AFTA is a trade understanding by the Association of Southeast Asiatic Nations in back uping local fabrication in all 10 ASEAN states, which are Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. AFTA is created to heighten ASEAN ‘s fight as a production base in the universe markets by building a free trade country among member states and pull foreign investors to put in ASEAN state. This nonsubjective can be done by abolish the non-tariff barriers, cut down intra-ASEAN duties and limit the imports measure ( SEACON, n.d. ) . Imported goods will be revenue enhancements on cut down duty to 0 % to 5 % ( Chips, 2002 ) .
Due to the decrease of intra-ASEAN duties, the ASEAN states tend to merchandise and import more among members. Decreasing of duty causes the import to increase ( Park & A ; Li, 2004 ) . AFTA indirectly causes an unfavourable consequence on the fight of traditional export industries. This poses a large challenge and reduces the fight of local companies, Sime Darby. This is because the goods are cheaper now due to the lower rate of revenue enhancement on the imported natural stuffs ( Ghani, Zainuddin, Fereidouni, 2008 ) .
In order to protect Sime Darby car fight against imported merchandise, Sime Darby Tyre Group ( SDTG ) set up a Sur articulation venture with Continental AG of Germany into a new company call SDC Tyre Sdn. Bhd in January 2002. This action causes Sime Darby to gave 30 % of portion to Continental because of the ab initio investing 31 million USD to heighten the R & A ; D installations and production ( Albakri, 2012 ) . SDC Tyres appear to be more efficient, lower cost and utilizing progress engineering of Continental to keep their fight and continue to hold a prima place in local market ( Chips, 2002 ) . The Sime Darby ‘s net income generated from car sector is decreased from RM 257.8 million in 2003 to RM 204 million in 2004 ( Sime Darby one-year study, 2004 ) . However, there is a uninterrupted net income increased for twelvemonth 2005 with RM 300 million to RM 360 million in twelvemonth 2006 ( Sime Darby one-year study, 2006 ) .
On the other manus, AFTA besides affect the plantation sector. After the duty decrease, Malaysia thenar oil monetary value is still much more expensive than other palm oil exporter states such as Indonesia and Thailand ( Ernawati, Fatimah, Arshad, Shamsudin & A ; Mohamed, 2006 ) . This proved that free trade caused the domestic thenar oil monetary value addition. This makes Malaysia palm oil market portion forecasted a loss of about 46 million USD as Malaysia is the largest manufacturer in the universe[ 1 ]. Plantation sector is the chief gross of Sime Darby. Since the palm oil market forecast a immense loss, Sime Darby will be affected. As shown in Annual study ( 2004, 2006 ) , there is a drastically bead of net income in plantation sector from RM 285.1 million in twelvemonth 2004 to RM 272.8 million in twelvemonth 2005 followed by RM 249.8 million in twelvemonth 2006.
two ) National Economic Policy
Basically, National Economic Policy ( NEP ) is the policy that authorities used to accomplish some aims such as low unemployment, rising prices, authorities adoption, current history shortage, stable exchange rate and sustainable economic growing ( Pettinger, 2009 ) . NEP ‘s aim can be achieved utilizing assortment of policy tools such as pecuniary policy, financial policy, exchange rate policy or provide side policies ( Pettinger, 2009 ) . For case, authorities can seek to hike up the aggregative demand to make low unemployment. Since Sime Darby is a transnational corporation, different authorities economic policy may impact Sime Darby operations in that peculiar state.
In the tenth Malaysia program, Government Transformation Programme ( GTP ) and New Economic Model ( NEM ) purpose to accomplish a high income and developed state in 10 old ages clip by work outing the current issues and jobs. One of the actions is to get the better of the escape of endowment job and implement the healthcare quality of both private and public health care industry ( Bernama, 2010 ) . This creates an chance to Sime Darby Healthcare to enlarge their bing market. In 2011, the Sime Darby Healthcare CEO, Ms. Cheong said there are two new infirmary undertakings to spread out the health care market. One will be Sime Darby Medical Center Ara Damansara gap in January 2012 and Sime Darby Medical Center Park City will be unfastened in 2013[ 2 ]. In twelvemonth 2012, Sime Darby health care division declared a 7 % addition in net income comparison to 2011 ( Sime Darby Plantation, 2012 ) .
Furthermore, Sime Darby operation in Hong Kong and China is affected by the tightening of recognition by Bankss and the policy implement by the authorities ( Mrurugiah, 2011 ) . This is because China implement a policy viz. “ New National Five ” purpose to stabilise the house sale pricing such as impose 20 % revenue enhancement on the house marketer ‘s net income. Other than that, the province council raises the down payment and loan rates for the purchasers because the monetary value of houses shot up excessively rapidly ( Tan, 2013 ) . This caused the demand for houses decreased and therefore, the belongings and building sector in China and Hong Kong is besides affected. Therefore, the operating net income in China, Hong Kong and Macau operations have decreased by 32 % in the first half of 2012 ( Sime Darby Platation, 2012 ) .
three ) The outgrowth of China and India as economic human dynamos in the part
China and India is the two fastest developing states in the universe as per capita income for both states are turning quickly. However, India ‘s economic continues to turn by unfastened more market although its economic growing non every bit speedy as China ( Savengsuksa, n.d. ) . Rowthorn ( 2011 ) predicted China will catch US between 2018 and 2025 while India will catch between 2040 and 2054 depend on the gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) . China non merely acts as an economic human dynamo but besides an outstanding exporter by the increasing of USD 13.7 billion in 1979 to USD 266 billion in 2001 ( Abeysinghe & A ; Ding, 2003 ) . Nevertheless, China and India mammoth markets provide trade chances to other state ( Savengsuksa, n.d. ) .
