The International Organised Crime Economics Essay

It is undeniable that Colombia is the lone state around the universe, which cultivates three chief illegal drugs: Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin. The figure of the cocaine produced in Colombia, occupies about 80 % of the universe sum. Although the illicit drug trade contributes to the growing of Colombian economic system, the authorization has decided to eliminate the illegal drug concern with the aid of the US. In this preliminary study, a scope of societal factors in Colombia, which inspire the drug production and trafficking, will be shown at foremost. Then, the nature of the drug organisations and their related illegal armed groups will be looked at. Furthermore, the impacts, which drug production and trafficking hold on economic system, society and political relations, will be focused on. Furthermore, the “ Plan Colombia ” will be examined to demo the effectivity and failing of policies that Colombian authorities has implemented. Finally, some likely steps to minimise the injury of drug concern will be concerned.

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Theoretically, there are a series of societal factors that cause the serious position of drug bring forthing and drug trafficking in Colombia. The first factor is its geographics. The US, as the biggest consumer of Colombian cocaine, is still the most important mark market, because of the close distance. Harmonizing to Wright ( 2006, p83 ) , in 1992: “ the US authorities credited the Colombia Cartels with providing up to 90 % of the universe ‘s entire cocaine ingestion ” . Second, cultural grounds, particularly political traditions, are the most critical factors animating the drug bring forthing and trafficking. Because of the failing of province power in Colombia, the political force and struggles, such as civil war, are peculiarly dominant. As a effect, three illegal armed forces emerged: the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia ( FARC ) ; the National Liberation Army ( ELN ) ; and the United Self-Defence Coalition ( AUC ) . All these paramilitaries are: “ progressively going involved in drug-trafficking-related activities and are commanding more territory ” ( United State General Accounting Office, 1999, p7 ) . These organisations prevent and support the drug cultivation and trafficking, because they try to seek support from these illegal drug manufacturers and sellers. Third, related to the 2nd ground, the failing of province power in Colombia consequences in the fragile of the jurisprudence, which allows: “ 1000s of hectares to be turn over to illegal harvests during the late eightiess and 1990s by the engagement offense groups ” ( Latin American Reports, 2005, p3 ) . In add-on, poorness and economic inequality are other major causes. Research, conducted by Krauss ( 2008 ) , shows that in 2005, the rates of poorness and utmost poorness were 49.2 % and 14.7 % severally. Meanwhile, the rural poorness between 2004 and 2005 increased from 67.5 % to 68.2 % . As a high net income concern, the illicit drug cultivation and trafficking became popular. Besides, Krauss ( 2008 ) points out that some little husbandmans “ are forced by drug Godheads to confront the pick between cultivating coca or go forthing their district ” .

In order to happen out the nature of the drug industries in Colombia, it is of import to recognize another portraiture of them- ” Trusts ” . There are two major trusts in the history: Medellin trust and Cali trust. However, in 1990s, the Norte del Valle Cartel, which was a chief supplier of cocaine in the Americas, took topographic point of the former two trusts. However, these different trusts have some same characters. They established ranks with other organisations. The most of import one in Colombia is export mobs, which are responsible for cut downing the illegal trade hazard and vouching net incomes by forming webs between Colombia and other states and set uping research labs to polish cocaine ( Thoumi, 2002 ) . What is more, there are some other Nacro-trafficking organisations working with the trusts. Although, presents, those more than 300 organisations are seemed decentralised, research ( Preston, 2004, p12 ) shows that those little organisations: “ provide more than 80 % of the universe ‘s cocaine and about 66 % of the diacetylmorphine consumed in the US ” . Furthermore, another of import system for these illegal trusts is the sophisticated money laundering. It contains provincials, chemists, pilots, attorneies and some other experts who are from different kingdom ( Thoumi, 2002 ) . All these people are gathered to guarantee the big net incomes generated by trusts can non be noticed and maintain the concern running.

It is obvious that the illicit drug industry and drug trafficking have a huge bulk of negative impacts on economic system, society and political relations in Colombia. First, many research workers have proved that the income generated by illicit drug industries occupy merely really little portion of the Colombian economic system, because the wealth has become the chief support for illegal armed groups in Colombia. It consequences in the inequality of income and, as Krauss ( 2008 ) argues, it “ reduces legitimate investings and the investings that are made by drug sellers typically are in non-productive sectors ” . However, to some extent, it besides has positive effects. Wolcott ( 1994 ) points out that but for these illicit drug concerns, Colombia could non last in the Latin American economic crisis of the 1980 ‘s. Second, a great figure of drug-related offense and armed struggle non merely hinder the development of economic system, but they lead to 30,000 homicides and disappearing per twelvemonth in Colombia ( Krauss, 2008 ) . Third, the political relations and democracy are earnestly damaged. As aforesaid, the illegal armed groups are funded by drug concern, while, the power of Colombian authorities has become progressively weak. Consequently, the drug sellers are strengthened to dispute to the province authorization. For case, one of the most powerful paramilitary at present, AUC, has undergone to assail guerillas who provoke an anti-democratic reaction. However, non merely do they contend against the known guerillas with some grade of authorities support, but they even “ kill left-of-center politicians, human rights militants, brotherhood organisers and guiltless provincials ” ( Coppedge et al, 2007, p13 ) . Colombian authoritiess still has non arrested the paramilitaries for slaying.

