The Mines And Mineral Environmental Sciences Essay

The relevant regulations in force under the MMDR Act are the Mineral Concession regulations, 1960, sketching the processs and conditions for obtaining a prospecting licence or a excavation rental, and the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules,1988 that lay down the guidelines for guaranting excavation on a scientific footing and without environment debasement.

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All the major minerals come under the horizon of the Cardinal Government. Minor minerals are individually notified and come under horizon of province Government who have formulated Mineral Concession Rules for this intent.

Ministry of Coal and Public Sector Coal Companies

At the Government degree undertakings each bing Rs.20 Crores and supra are being monitored. As on 31-12-2001, there are 63 such undertakings ( mining & A ; non-mining ) under execution at Coal India Limited ( CIL ) Singareni Collieries Company Limited ( SCCL ) .

Public Sector Undertakings ( PSUs )[ 1 ]

There were four PSUs under the Department of Mines in 2003-2004, viz. :

1. National Aluminium Company Limited ( NALCO ) , Bhubaneswar ;

2. Hindustan Copper Limited ( HCL ) , Kolkata ;

3. Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited ( MECL ) , Nagpur ;

4. Bharat Gold Mines Limited ( BGML ) , Kolar Gold Fields, Karnataka* ;

* Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. ( BGML ) has been closed under Section 25 ( O ) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 from 1.3.2001.

Joint Sector Companies

In the undermentioned two companies, Government of India holds a minority interest after disinvestment and transportation of direction control to Strategic Partners:

1. Bharat Aluminium Company Limited ( BALCO ) , Korba, Chattisgarh.

2. Hindustan Zinc Limited ( HZL ) Udaipur, Rajasthan.

Research Institutions

There are three Research Institutions under the Department of Mines:

1. Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminius Research Development and Design Centre ( JNARDDC ) , Nagpur ;

2. National Institute of Rock Mechanics ( NIRM ) , Karnataka, and

3. National Institute of Miners ‘ Health ( NIMH ) , Nagpur.

Other Bodies

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA[ 2 ]

The Geological Survey of India ( GSI ) , a Prime Minister scientific administration in the state unrelentingly prosecuting its aims since 1851 to carry through the society ‘s demand of minerals and natural stuffs for industrial growing besides, guaranting a safe community life free from the vagaries of natural jeopardies. The administration has now successfully completed 152 old ages of glorious service to the state.

Thrust Areas of Activity

The thrust countries of GSI ‘s activities have evolved with the altering national precedences throughout the consecutive Five Year Plans and are soon oriented in the visible radiation of the aims and ends set up for the Xth program. The major push countries in regard of GSI identified in the Xth Five Year Plan are:

a?¤ Creation and updating of National geo-scientific database through specialised thematic surveies geochemical and geophysical function: Specialised thematic surveies, multi-elemental geochemical function of the state with ultra-low sensing degree analytical installations, low-level aerogeophysical multi-sensor studies and land geophysical function of prioritised countries have been stressed to turn up so far undiscovered and/or deep-seated/ concealed prospects/deposits based on new constructs of ore generation. Seabed study will go on in Territorial Waters and parametric study in EEZ along with preliminary appraisal of economic stuffs in ocean floor.

a?¤ Concept oriented hunt for hidden mineral sedimentations with emphasis on deficient and hi-tech minerals: The chief push of GSI in the mineral geographic expedition would stay on baronial metals, cherished rock, base metal, coal and brown coal. Appraisal will go on for ferric and non-ferrous ( bauxite ) , fertiliser, strategic, stubborn and hi-tech. minerals. In add-on, to the mineral omen, the organisation would go on with systematic updating of the informations base in the mineral resource sector to supply dependable and relevant information on mineral and other natural resources to the public and private sector enterprisers to prolong investing in mineral sector.

a?¤ Seismic micro-zonation of urban bunchs, active mistake function and experimental seismology for word picture of possible hazard zones for geo-hazard direction: Earthquake surveies including active mistake function, experimental seismology for word picture of possible hazard zones for geo-hazard direction and seismal micro-zonation of urban bunchs as a portion of readiness and hazard extenuation with state-of-the-art engineering and instrumental support.[ 3 ]

a?¤ Compilation and digitization of maps for archival saving and airing: Information Technology is critical for saving, direction, retrieval and analysis of geoscientific informations bank accumulated by GSI in past 152 old ages of being. The undertaking of soft transcript transition of all the studies taken up in old twelvemonth has about been completed. GSI has besides embarked upon an ambitious program for creative activity of cyberspace portal, which will supply uninterrupted connectivity among all the offices of GSI, spread over in 32 metropoliss of the state. The portal, apart from airing of information via cyberspace or intranet will besides be utile to incorporate work program, coaction, messaging and content direction.

a?¤ Modernisation programmes of GSI: Modernization every bit good as upgradation of research labs as National, Regional and Operational degree installations to supply high quality research lab support is go oning. It has remained changeless enterprise to upgrade and modernize research lab equipment. GSI procured Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometer

( IDTIMS ) . Using detached U and Pb from mineral grains first clip in India, age informations has been determined which are regarded as planetary criterions. Digital MEQ recording equipment for temblor surveies, micro-thermometric setup for geothermic surveies and micro-gravimeter and land conduction metres for geophysical surveies were besides procured.

Expert Committee Report

The study of the Expert Committee set up by the Department of Mines to analyze and urge suited alterations in the Charter of GSI through appraisal of the function and maps of GSI in the visible radiation of developments in the field of earth scientific disciplines over the last 30 old ages has been accepted by the Government. The commission has revised the Charter and maps of GSI and has made recommendations to do GSI more antiphonal to the scientific and social demands and heighten its visibleness.