China ‘s top turning economic system have attract many foreign direct investing ( FDI ) . Actual FDI for China between 1988 to 2000 is a cumulative sum of USD 339 billion which raising 23 % every twelvemonth ( Abeysinghe & A ; Ding, 2003 ) . In order to increase stockholder value, Sime Darby ever looking for investing and concern chances. In 2005, Weifanf Sime Darby Port Co. is founded ( Sime Darby, n.d. ) . From 2007 to 2011, Sime Darby sum invested RM 10 billion in China. In 2012, Sime Darby invest RM 1.4 billion to spread out the operation of Weifang port. Additionally, RM 350 million will be the futher investing depend on economic factors which still under consideration ( Sime Darby, 2012 ) . In the return of 2011, Sime Darby declared a RM 600 million net income before revenue enhancement from its China operations ( Ali, 2012 ) .
On the other manus, China becomes the 2nd largest thenar oil importer after US which is about 5.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours and India imports approximately 2.3 million barrels per twenty-four hours ( Ashraf, 2013 ) . Since India and China demand palm oil increasing annually [ Figure 2.0 ] , Sime Darby which is one of the largest thenar oil exporter in the universe, hence, Sime Darby plantation sector gross besides increasing. This can be proved by Figure 2.3, the gross of Sime Darby plantation sector is increasing aggressively from RM 8,165 million in 2007 to RM 13,162 million in 2008. When the demand of palm oil increasing, the monetary value for thenar oil besides increasing. This can be shown in Figure 2.4, the monetary value of palm oil export to China is increasing every twelvemonth. Therefore, the outgrowth of China and India as economic human dynamos brings chance to Sime Darby plantation sector.
four ) The U.S. Subprime Crisis
The occurrence of U.S Subprime Crisis 2008 has important affect the universe ‘s economic system and trade good monetary value. It leads to the stock monetary value of trade good base houses can non prolong resilient from this economic convulsion and depreciated their stock monetary value. Furthermore, this state of affairs has lead to high unemployment rate and low demand of natural stuff in production. Harmonizing to International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) , public presentation of universe economic growing was in downward tendency which has declined to 3 % in twelvemonth 2008[ 3 ].
Normally, U.S. subprime crisis will caused lessening in sum end product which has affected use of fuel and natural stuff. Therefore, it will take to economic lag and strongly affected petroleum oil monetary value. As a effect, the company ‘s stock monetary value fluctuated because of the uncertainness in trade good monetary value. Sometimes, an excessively low trade goods monetary value will draw down stock monetary value and company ‘s gross[ 4 ]. As supported by Abidin and Rasiah ( 2009 ) , Malaysia does non acquire direct impact from the crisis through currency or capital market, but fiscal derived functions do acquire affected indirectly.
For illustration, Datuk Seri Ahmad Zubir Murshid, the president of the universe ‘s largest listed palm oil manufacturer – Sime Darby Bhd, said the US subprime crisis so has impacted the petroleum oil monetary value but overall it will non interrupt its plantation unit ‘s growing programs in the upstream and downstream concerns because of its strong balance sheet. The ground is Sime Darby Bhd is a multi-core concern which will let it to extenuate the consequence of US subprime crisis ( Damodaran, 2008 ) . Alternatively of that, consequence of US subprime crisis in plantation appeared to be weak because palm oil end product was dropped by 3.9 % because of the impact from La Nina but non this crisis ( Abidin & A ; Rasiah, 2009 ) .
In 2008, there is somewhat lifting in the belongings monetary value [ Figure 2.1 ] , H2O, electricity and gas. Basically, Sime Darby Property gross revenues have declined since July 2008 due to some of the early pecuniary policy do limits the loans on the belongings sector and losing of consumers ‘ assurance due to the fallen in lodging loans blessing [ Figure 2.2 ] ( Nambiar, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Abidin and Rasiah ( 2009 ) , the lags in belongings sector was due to most developer support establishing belongings in little graduated table or in shelve. In other words, Sime Darby Property considered as protected from the direct consequence of US subprime crisis.
For automotive industry, the Automotive of Malaysia ( AAM ) reported a autumn of 12 % in the demand of autos during 1Q 2008 to 2Q 2009 from retail sector. Thus, AAM concluded that US subprime crisis does impact most of the trader in Malaysia ‘s automotive sector ( Abidin & A ; Rasiah, 2009 ) . However, from the one-year study 2008 of Sime Darby Bhd, its automotive sector is turning in gross [ Figure 2.3 ] . Therefore, we can do premise that disadvantages of US subprime crisis do non happened on Sime Darby.
