The Impact of Territorial Expansion

Critical analysis of the impact of territorial enlargement on economic growing in the modern twenty-four hours

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How much land does a adult male demand? Leo Tolstoy one time posed this inquiry in his allegorical history of a adult male who in his lecherousness for land, forfeited everything else he had. Yet, this inquiry is besides cardinal to our consideration on how much district a state needs for economic growing. While the signifier of territorial enlargement has been altering throughout the old ages, the motive for it has remained more or less the same – land is needed for assorted economic activities such as oil production and agribusiness, every bit good as to increase economic backwoods.

Therefore, in this research paper, I would wish to critically analyze the impact territorial enlargement has on economic growing in the modern twenty-four hours. To make this, I will:

  1. Compare current attempts to spread out district with past cases of territory enlargement
    1. How has territorial enlargement benefitted the economic system in the past and present?
    2. Are methods used in the past applicable today?
  1. Compare territorial enlargement with other modern methods of economic promotion that have arisen in the globalized and technological universe economic system. The methods I have chosen are finance and technopreneurship.
    1. How have these methods benefitted the economic system?
    2. Are these methods more of import than territorial enlargement?

In this paper, I define modern twenty-four hours as the period after the 2neodymiumWorld War.

Territorial enlargement before WW2

In the yesteryear, territorial enlargement was good to the primary sector of the economic system. This was of import since most societies so were chiefly agricultural and later on, industrial. Territorial enlargement besides broadened the economic backwoods, increased trade chances and work force. The acceptance of the new territory’s economic patterns farther served to diversify the economic system of the vanquisher.


A sudden bead in one-year temperature in the early 13ThursdayCentury spelled problem for the mobile Mongols who relied on farm animal and Equus caballuss for nutrient and transit. Thus began a actual chase of greener grazing lands by a conglobation of local kins under the leading of Genghis Khan, which culminated in the edifice of the largest immediate imperium through the conquering of Central Asia, Europe and the Middle East every bit good as subjection of client provinces. Their chief economic end product – farm animal for ingestion and trade ; complimented their extremely nomadic horse for rapid territorial enlargement. In bend, the expanded district provided more grazing Fieldss for farm animal, heightening their chief economic end product. The acceptance of the economic patterns of the annexed district further served to diversify their economic end product. The Mongolian imperium adopted sedentary agribusiness such as grain production. This was a new construct to the Mongolians but the so Great Khan, Ogodei adapted to it as recommended by his Chinese advisers based on the logical thinking that revenue enhancement and export of agribusiness would be a dependable beginning of income ( Endicott, 2012, p.47 ) . And they were right. This besides resulted in the imperium possessing double engines of economic growing, guaranting greater economic stableness The Mongolian imperium continued its enlargement and garnered much wealth through trade in the ancient Silk Road which they reopened.

Colonization by the Europeans in the 18ThursdayCentury differed from the medieval signifiers of conquering in that new districts did non needfully surround the original nucleus district. It was pioneered by the Portugese who were eager to capitalise on the promise of more diverse resources and the chance of avoiding struggle with the militarily established European neighbors. Colonial Brazil contributed the extremely demanded sugar which could be traded for high net incomes back in Europe, every bit good as the cherished minerals – gold and diamond. Great Britain’s colonisation gifted it with a greater economic backwoods. The British imperium produced opium from poppy seeds in India ( agribusiness ) and sold them in China ( backwoods ) where demand was high. The flood of opium besides triggered the two opium wars where Britain emerged the master, and gained the ports of Hong Kong, Canton and Shanghai. This gave entree to merchandise paths in the South China Sea. The weakening of the Qing authorities resulted in Britain being able to besiege Torahs and start free trade in mainland China, farther broadening the economic hinerland. Finally, territorial enlargement provided the colonial Masterss with labor. The colonisation of African provinces like South Africa, Sudan and Nigeria provided the British imperium with slave labor. As slaves did non hold to be paid, this lowered fabrication and agricultural production costs.




Territorial enlargement in the yesteryear was largely conducted through direct conquering ; the Persian, Roman and Mongolian imperiums are such instances. Between the 18ThursdayCentury and 2neodymiumWorld war, through colonisation, peculiarly by European powers – the Portugese, British and Dutch for illustration. Obviously, these territorial additions meant economic control over the land ; for the development of agribusiness and mineral production, control over the population for labor and economic backwoods, and entree to ports and trade paths ; therefore fostering the economic systems of the masters.

Territorial enlargement after WW2

The 2neodymiumWorld War told the colonized that their colonial Masterss were barely interested in supporting them and simply profited disproportionately from their land and labor, therefore instilling in them a sense of patriotism, rendering conquering as a agency for territorial enlargement mostly uneffective. Today, states expand their district through international dealingss with other states and the exercise of economic power.

Expansion through conquering

The recent appropriation of Crimea by Russia has promised 165.3 billion three-dimensional meters of gas and 44 million metric tons of oil worth $ 800 million to $ 1.2 billion and $ 1.7 billion worth of military equipment. Crimea’s larboard links Russia to merchandise in the Black Sea. Yet, these additions may be outweighed by losingss from countenances imposed by the European Union and United States. Ukraine has threatened Russia with cases deserving one million millions. Ukrayina is likely to win, given overpowering international support. Crimea, a backwater province may turn out disputing to develop. The struggle has scared away investors, exhaustively denting Russia’s economic system as a whole. The 1990 invasion of Kuwait’s oilfields by Iraq was quashed by a US-led alliance within two yearss.

