Once the specific cost of capital of each of the long term beginnings i.e. the debt, the penchant portion capital, the equity portion capital and the maintained net incomes have been ascertained, so the following measure is to cipher the overall cost of capital of the house.

This overall cost of the capital of the house is of the extreme importance as this rate is used as the price reduction rate or the cut off rate in measuring the capital budgeting proposals.

The overall cost of capital may be defined as the rate of return that must be earned by the house in order to fulfill the demands of the different investors.

The overall cost of capital is therefore, the lower limit needed rate of return on the plus of the house.

This overall cost of capital should take attention of the comparative proportion of different beginnings in the capital construction of the house.

Therefore, this overall cost of capital should be calculated as the leaden mean cost of capital instead than the simple norm of different of specific cost of capital.

The leaden mean cost of capital ( WACC ) is defined as the leaden norm of the cost of different beginnings and may be described as follows:

WACC = ke.w cubic decimeter + kd.w2 + kp.w3

Where, WACC = Weighted mean cost of capital

Ke = cost of equity

Kd = after revenue enhancement cost of debt

Kp = cost of penchant portions

W1 = proportion of equity capital in the capital construction

W2 = proportion of debt in the capital construction

W3 = proportion of penchant capital in the capital construction

As most of the houses use more than one beginning of capital fund in financing the capital budgeting proposals and because overtime, the mix of these beginnings may alter, it is necessary to analyze the cost of the capital construction of the house as a whole.

The house must hold a cost of capital that is weighted to reflect the differences in assorted beginnings used. It encompasses the cost of counterbalancing the investors, penchant stockholders and the equity stockholders. So, in order to cipher WACC, there must be a system of delegating weights to different cost of capital. The undermentioned considerations are deserving observing while delegating weights to specific cost of capital to happen out WACC.

## BOOK VALUE WEIGHTS V/S MARKET VALUE WEIGHTS

## BOOK VALUE WEIGHTS:

The weights are said to be book value weights if the proportion of different assets are ascertained on the footing of the face value of i.e. the accounting values. The book value weights can be easy measured by taking relevant information from the capital construction as given in the balance sheet of the house.

The book value weights are considered as a sound burdening system as it is operational in nature and a house may plan its capital construction in footings of as it appears in the balance sheet. However the book value weights system does non truly reflect the economic values.

In fact the weighting system should be market determined. The book value system is non consistent with the definition of overall cost of capital, which is defined as the minimal rate of return needed to keep the firmaa‚¬a„?s market value.

## Market VALUE WEIGHTS

The weights may besides be calculated on the footing of the market value of the different beginnings that is the proportion of each beginning at its market value.In order to cipher the market value weights the house has to happen the current market monetary value of the securities in each class. However a job may originate if there is no market value available for a peculiar type of security.

The advantages of utilizing the market value system are:

The market value weights are consistent with the construct of keeping market value in the definition of overall cost of capital.

The market value weights provide current estimation of the investoraa‚¬a„?s required rate of return.

The market value weights yield good returns and gauge the cost of capital that would be incurred should the house require extra financess from the market.

However the market value weights suffer some restrictions:

Not merely that the market values of all types of securities issued have to be obtained but besides that the market value of equity portions is to be segregated into capital and retained net incomes.

The market value is capable to alter from clip and so the construct of optional capital construction in footings of market values does non stay relevant any longer.

External factors which affect the market value, will impact the cost of capital besides and hence, the investing determination procedure will be influenced by the external factors.

With regard to the pick between the book value and market value weights, the undermentioned points are deserving noting:

It is argued that the book value is more dependable than market value because the former is non volatile.

The WACC based on market value will by and large be greater than the WACC based on book values. The ground being that the equity capital holding higher specific cost of capital normally has market value above the book value. However, this is non the regulation.

The pick between the book values and the market values is relevant merely for historical and mark weights. In instance of fringy weights, nevertheless the inquiry of pick does non originate at all and the deliberation system will market value based merely.

## HISTORICAL AND TARGET WEIGHTS

As already noted, the WACC is found by weighing the specific cost of capital for each type of funding by its proportion in the overall capital construction. The weight may be assigned and used to happen out the WACC may be as follows:

## HISTORICAL OR EXISTING WEIGHTS:

Historical or bing weights are the weights based on the existent or the bing proportions of different beginnings in the overall capital construction. Such capital is based on the existent proportion at the clip when WACC is calculated.

In other words the deliberation system is the proportion in which the financess have already been raised by the house. The usage of historical method is based on two of import premises viz.

That the house would raise the extra resources required for financing the investing proposals in the same in which they are looking at nowadays in the capital construction

That the present capital construction is optimum and hence the house wants to go on with the same form in hereafter besides.

## TARGET WEIGHTS

The mark weights refer to the proportion in which the house plans to raise the financess from assorted beginnings in the long tally. In other words aim weights system reflects the coveted long term fiscal planning or capital construction of the house.

Beginnings OF CAPITAL

Cost OF CAPITAL

Proportion OF TOTAL

Leaden Cost OF CAPITAL

EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL

20 %

4/20

4.00

12 % DEBENTURES

12 %

4/20

2.40

TERM LOAN

18 %

12/20

10.80

== 17.20

Therefore, weighted cost of capital ( without consideration of the market monetary value of equity and non taking into consideration the consequence to the income revenue enhancement ) is = 17.2 % per annum

( B ) When market monetary value of equity portions is Rs 160 ( Face value Rs 100 ) the cost of capital is:

Ke = D1/ P0 = 20/160

= 12.5 %

Weighted mean cost of capital will hence be:

Beginnings OF CAPITAL

Cost OF CAPITAL

Proportion TO TOTAL

Leaden Cost OF CAPITAL

EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL

12.5 %

4/20

2.5 %

12 % DEBENTURE

12 %

4/20

2.4 %

18 % TERM LOAN

18 %

12/20

10.8

WACC

15.7 %

The above WACC is without taking consideration the consequence of income revenue enhancement.

( degree Celsius ) As involvement on unsecured bond and loans is an allowable deductible outgo for geting at nonexempt income, the existent cost to company will be involvement charges less revenue enhancement benefit ( presuming that the company earns nonexempt income ) .

So, involvement cost will be: rate of involvement ( 1-t )

12 % unsecured bond: 12 * 0.60 = 7.2 %

18 % term loan: 18* 0.60 = 10.8 %

The cost of capital after revenue enhancement benefit ( as per premises aa‚¬ ” a ) :

SOUCES

Cost

Proportion

Leaden COST ( Rs )

Equity

20 %

4/20

4

12 % DEBENTURE

7.2 %

4/20

1.44

18 % TERM LOAN

10.8 %

12/20

6.48

WACC

11.92

The cost of capital after revenue enhancement benefit ( as per premises aa‚¬ ” B ) :

Beginnings

Cost

Proportion

Leaden COST ( RS )

EQUITY SHARE CAPITAL

12.5 %

4/20

2.50

12 % DEBENTURES

7.2 %

4/20

1.44

18 % TERM LOAN

10.8 %

12/20

6.48

WACC

10.42