V ) Collaborative Agreement with China and United States
Palm oil ‘s market portion has grown strongly in China because of high demand in palm oil ingestion. China chooses palm oil because it is cheaper compared to soy oil and thenar oil is easy available. Furthermore, China ‘s currency, Renminbi ( RMB ) has appreciated to 0.3 % far by 2009 where grasp had improved the buying power of Chinese people, and thereby higher demand for vegetable oil which included soft trade goods, palm oil and soy oil. From the informations, palm oil ‘s market portion in China has turning between 2000 and 2009 [ Figure 2.4 ] . As a consequence, Sime Darby ‘s stock monetary value has appreciated overtime since it is one of the largest exporters in the universe ( Tan & A ; Oetomo, 2011 ) .
Apart from that, China Engineers Limited ( CEL ) which under the Sime Darby Industrial Division was foremost appointed as the Caterpillar trader in Hong Kong and Macau in 1962. Since so, it has expanded its district to making concern with Chinese company. Because of the advantage of CEL ‘s Caterpillar, equipment is widely used in assorted industries such as road/highway building, railroad building, excavation and many industries have boost up Sime Darby ‘s repute[ 5 ]. Due to its strong gross revenues in China, Australia and Malaysia, Sime Darby becomes the 5th largest trader in the universe ( Thomas, 2011 ) .
Cisco Systems Inc is working with Sime Darby Property to transform the manner metropoliss are developed, accomplishing economic, societal and environmental sustainability, altering the manner people work, live, drama and learn in Malaysia[ 6 ]. As an illustration, they spouse in an Idea House Project which Cisco is committed to runing in an environmentally-responsible mode, integrating and taking the energy-efficient merchandises. It is to assist Sime Darby Property to run into its environmental ends. Another spouse, Home Research Inc which supports Idea House Project with Sime Darby Property provides superior merchandises, full design consultancy and applications for quality residential inside. Because of its advantage to stand for high terminal trade name merchandise with latest design invention and greater understanding on ecological sustainability, so Sime Darby Property select to making concern with Home Research Inc. As effects, Sime Darby Property has been awarded as the Green Builder ( Gold ) in 2010[ 7 ].
Other than that, Sime Darby Motors retail renowned trade name such as Ford ( US ) Chevrolet ( US ) and Jeep ( US ) . Sime Darby Motors import and distributes Ford, Chevrolet and Jeep autos in certain markets in the Asia Pacific part. Sime Darby Motors maps as a span between trade name spouses and clients. The close relationship with clients allows Sime Darby Motors to hold a better apprehension of the local market ‘s gustatory sensations. Role of Sime Darby Motors is to construct spouses ‘ repute and are committed to the long term growing of the trade name. From their patterns, net income of Sime Darby Motors has lifting overtime[ 8 ]. It is supported by Thomas ( 2011 ) where motor division posted a 64 % addition in net income before involvement to RM 633 million.
six ) The Oil Price Swings
Crude thenar oil has going of import presents and got a possible in replacing rough oil as the natural stuff in fuel production. When the petroleum oil monetary value additions, it will profit the gross of a company and rise in the stock monetary value every bit good[ 9 ]. Business Times reported that Sime Darby Bhd has facing losingss from the sale of palm oil to China because of the diminution of trade good monetary value. The trade good monetary value goes down aggressively over the past six months ( April-October 2008 ) from RM 4000 per metric ton to RM 1800 per metric ton. Its net income was merely RM 1.8 billion compared to last twelvemonth ‘s RM 3.7 billion net income ( Damodaran, 2008 ) .
Apart from that, handle oil monetary value will swing depend on the information on conditions since plantation sector extremely relies on conditions status but it will merely prolong in short tally as it will be impact by demand. During the 4Q of 2010, the palm oil monetary value is at the extremum because of consequence of La Nina ( heavy rainfall in Malaysia and lead to deluging ) has destroyed the fruit production or harvest home of palm oil in Malaysia. Thus, Sime Darby ‘s end product has fall by 7 % [ Figure 2.5 ] and the palm oil monetary value at a degree of RM 4000 per metric ton due to the conditions vagaries ( Tan & A ; Oetomo, 2011 ) .
Palm oil monetary value has increased during December 2010 to March 2011 because of palm oil production picks up in March for seasonal grounds. In contrast, excessively supply where there is reversal of tree emphasis, increased in new seting during 2007 and lifting end product from higher rainfall could take to decreased in palm oil monetary value. In 2007, husbandmans works more palm trees due to handle oil monetary value was spiked in 2007 ( Tan & A ; Oetomo, 2011 ) . It has affected Sime Darby ‘s operating net incomes which dropped by 18 % to RM 683 million ( Adnan, 2011 ) .
Another factor that affect thenar oil monetary value when there is inordinate guess in trade goods. It is really difficult to mensurate how much guess goes in trade good exchanges. The Chicago Board of Mercantile Trade has set up a joint venture with Bursa Malaysia to develop a dollar denominated palm oil hereafter contract which has promoted guess in palm oil hereafter and increased volatility of palm oil monetary value ( Tan & A ; Oetomo, 2011 ) .