In about 400 words for each subject. sum up Dr Montessori’s attack and discourse how Montessori’s views on these subjects are regarded in kid development texts today.
( a ) The Role of the Environment
( B ) Children’s Diet and Exercise
( degree Celsius ) Nature in Education
( vitamin D ) Education of the Senses
Dr Montessori besides expresses the demand for ‘Scientific Pedagogy’ . i. e. utilizing scientific methods ( particularly observation ) . In the decision to this assignment. you should turn to her theory of scientific teaching method. and compare it to Vygotsky’s ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ . ( a ) The Role of the Environment
In Montessori doctrine there are three taking factors that make up the methodological analysis: the environment. including all the stuffs ; the directress. and the kid. The prepared environment should be established upon one cardinal base: “the autonomy of the students in their self-generated manifestations” ( Montessori. 2002 ) . It is in freedom that a kid reveals himself and uses his environment to turn. Socio-emotional development besides has a large focal point in Montessori’s doctrine. McDevitt & A ; Ormrod agree by saying “Environmental influences are apparent in the development of self-esteem and motive ( McDevitt & A ; Ormrod. 2012 ) . The Montessori environment besides allows freedom in many facets. including freedom of motion as the kids are allowed to travel around the schoolroom every bit good as outside the schoolroom. All stuffs are designed with a self-correcting control of mistake and the right sizes.
All the stuff should be kept orderly and furniture should be child sized. such as chairs and tabular arraies so kids can travel them. Child size wash-hand stands. shelves and closets should besides be provided for Practical Life Exercises. Nature is besides a critical portion of the Montessori environment and a garden is extremely recommended. Lessons about the workss. insects. seasons and fresh nutrient are indispensable. Montessori strongly believed that “The kid must pull from nature the forces necessary to the development of the organic structure and of the spirit. ( Montessori. 2002 ) . The Montessori outdoor environment is prepared merely every bit carefully as indoors. Outdoor countries require infinite for running. jumping. throwing. mounting. lying. sitting. equilibrating. watching. edifice. excavation. playing with H2O. sand and researching. The basic construct behind Montessori’s educational work was that of supplying kids with a suited environment in which to populate and larn. Numerous theories of development have influenced educational patterns during the twentieth century ( Aldridge. Kuby. & A ; Strevy. 1992 ) . http://sevenedges.com/a-montessori-preschool-can-provide-the-ideal-platform-for-the-overall-growth-of-children/
But most developmentalists agree that the environment is an of import force in development. Vygotsky was the first advocate of the contextual position. but Urie Bronfenbrenner ( 1917 ) . is its best advocate today with the ecological systems theory. based on the nature vs. raising thought. Bronfenbrenner believed development of a kid was determined by the relationships among the environment or environmental systems around them. For Bronfenbrenner. “development is a complex interaction of the altering kid within a altering ecological context. ” ( Mossler. 2011 ) .
Through careful observation of kids all over the universe. Dr Maria Montessori developed those guidelines for the readying of the child’s environment. These stimulate the child’s of all time turning demand to hone the accomplishments necessary to life and to order the sensory feelings he has gathered from the environment and set them to utilize day-to-day.
( B ) Children’s Diet and Exercise
Physical safety and a healthy diet are indispensable in raising healthy kids. Children’s growing. behaviour and development can be affected by their diet. A balanced diet will assist kids to stay healthy every bit good as to turn. When Montessori foremost opened the “Casa dei Bambini” . the “local criterions of child hygiene were non prevailing in the home” ( Montessori. 2002 ) . Therefore. Montessori believed that a big portion of the at least the child’s diet could be trusted to the school ( Montessori. 2002 ) in order to protect the children’s development. Nowadays a batch of baby’s rooms and pre- schools provide appropriate nutrient to kids harmonizing to the child’s age and development. includes a broad assortment of alimentary nutrients. following rigorous Dietary Guidelines.