Since the late 1800s, United Fruit [ 1 ] maintained a monopoly in the South American Banana Republics [ 2 ] such as Costa Rica and Guatemala. Though this local company expanded, thereby turning the US economic system, production costs were saved through underpaying locals and purchasing the land at unjust monetary values ( sometimes even forcefully busying the land ) . In 1956, Guatemalan President Jacob Arbenz decided to redistribute the land so that provincials would acquire a bigger portion of it. Then, less than 35 % of Guatemalans owned land. CIA decided to protect this monopoly. They decried the redistribution as a Guatemala animating itself as a Soviet orbiter and launched a putsch in coaction with Colonel Castillo. While these actions parallel Russia’s appropriation of Crimea, they were supported by other states because of the paranoia over Soviet Union’s increasing sphere of influence.

Expansion through FTAs[ 3 ]

The United States is adept in deriving economic control of land through understandings with other states, which so allows US companies to spread out. NAFTA [ 4 ] , has allowed US companies to buy land in Mexico. The control of the land has given 3000 US companies economic chances in developing the land for agribusiness, puting up mills and using locals. The understanding besides eliminates tariff barriers, salvaging distribution costs. Investor assurance in the North American part grew due to the new potency for growing in the so underdeveloped 17Thursdaylargest economic system.

Expansion through land purchase

States, non merely MNCs, [ 5 ] purchase land in other states. Soon, more than 5 % of African land is owned by a foreign state. China is the most outstanding of these states. In 2013, it purchased 3 million hectares of farming area in Ukraine for raising hogs and cultivating maize and cotton. This is 5 % of Ukraine’s entire land, tantamount to the size of Belgium. This non merely meets China’s turning nutrient ingestion but besides allows China to gain from reselling the harvests locally in Ukraine. China has besides bought land in Argentina and Brazil for the cultivation of soya beans, ensuing in Brazil traveling to censor farther leasing and merchandising of land to China.

Expansion through economic power

China adopts a more well-founded attack to keeping economic control over land every bit opposed to US and Russia. Taiwan defected from China in 1949. In order to slowly reintegrate Taiwan, China has increased economic cooperation so that Taiwan will be excessively reliant on it to defy a possible appropriation in the hereafter and net income from its already strong economic end product. Chinese concerns that invest in the mainland receive low-priced loans from Beijing. The inflow of PRC tourers revitalize touristry and the air hose industry. In 2013, Cross-strait trade rose by more than 50 % to $ 197 billion since 2008. Currently, Taiwan imports $ 2b of minerals from China and exports $ 20b of electronic goods to China. The trust on China for natural stuffs and demand for exports agencies that Taiwan authorities has to collaborate with the China authorities more closely or put on the line an economic prostration. China Economic reintegration will besides be easier with the close ties.

From the above instance surveies, we can territorial enlargement chiefly benefits the primary sector ( as it did before ) and the secondary sector since land is needed for fabrication. Significant political clout is needed for the appropriation of district, which means past methods of economic enlargement are mostly uneffective in the modern context.

Other signifiers of economic growing

Small states with limited natural resources are able to win through [ 6 ] KBE which frequently pays more so resource production. Finance makes immense net incomes through loans and investings. The coming of the cyberspace means much of the population subscribes to online services.


Given Singapore’s little population, we do non hold the manpower to stay competitory in the primary and secondary sectors of the work force. The authorities hence invests to a great extent in instruction so that Singaporeans will be qualified for professional occupations. The extremely skilled work force together with the [ 7 ] GDAP Singapore is now place to over 200 Bankss, a turning figure of which have besides chosen to establish their operational central office here to serve their regional group activities. In footings of banking, we have a entire plus size of about US $ 2 trillion as of December 2013. Switzerland and Singapore both have policies of fiscal secretiveness. This farther entices big companies and millionaires to sponsor them.


US has been the taking state in technopreneurship as early adoptive parents of information engineering. The US authorities supports entrepreneurship through enterprises like SAP [ 8 ] . This environment is complemented by the many top universities in US which purchased package early on. Many pupils had the chance to putter with hardware and package as pupils. These universities so produced many of the current technological pioneers – Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Mark Zuckerberg, David Filo. This has decidedly enhanced the US economic system where services compose 79.4 % of the economic system.

Given that many little states such as Singapore [ 9 ] ( int $ 64,584 ) and Luxemborg ( int $ 78,670 ) possess GDP per capita higher than that of the economic human dynamos, US ( int $ 53,101 ) and China ( int $ 9,844 ) , is territorial enlargement which chiefly benefits the low paying primary and secondary sector of the economic system disused today? Barely. Without these natural resources, little states have to trust on imports from other states and will ne’er be self-sufficing. Dependence on exports from other states consequences in less economic stableness. Exporters have the [ 10 ] bargaining power over because of these resources and can keep the importers to redeem. This was the instance when the Arab states cut of US’s oil supply during the Yom Kippur war.


In decision, modern territorial enlargement largely involves purchasing and leasing of land in other states, bilateral or many-sided FTAs and increasing economic cooperation ( footer: less developed states ) . Unlike the pre-WW2 epoch, military appropriation of land requires important international political clout since globalization has caused involvements in the personal businesss of other states and patriotism has caused unwillingness to be ruled by aliens. Territorial enlargement is most utile for the enlargement of the primary and secondary sectors of the economic system. As engineering progresses, the economic composing of many states ( particularly little states ) reflect greater income from the third and quaternate sectors, taking us to oppugn the utility of district. However, the primary and secondary sectors of the economic system will ever be a demand since they provide the resources necessary for the basic demands of a state, viz. , nutrient, public-service corporations and substructure.


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