Faced the ferocious state of affairs and negative impacts, Colombia has implemented some practical policies. One of the most outstanding schemes, which was announced by American President Bill Cliton in January 2000, is the “ Plan Colombia ” . The cardinal purpose is to cut down the production and trafficking of illicit drugs and its related organisations ( Preston, 2004 ) . They besides made some specific steps to accomplish this end. The first step is to cut down illicit harvest. Colombia is the lone state using aerial crop-dusting to eliminate illicit harvest ( Latin American Report, 2005 ) , which involved a great sum of money, to accomplish the end of cut downing over 50 % illicit drug production in six old ages ( Plan Colombia, 1999 ) . Efficiently, harmonizing to research ( Embassy of Colombia, 2003, cited in Preston, 2004, p50 ) , at the terminal of 2002, “ a sum of 192,848 hectares of coca had been eradicated either manually ( 16,000 ) or through aerial fumigation ( 176,848 ) ” . However, this attack besides has negative effects. The large-scale mark of aerial spraying consequences in many legal harvests damaged, and farm animate beings died ( Carpenter, 2003 ) . The 2nd method, alternate agriculture, is connected with the first step. This attack requires husbandmans to cultivate maize, bananas and other legal harvests alternatively of coca. By late 2001, “ 37,000 voluntary obliteration paperss signed by single husbandmans and with 120,000 hectares of land sprayed ” ( Marcella, 2003, p47 ) . However, it is undeniable that, as Livingstone ( 2004 ) shows, these options are hard to be cultivated every bit profitable as coca in these hapless dirt. Third, counter narcotics, which is treated as the primary duty of constabulary and military, is another critical method. Before the execution of Plan Colombia, the governments had undergone the policy of the “ war on drugs ” , in which the US involved a big sum of money to counter insurgences. Under the Plan Colombia, the US military is straight involved in countering narcotics. As a consequence, the Colombian authorities ( cited in Preston, 2004, p59 ) figures out that: “ 4,602 guerilla members and 1,986 paramilitaries were captured in a 12-month period from August 2002 to June 2003 ” .

It is apparent that if the Colombian authorities wants to accomplish the end of eliminating the drug trafficking more expeditiously, they have to research more solutions to destruct the internal dealingss among the drug sellers, insurrectionists and paramilitary groups. Meanwhile, because of the strong interaction between Colombia and the US, each solution should be win-win and agreed by both of the states. There are three possible solutions that Colombian authorities can see. First, Colombian governments should let the US maintaining back uping them with military forces so as to raise its drug enforcement capablenesss to contend against the trusts and paramilitaries and win the drug war. Second, the US should besides continuously supply economic aid, non merely for complementing military of Colombia, but more significantly, these fiscal support should be applied to the growing of profitable alternate harvests. Meanwhile, the great sum of money can besides be used to work out the job of the decease of legal harvests and animate beings caused by aerial crop-dusting to counterbalance these belongings damaged husbandmans. Third, the authorization should endeavor to reconstruct the province power and democracy in its ain district. One of the most primary stairss is to re-establish and implement the regulation of jurisprudence through the full district. Although it may take a long clip, the legitimacy and its economic system, in return, may be changed, which can beef up the military abilities in the drug war.

In decision, the drug bring forthing and trafficking in Colombia is a long lasting job. The causes of current state of affairs are complicated. Not merely does the job consequence from geographics and poorness of the state, but more vitally, it is hard for authorities to eliminate the drug concern, which are supported and prevented by paramilitaries. Due to the drug cultivation and trafficking in Colombia have a bulk of negative impacts on economic system, society and political relations, the authorization has applied a certain policies, such as the “ Plan Colombia ” with aid of the US. One the one manus, on history of the lessening of illicit drug cultivation, the “ Plan Colombia ” is more or less effectual on eliminating drug cultivation ; on the other manus, nevertheless, it leads to some comparative jobs, for case, the usage of aerial crop-dusting have besides destroyed many legal harvests. Therefore, the Colombian authorities should seek for farther effectual solutions, such as addition more support from the US, to better its ability to undertake drug organized offenses.


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