Montessori besides believed a diet of small kids should be rich in fats and sugar ( Montessori. 2002 ) . Current research has shown children’s nutrition plays a really large function in their development. wellness. and their nutrient picks subsequently in life. Surveies besides show that kids are being fed diets high in fat. sugar. and salt. and that female parents are confused as to what they should be feeding their kids ( Venter. C. C. & A ; Harris G. G. 2009 ) . Diets high in fat and sugar have been linked with diabetes in little kids. and contribute to the on-going fleshiness job. Parents should feed their kids a healthy diet which consists of nutrients from all five nutrient groups. ( Vegetables and legumes/beans. fruit. grains and staff of lifes. thin meats and dairy / eggs ) . Parents should present healthy nutrients in early childhood because in making so. it allows the kid to develop healthy eating wonts. Adequate foods. supportive societal relationships and geographic expedition in the physical environment are indispensable to normal growing. ” ( McDevitt & A ; Ormrod. 2012 ) . Bing active is of import excessively.
Walking. mounting. dancing. running. swimming and athleticss construct strength into castanetss and musculuss. Bing active is besides the natural manner of equilibrating the nutrient consumption. The more active kids are. the more likely they are to hold healthy growing. Montessori nevertheless did non appreciate gymnastic exercises for psychomotor development. saying “the steering spirit in such gymnastic exercises is coercion. and I feel that such exercisings repress self-generated motions and enforce others in their place” ( Montessori. 2002 ) . She designed resort area equipment based on child drama observation and schoolroom furniture was all designed with organic structure proportions of age ranges in head. She besides created / offered pieces of secondary school setup such as mounting wires or frames. trampolines ( created by Seguin ) . a low wooden platform for jumping and rope ladders. The Montessori Method is one that supports the importance of drama and motion. and is presently being applied to kids of changing civilizations around the Earth. ( degree Celsius ) Nature in Education
As our lives become more technologically advanced and driven many kids have really small entree to a natural home ground in their vicinity environment. Young kids develop their sensory. cognitive. gross and motor accomplishments while in relationship to the natural universe. Maria Montessori had a profound regard for nature and believed that it should play a big portion in the prepared environment as kids are of course attracted to the nature. “Montessori emphasized the importance of contact with nature for the developing kid. Man still belongs to nature and. particularly when he is a child” ( Lillard. 2011 ) . It is for this ground that all stuffs used in the environment should be of natural beginning every bit far as possible and non synthesized or plastic. The kid needs to hold stuffs that represent the existent universe. conveying him into closer contact with world to demo him the bounds of nature and world.
The attention of workss and flowers with a little garden and animate beings such as coneies. gold fish is besides recommended in the category for contact and apprehension of nature. There is besides merely one of each activity in the environment. this shows the world of nature where the kid can non ever have whatever he wants but will hold to develop forbearance and regard for the stuffs and the other kids working around him. The Montessori outdoor environment should be designed to appeal the natural desire of the kid to research the universe around him. It should be with the natural elements such H2O. stone. wood. sand. rock. grass and bark to ease farther geographic expedition of nature. A pool with waterfall can besides be made to the kids know about aquatic workss and animate beings. surveies about H2O pollution and H2O preservation. The key to the success of our out-of-door environment is fixing the environment with purposeful. prosecuting activities that are hands-on. existent and practical. We should construction the environment in such a manner that kids can do finds on their ain.
“Children appear to hold a natural wonder about their universe. Factors such as motive and assurance in their ain abilities. depend mostly on experiences with the environment” . ( McDevitt & A ; Ormrod. 2012 ) . Following that tendency. natural drama infinites are presently turning in child care centres. It is going more popular everyplace. A natural drama infinites or resort area is a infinite where there are no manufactured drama constructions. It is all based on nature and utilizing nature as stuffs for the resort area. These may include sand cavities. H2O. flora. bowlders or other stones. textured tracts. etc. Current research and books agree with Montessori that “direct exposure to nature is indispensable for healthy childhood development and for the physical and emotional wellness of kids and grownups. ” ( Louv. 2008 ) . ( vitamin D ) Education of the Senses
A child’s journey in life Begins right from the clip that he is in his mother’s uterus. increasing in size and developing his physical constructions.
