evaluation ( 1000 )

1. Methods Comparison ( 525 ) 425

Peoples may measure a company for rather different intents, and therefore use assorted methods to specify a proper value for the company. The most common used methods for rating are Asset-Based Valuation, Multiple Approach and Discounted Cash Flow method.

Based on the historical figures on balance sheet, asset-based rating is normally used for accounting intent. It is utile when information about a company is non equal, such as for private companies. However, the lacks involved can non be ignored. First, it takes neither current plus value nor intangible assets into history. Intangible assets such as good will and direction competency are indispensable constituents of a company. Second, directors ever arrange their ain wage for tax-saving intent. Furthermore, it may meet with the job of dissymmetry information. Overall, accommodation is needed when asset-based rating is used.

Calculations base on P/E ratio, EBIT or some other multipliers is called Multiple Approach. First measure involves finding how much net income the company generates. Then, we ‘ll acquire steadfast value by multiply it with a proper multiplier. Though it is a planetary and comparative attack for rating, it has some lacks. First, all the computations are based merely on one twelvemonth ‘s earning. Second, it ignores the consequence of pitching. A highly-geared company normally faces a relatively lower P/E ratio. Further statement emphasizes the ignorance of direction competency. Last, P/E ratio for public companies is frequently higher than that for private companies. All these jobs may project uncertainty on the truth of multiple attack rating. Therefore farther accommodation is of import if this method is adopted.

As a cardinal rating method, Discounted Cash Flow ( DCF ) method focuses on the present value of all the future hard currency flows that may bring forth from the investing. The steadfast value consists of two parts: the value of expressed prognosis period and the terminal value. The length of the expressed prognosis period may assorted depending on the clip that a company can bring forth net income from its current constellation. As for the terminal value, it is a value represents all the future hard currency flows after the company come ining a stage of adulthood. A normalized hard currency flow every bit good as a ageless growing rate is required for ciphering the terminal value. To acquire the present value of these two parts, a proper price reduction rate is needed. Normally, the Leaden Average Cost of Capital ( WACC ) , which represents the minimal rate of return on capital employed, is used.

As suggested by Vernimmen ( 2005 ) , this is a method which has its footing on the existent economic public presentation of the company. Alternatively utilizing historical figures, the rating emphasizes the prediction of future hard currency flows. However, it besides has some lacks. First, the consequences of appraisal are volatile couple to premises we made. For illustration, the present value is sensitive to little alterations in estimated price reduction rate. Second, it is hard to specify a proper terminal value. As in our instance, the terminal value histories for 93.5 % of the house value, which means we expect a batch of net income from the far hereafter. Last, prediction of future public presentations is rather demanding. Therefore, by following this method, we need to do carefully-thought estimations.

2. Calculation 800

Before doing any suggestion about the profitableness of the acquisition program, a careful computation is done to show the synergism from this undertaking. We ‘ll acquire a clear thought about the synergism generated by ciphering the stand-alone value and value with synergism of J Sainsbury plc individually. Here DCF method is adopted and a 5-year-estimation is made.

( 1 ) Original Data

Harmonizing to DCF method, the information for the public presentation of the base twelvemonth, Year 2008, is acquired from the one-year study ( 2008 ) of Sainsbury. The figures are presented in Table 1. The revenue enhancement rate is 28 % harmonizing to web site: Table 2 shows the ratios calculated by utilizing figures in Table 1. Assume that the ratios of COGS/Revenue and Administration Cost/Revenue remain the same during the estimated period whereas the point of Other Income remains 30 unchanged ( Assumption 1 ) . Such premise reveals the fact that COGS and disposal cost are extremely related with the gross revenues ; nevertheless, this is non the instance for Other Income. The computation of free hard currency flows is guided by the method shown in Table 3.

( 2 ) Stand-alone Calculation


The first measure involves the computation of EBIT for each twelvemonth being estimated. Assume that the gross growing rate is the leaden mean rate of the last three old ages ( Assumption 2 ) .Calculation is presented in Table 4. To do an appropriate appraisal, the growing rate is adjusted by the rising prices rate as shown in Table 5. Figures of gross revenues for the past four old ages are obtained from the one-year study of Sainsbury. Historic figures of rising prices rate are acquired from web site of National Statistics, whereas the prediction of rising prices rates from 2009 to 2012 is from web site of Bank of England. Further assume that the rising prices rate for twelvemonth 2013 remains the same as in twelvemonth 2012 ( Assumption 3 ) . Although the prediction of rising prices rate normally has a scope between -1 % and 10 % , which is non accurate, I still adjust the growing rate by rising prices to capture the characteristics of the economic system as a whole.


