The theory of economic sciences called Keynesian Economics, or Keynesianism, is named after the British economic expert John Maynard Keynes. Keynes lived from 1883 – 1946, and was considered “ the greatest and most influential economic expert of the twentieth century. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) . It was the usage of the Keynesian Theory of economic sciences by the authorities that was a strong influence of the Great Depression coming to an terminal. Because of this, he is known as “ the male parent of modern economic sciences. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) .
When Keynes foremost suggested the usage of his theory to assist work out the jobs of the Great Depression, he was non met with the same enthusiasm. Because of the unbelievable size and widespread effects of the Great Depression, many felt that any cause of such desolation must be every bit complicated as the consequences. Keynes, nevertheless, had a simple account of the cause of the Great Depression. In fact, upon sharing his theory with President Franklin Roosevelt, the President dismissed his words by stating that such a theory is “ excessively easy. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) .
The theory for which was considered “ excessively easy ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) by President Roosevelt was really reasonably simple. In respects to the account of slacks in the economic system, Keynes had a simple logical thinking. Keynes explained that in any normal economic system, the degree of employment is high, and hence the net incomes of the people are spent as usual, intending there is a round flow of money in the economic system. With this round flow, the money spent by one individual becomes the income of another individual, and those net incomes are spent and go the net incomes of the old individual. However, when something happens in the economic system to worry consumers and agitate their assurance, those consumers will so make up one’s mind to salvage their money alternatively of passing it to fix for whatever lies in front. Unfortunately the economy of that consumer will impact other people because the money saved alternatively of spent is no longer given to the intended individual. When people save alternatively of spend, it affects others that are no longer acquiring the expected income, and they will so get down salvaging themselves. It becomes a syrupy circle which makes the times and economic system more hard. ( Kangas, 1996 ) .
With the evidently negative effects that a slack would do within an economic system, Keynes devised a remedy for the job. The remedy for this job, which is besides considered to be rather simple, is for Bankss to increase or spread out the supply of money. By making so, the people would hold more money, which would increase assurance in the economic system by the consumer now holding more net incomes. With the increased assurance, people would get down to pass, which would re-establish the round flow of money. ( Kangas, 1996 ) .
The larger job of the Great Depression, nevertheless, was much larger than that of a recession, or slack. Keynes belief of the depression was that it was really a recession that had fallen into something called a “ liquidness trap. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) . A liquidness trap is due to those people that choose to salvage their money instead than pass, and will go on to make so irrespective of how much the supply of money is increased by the authorities. Due to the deficiency of consumer disbursement, Keynes believed that the authorities should so be the one making the disbursement, since the consumers were non. This thought of increasing authorities disbursement was considered a concluding attempt by the authorities to “ restore the round flow of money. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) . In Keynes ain words, he called this last-ditch attempt by the authorities, “ priming the pump. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) .
Although in the terminal Keynes ‘ theories were used to stop the Great Depression, they were at first rejected. To many economic experts, the terminal of the Great Depression was caused by World War II, in which the United States started passing monolithic sums of money on defence. Because of this, many say that “ wars are good for the economic system. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) . Wars are considered to do an economic roar due to the monolithic sums of disbursement during the war, which is in extent the definition of Keynesian disbursement. With Keynesian disbursement, the U.S. went to the greatest economic roar of all time, from the greatest depression of all time, all due to the theory of Keynesian Economics. The usage of Keynesian Economics during this clip was so successful that President Nixon declared, “ We are all Keynesians now. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) . This position of Keynesian Economics was dominant from the 1940s to the 1970s, until others began to dispute this theory. ( Boyes & A ; Melvin, 2008, p.347 ) .
In an account of Keynesian Economicss by Alan S. Blinder ( 2008 ) , he defines Keynesian Economics as “ a theory of entire disbursement in the economic system ( called aggregate demand ) and its effects on end product and rising prices. ” Upon researching Keynesian Economics, at that place look to be many chief thoughts to the theory. The first thought, or belief, is that “ aggregative demand is influenced by a host of economic determinations – both public and private – and sometimes behaves unpredictably. ” ( Blinder, 2008 ) . These economic determinations are based on things like disbursement and revenue enhancements. Many economic experts believe that both revenue enhancements and disbursement affect aggregative demand. ( Blinder, 2008 )
Another belief of Keynesian Economics is that “ alterations in aggregative demand, whether anticipated or unanticipated, have their greatest short-term consequence on existent end product and employment, non on monetary values. ” ( Blinder, 2008 ) . This thought is shown when rising prices easy rises as unemployment falls. This belief of Keynesians is that what can be seen in the short tally is non needfully the same as the long tally. Besides, due to the rigidness of monetary values, any alterations or fluctuations in disbursement, whether by authorities disbursement, investing, or ingestion, will do a alteration or fluctuation of end product. For illustration, if there is an addition in authorities disbursement, so an addition in end product should happen, every bit long as the other countries of disbursement are changeless. ( Blinder, 2008 ) .
In add-on, this theoretical account of Keynesian economic sciences besides has a multiplier consequence. With this multiplier consequence, “ end product additions by a multiple of the original alteration in disbursement that caused it. ” ( Blinder, 2008 ) . For this multiplier to work, nevertheless, it must non be less than nothing. Besides, in yet another belief of Keynesians is that “ monetary values, and particularly rewards, respond easy to alterations in supply and demand, ensuing in periodic deficits and excesss, particularly of labour. ” ( Blinder, 2008 ) . In this belief, it is stated that flexibleness is limited in footings of rewards and monetary values, no affair the agreements. ( Blinder, 2008 )
These beliefs are all included in the theory of Keynesian Economics. Although this theory was greatly used during the 1940s to the 1970s, it became much less normally used, and was replaced with other economic theories. Since so, nevertheless, the theory of Keynesian Economics had made a rejoinder. The chief ground for this rejoinder was due to the ability of this theory to explicate the events that have happen since the terminal of the Great Depression better than many other economic theories. ( Blinder, 2008 ) .
In decision, the theory of Keynesian Economics was an highly of import portion of the history of the economic system. This theory was an tremendous portion of the terminal of the Great Depression. It besides was a key in giving an account to the assorted alterations in the economic system, such as slacks and recessions. While non all economic experts may hold that this theory is the manner to rectify jobs in the economic system, it was really evidently the correct theory needed for its clip. Because of the importance of this theory, the Godhead of the theory, John Maynard Keyes, is considered “ the male parent of modern economic sciences. ” ( Kangas, 1996 ) .