Once he is born and he leaves the comfort of his mother’s uterus. he must travel through a period of Reconstruction. to develop in motion. address and other countries. However. the kid does non possess a fixed manner of behaviour or any natural manner of moving or believing and commanding in progress. like those in animate beings who are instantly able to walk or even run every bit shortly as they are born. But he has forms of mental power. flowering. He bit by bit unfolds to exhibit the feature of his sort in motion. address. and action. being guided by an interior usher. Harmonizing to Maria Montessori. this is the existent individuality of the kid. the existent disclosure. “It is necessary to get down the instruction of senses in the formative period. if we wish to hone the sense development with the instruction which is to follow” ( Montessori. 2002 ) . “Infants can larn a batch about the universe from their sensory and perceptual abilities” ( McDevitt and Ormrod. 2012 ) .
Sensory comes from the words sense or senses and Montessori believed that “The foremost of the child’s variety meats to get down working are his senses” ( Montessori. 2012 ) . Sensory instruction helps develop a child’s mind and we can foster it by instruction. edifice upon experiences and thought procedures. The purpose of the sensory work is to do a kid addition clear. witting. information and to be able to analyse it. “The development of the senses precedes that of the higher rational powers. and in the kid between three and six old ages of age. it is in the formative period. We can so assist the development of the senses during this really period. graduating and accommodating the stimulation merely as we ought. to help the acquisition of address. before it is wholly developed. All the instruction of early childhood ought to be based on this rule – to help the natural development of the kid. ” ( Montessori. 2004 ) . They learn about the universe by touching. savoring. smelling. seeing and hearing. Through his senses. the kid surveies and understands his environment.
I would wish to finalise this assignment discoursing Montessori’s “Theory of scientific pedagogy” . based on her ain statement: “Truly there is an pressing demand today of reforming the methods of direction and instruction. and he who aims at such a reclamation is fighting for the regeneration of world. ” ( Montessori. 2004 ) . First. Vygotsky and Montessori have a batch in common. They were both trained as physicians and both worked with kids with particular demands before they went onto develop their ain position of children’s development and acquisition. Second. both of them are really acute perceivers of kids. For Montessori. she made observation a anchor of her method of instruction. Third. societal interaction between kids and grownups is a cardinal portion of larning for both. Montessori focused on the work of the instructors. based on scientific observations of the child’s development. invariably carried out and recorded by the instructor.
These observations are based on the autonomy of kids. made on the degree of their concentration. the debut to and command of each piece of stuff. the societal development. physical wellness. etc. Teachers created and maintained a work rhythm for them to utilize and followed up with these observations for single kids. This construct is related to an of import rule of Vygotsky’s work. the Zone of Proximal Development. This is an of import construct that relates to the difference between what a kid can accomplish independently and what a kid can accomplish with counsel and encouragement from a skilled spouse ( or teacher ) . Vygotsky sees the Zone of Proximal Development as the country where the most sensitive direction or counsel should be given – leting the kid to develop accomplishments they will so utilize on their ain – developing higher mental maps. “Instruction is most effectual when it is separately tailored to the children’s alone strengths and restrictions. ” ( Bodrova & A ; Leong. 2007 ) .
Vygotsky besides views interaction with equals as an effectual manner of developing accomplishments and schemes. He suggests that instructors use concerted acquisition exercisings where less competent kids develop with aid from more adept equals – within the zone of proximal development. We can so reason the focal point on the importance of the construct of the “zone of proximal development” as a mark to instructors of a bound to their cognition of kids. and an warning to instructors to be more observant and less directing refering larning activities of the kid. based on “the cardinal rule of scientific teaching method – the autonomy of the student – such autonomy as shall allow a development of single. self-generated manifestations of the child’s nature. ” ( Montessori. 2002 ) .
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