To acquire the free hard currency flow, farther premises are need.

Since the company uses the method of consecutive line for depreciation, figures remains unchanged in each twelvemonth. Capital Expenditure is estimated harmonizing to J Sainsbury plc ‘s ain program, which is presented in the one-year study 2008.

Terminal Value

All the appraisal about Steady province is based on the public presentation of Year 5. Assume that the one-year changeless growing rate ( ) is the hazard free rate of UK market ( Assumption 7 ) . The terminal value is calculated by following the expression:



The Leaden Average Cost of Capital ( WACC ) is normally used as the discounted rate in computation. As shown in Table 6, the cost debt is assumed to be the involvement rate of long term debt which is obtained from the one-year study ( Assumption 8 ) . The cost of equity is obtained by utilizing CAPM theoretical account as shown in Table 7. The figure of I? is acquired form Yahoo It measures the hazard of a company ‘s common stock. degree Fahrenheit is represented by UK 10 twelvemonth benchmark bond rate is the expected market hazard premium. Here FTSE 100 return rate is used to stand for for our company is one of the constituents of FTSE 100 indices. Monthly information for both and are acquired from data-stream. Then I annualize them to acquire the absolute one-year return.

The procedure of stand-alone rating is presented in Table 8 and consequences of the endeavor value in Table 9. The stand-alone house value is i??6784.82 million.

( 3 ) Synergy

The expected synergism comes from both gross sweetening and cost decrease. If the acquisition of J Sainsbury plc is successful, a farther addition in the gross of 3 % for the first twelvemonth and 1 % for the following 3 old ages could be expected. The ratio of COGS/Revenue will drop by 2 % and reaches 92.38 % . The Administration costs/ gross revenues ratio will besides has a lessening every bit much as 20 % , drops from 2.81 % to 2.25 % . Thus, after taking all these alterations into consideration, the company ‘s value with synergism is i??18711.85 million, which is about 3 times of the stand-alone value. The synergism generated by acquisition is i??11927.02 million. The computation and consequence of house value with synergism are presented in Table 10 and Table 11 severally.

4. Sensitive Analysis

The value of synergism is accurate merely when our anticipation about gross revenues addition is right. It is rather possible that, nevertheless, gross revenues will non make the mark. The recession which the full economic system is sing now may last longer than expected. Furthermore, it is normally the instance that food market industry is normally the last to retrieve. As suggested by Vernimmen ( 2005 ) , several scenarios are preferred for this method to capture the consequence of different growing premises. Therefore, sensitive analysis is done individually for the instance that gross revenues addition is 1 % less than expected ( Scenario 1 ) and the instance of no gross revenues increase at all ( Scenario 2 ) .

As shown in Table 12, the synergism will drop by 7.48 % and 11.26 % severally in Scenario 1 and 2. If the gross revenues addition is 1 % less than expected, the synergism generated is i??11034.96 million. Even if there is no gross revenues betterment, the synergism is still every bit much as i??10584.47 million. That ‘s what we could anticipate merely from the cost decrease caused by acquisition.

Part three Financing ( 883 )

Apparently, J Sainsbury plc is a profitable investing harmonizing to the rating. If we make this acquisition successfully, synergisms every bit much as i??11927.02 million could be gained. However, how to finance this undertaking is still a job. As summarized by Martin ( 1996 ) , payment methods used in M & A ; A are hard currency and stock exchange. As for hard currency funding, we have the picks of utilizing free hard currency flow, publishing equity or publishing debt. Method of payment is of importance couple to the fact that it is one of the determiners of value creative activity in M & A ; A.

Companies have the pick of doing M & A ; A either by hard currency or by stock. A hard currency trade merely means that the geting company pays a fixed sum of money to the mark company ‘s stockholders. On the contrary, new portions of the acquirer are issued straight to the stockholder of the mark company in a stock trade. Choice on payment methods has great impact on the value of the geting company. Travlos ( 1987 ) argues that stock exchange acquisition leads to important losingss whereas hard currency trades experiences positive returns. This consequence has been farther convinced by Amihud et Al. ( 1990 ) . They argue that directors tend to utilize stock exchange method when the portions of the geting company are overvalued. Fuller et Al ( 2002 ) found grounds, though merely for public companies, that stock-swap is used when their stock are overvalued and hard currency is used when stock are undervalued or right valued. Therefore, the proclamation of a stock barter may take to a negative market reaction and therefore a negative consequence on acquirer ‘s portion monetary value.

As for our instance, hard currency payment should be suggested for several grounds. First, we pay a fixed sum for a hard currency trade whereas the entire payment for a stock barter is non precise. Furthermore, sing the fact that our company is financially sound, we could do the command by hard currency to hike stockholders ‘ assurance. Last, publishing debt may be easier for big companies as ours.