Some of the of import recommendations of the commission incorporated in the revised charter of maps of GSI are ( one ) puting up of Geosciences Institute for achieving excellence in R & A ; D attempts, ( two ) puting up of a commercial wing, ( three ) developing strong Management Information System ( MIS ) , ( four ) upgrading and modernising research labs, ( V ) preparation of in-between degree scientists, and ( six ) restructuring of forces direction.

INDIAN BUREAU OF MINES[ 4 ]

The Indian Bureau of Mines ( IBM ) is a low-level office under the Department of Mines. It is engaged in the publicity & A ; preservation of minerals, protection of mines ‘ environment and scientific development of mineral resources of the state, other than coal, crude oil and natural gas, atomic minerals and minor minerals. It performs regulative maps, viz. enforcement of the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules, 1988, the relevant commissariats of the Mines and Minerals ( Development and Regulation ) Act, 1957, Mineral Conces-sion Rules, 1960 and Environmental Protection Act 1986 and Rules made thereunder. It besides undertakes scientific, technoeconomic, research oriented surveies in assorted facets of excavation, geological surveies, ore mineral extraction and environmental surveies.

IBM provides proficient consultancy services to the excavation industry for the geological assessment of mineral resources, and the readying of feasibleness studies of excavation undertakings, including mineral extraction workss. It prepares mineral maps and a nationwide stock list of mineral resources of leasehold and freehold countries. It besides promotes and proctors community development activities in mining countries. IBM besides functions as Data Bank of Mines and Minerals and publishes statistical periodicals. It besides brings out proficient publications/monographs on single mineral trade goods and bulletins of topical involvement. It advises the Central and State Governments on all facets of mineral industry, trade, statute law, etc

Statistical Publications[ 5 ]

IBM disseminates statistical information on mines, minerals, metals and mineral based industries through its assorted publications. Information on mineral production, stocks, dispatchs, employment, inputs in excavation, mining machinery and related affairs received from the mine proprietors on statutory footing under the MCDR, 1988 and accessory statistics on metals production, mineral trade and market monetary values of minerals, gross from the excavation sector, rent, royalty and Ce on minerals, etc. from other bureaus is compiled on a regular basis by IBM.

Consultancy Service

IBM provides proficient consultancy services on prescribed charges for geological assessments, study of the countries, readying of feasibleness survey studies, environment impact appraisal and environment direction program, choice of suited excavation equipment, rating of feasibleness study prepared by other advisers, fiscal establishments, etc.

Technical Publications

IBM brings out proficient publications associating to mines and minerals, mineral based industries, trade, mineral extraction, R & A ; D activities, etc. During the twelvemonth 2003-2004, Bulletin on Mining Leases and Prospecting Licences-2001 issue, three issues of half annual bulletin on Mineral Information ( October, 2001-March, 2002, April-September, 2002 and October, 2002 – March, 2003 ) and Indian Minerals Year Book 2003 issue were released.

Chapter 3

Statutory Structure and Legal Regime

Following the passage of the Nationalization Acts, the coal industry was reorganized into two major public sector companies, viz. Coal India Limited ( CIL ) which owns and manages all the old Government-owned mines of National Coal Development Corporation ( NCDC ) and the nationalized private mines and Singreni Colliery Company Limited ( SCCL ) which was in being under the ownership and direction of Andhra Pradesh State Government at the clip of the nationalisation.[ 6 ]

Harmonizing to Ministry of Coal, till 31st December 2007, 170 confined coal blocks have been allocated, of which 15 blocks allotted to 3 PSUs and 9 private companies have already started bring forthing coal. Of the 170 confined coal blocks allotted ( with militias 39.3 billion metric tons ) , 76 coal blocks with militias of approximately 23.6 billion metric tons have been allotted to power sector ( with 24 coal blocks allotted in 2007 )[ 7 ]

Legislation and policy developments in the coal sector[ 8 ]

Year

Law/Act/Policy

Main commissariats

1952

Mines Act

Promoted the acceptance of wellness and safety criterions in coal mines.

1957

Mines and Minerals Regulation and Development Act

Vested in the Cardinal authorities control over prospecting and excavation of coal militias.

1957

Coal Bearing Areas ( Acquisition and Development ) Act

Increased public control over coal production by authorising the Cardinal authorities to get unworked land containing or likely to incorporate coal sedimentations.

1960

Mineral Concession Rules

Provided for processs for the grant of prospecting licenses, excavation rentals, payment of royalty for `other minor minerals.

1971

Coking Coal Mines ( Emergency Provisions ) Act

Provided for the return over of the direction of coking coal mines and coke oven workss.

1972

Coking Coal Mines ( Nationalisation Act )

Provided for nationalisation of 214 coking coal mines

1973

Coal Mines ( Taking over of Management ) Act

Drawn-out direction control of the Cardinal authorities to 738 coking and non-coking coal mines including the coking coal mines taken over earlier.

1973

Coal Mines ( Nationalisation ) Act

Nationalization of all coking and non-coking coal mines and reserved coal excavation for the populace sector, with a few exclusions.

1974

Coal Mines ( Conservation and Development ) Act

Provided for the preservation of coal during mining operations.

1993

Coal Mines ( Nationalisation ) Amendment Act

Allowed private engagement in confined coal excavation and puting up of washeries.

1996

Committee on Integrated Coal Policy ( Chari Committee )

Recommendations included deregulating monetary values, allotment of blocks on the footing of a competitory command procedure in which Indian companies including national coal companies could take part and constitution of a regulative organic structure.

2000

Colliery Control Order

Deregulated the monetary values of all classs of coal.

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