As stated above, a company has three picks when they make a hard currency trade. Pure hard currency trade is rare and used merely when the geting company is big company with plentifulness of hard currency whereas the mark is little in size. Therefore, we could raise money either by publishing equity or publishing debt.

Publishing equity is non preferred when taking corporate control into consideration. As noted by Ghost and Ruland ( 1998 ) , financing by publishing equity has a dilution consequence on the control power of the geting company ‘s stockholder. As suggested by Faccio et Al ( 2005 ) , the bidder ‘s funding determination may be influenced by their desire to command the company. Since the new issued equity may thin the right of the original stockholders, the company faces with the hazard of losing control and going minority stockholders.

Another job caused by publishing equity may the asymmetric information. Directors of the geting company tend to publishing equity when their stock monetary value is over valued ( Loughran and Vijh, 1997 ) . The company will profit from the overvalued portion by selling them on the stock market. Though publishing equity shows assurance in the new investing, since the market are non certain about the motivations behind this determination, they may see it as a signal of overvalued company.

Therefore, publishing equity may confront a negative market reaction.

Capital construction of the geting company should besides be considered. Publishing debt indicates a lifting fiscal hurt costs ( Faccio et al, 2005 ) . Both the debt capacity and bing purchase are of import for the determination. As noted by Titman ( 2001 ) , touchable assets, growing of net incomes and variegation have positive influences on a company ‘s debt capacity. Since our company has a good fiscal position, and at the same clip, the investing on J Sainsbury is expected to bring forth positive returns and heighten the growing of the company as a whole, publishing debt may non be so hard for us. Furthermore, the present purchase ratio is within its mark. This indicates that we still have the pick of publishing debt without much fiscal hazard.

One of the lacks of publishing debt may be the fact that the geting company bears the whole concern hazard in this instance. If the investing is non valuable, or in another words, if there is no synergism could be gain by M & A ; A, the geting company ‘s stockholders have to bear all the losingss. However, the expected synergism is every bit much as i??11927.02 million harmonizing to our rating. This figure is still i??10584.47 million even there is no gross revenues addition. Thus the hazard accompanied with publishing debt is much less in our instance.

Harmonizing to the above analysis, it is non wise for us to finance the acquisition by publishing equity. Not merely because the dilution effects on our stockholder ‘s right, but besides for the consideration of negative market reaction. Alternatively, publishing debt may demo assurance in the profitableness of our investing. Furthermore, addition in Debt/Equity ratio, every bit long as within our capital construction mark, will offer the benefit from revenue enhancement shield. Last, the acquisition within food market industry is ever paid by hard currency. When QIA tend to coup d’etat J Sainsbury in 2007, it is the extra i??1 billion hard currency payment required by Sainsbury ‘s stockholders that lead to the failure of the trade. Therefore, hard currency payment by publishing debt is suited in our instance.

Separate Four Recommendation ( 344 )

Harmonizing to the above analysis and rating, J Sainsbury plc is a valuable investing for us. Benefits from acquisition of J Sainsbury are assorted. First, we could anticipate the betterment in our competition place and more growing chances from this trade. Second, our company can take this alteration to better our public image. Further, the synergism anticipated in our instance is big. Last, it is a good chance to come in the UK and even the European market. Therefore, what we need now is a specific program to do the acquisition successful.

The determination on offer monetary value for J Sainsbury will be based on our rating and history command monetary values. Sainsbury is the mark of unsuccessful coup d’etat commands made by QIA in 2007. The command is made before the fiscal crisis and recession. QIA offered a monetary value every bit much as i??10.6 billion. Since the failure of that trade is non because of the monetary value, this could be a benchmark for our commands. Sing the synergism generated from this trade, an initial command monetary value of i??8.5 billion is sensible. The ceiling monetary value will run between i??12 billion and i??13 billion, otherwise it will go forth us excessively little benefit but the whole concern hazards.

Our company should publishing debt to finance the acquisition. Besides the grounds mentioned above, the hard currency payment is more attractive to Sainsbury ‘s stockholders during the clip of recession.

As a company with a long history, the ample minority stockholders may non desire to sell it. The Sainsbury household has named the company after their household name and owned it for coevalss. Therefore, allow the Sainsbury household be a stockholder in the combined house will be helpful.

The J Sainsbury plc has a bank sector which is non profitable. Therefore, a farther treatment is necessary on whether to maintain it or sell it to another bank.

Further consideration on inside informations, such as timing of the command, are necessary. The acquisition on the whole is a valuable investing. Therefore, we should do every attempt to accomplish it.


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