SMEs have been recognized as the anchor of the economic system as they are the nucleus subscriber of employment and growing. In Malaysia, approximative 99 % of entire concern constitutions are accounted by SMEs ( NSDC, 2010 ) . SMEs are defined based on two standards: Entire gross revenues turnover per annum and Number of full-time employees employed by the company. It is farther interpreted harmonizing to sectors, where in fabrication sectors, the gross revenues gross of less than RM25million or full-time employee of less than 150 ; whilst in services and other sectors, gross revenues gross of less than RM5million or full-time employees of less than 50 will be classified as SMEs ( NSDC, 2010 ) .
Albeit there is a big section of research literature contributed to the promotion of cognition from the position of SMEs concern public presentation ( Jane & A ; Beamish, 2001 ; Sousa et al. , 2006 ) and fiscal handiness ( Beck & A ; Demirguc-Kunt, 2006 ; Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ) , most of the findings are inconclusive. Besides that, merely limited surveies examined the relationship between fiscal handiness and concern public presentation in Malaysia, therefore this paper aims to lend to the bing pool of cognition through showing the impact of fiscal handiness on SMEs public presentation in Malaysia.
BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT
In the 1980s and 1990s, the development of public presentation measuring had successfully migrated from a simply fiscal index towards more “ integrative ” dimensions ( Ampuero et al. , 1998 ) . Despite of the development of non-financial public presentation measuring, fiscal public presentation measuring remains the cardinal tool, particularly in SMEs ( Kellen, 2003 ) . Reviewing bing literature ( Ahmed, 2004 ; Sousa et al. , 2006 ; Chavan, 2009 ) , it ‘s suggested that a combination usage of fiscal and non-financial public presentation steps may help the proprietors in roll uping the whole image throughout the organisation ( Azofra, Prieto & A ; Alicia, 2003 ) . Hence, Balanced Scorecard attack will be implemented in this survey in mensurating concern public presentation. It measures both fiscal and non-financial public presentation derived from the organisation ‘s vision and scheme ( Chavan, 2009 ) , including fiscal, client, internal procedures and, larning and growing demands. Kaplan & A ; Norton ( 1996a ) – the laminitis of Balanced Scorecard attack, asserted that this theoretical account is a “ genuinely strategic control system that puts scheme and vision at the Centre ” ( Atkinson, 2006 ) .
Figure 1: The Balanced Scorecard attack
Beginning: “ Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic direction system ” by Kaplan, R.S. and Norton, D.P. ( 1996a ) ; cited in “ Strategy execution: a function for the balanced scorecard? ” by Atkinson H. , 2006.
Beginnings OF FINANCE
Harmonizing to Cosh & A ; Hughes ( 2000 ) , bulk SMEs experienced rapid growing rates and support deficits during their embryologic old ages ( cited in Junjie et al. , 2008 ) . During this period, most of the enterprisers choose to follow “ picking order ” funding penchants, where they prefer to utilize internal instead than external finance and take debt instead than equity ( Junjie et al. , 2008 ; Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ) . Therefore it is non a surprise when Beck & A ; Demirguc-Kunt ( 2006 ) found that SMEs have smaller portion of their investings with formal external beginnings of finance. Beck & A ; Demirguc-Kunt ( 2006 ) further evaluated that this phenomenon is more important in developing states as a consequence of market failure and low engagement of Bankss. Furthermore, an empirical grounds by Junjie et Al. ( 2008 ) stressed that throughout the concern rhythm, over 65 % of enterprisers relied on internal beginnings at the start-up stage ; as concern expand, approximately 80 % keen on borrowing from the debt market, whilst less than 2 % attack equity beginnings as first pick. In fact, bulk of the SMEs concerned on paying higher involvement rates or supplying higher securities ( Weiss, 2008 ) , other than loath to give up their independency and control, hence forced to bear higher bureau costs due to the expropriate wealth from loaners ( Berger & A ; Udell, 1998 ; Jordan et al. , 1998, cited in Junjie et al. , 2008 ) .
Figure 2: Beginnings of Financing for SMEs in Malaysia
Beginning: Department of Statistics, Malaysia and Bank Negara Malaysia [ cited in Ooi, 2010 ] .
Figure 3 showed that merely 13.4 % of Malaysia SMEs sought for loans from banking establishments. However, harmonizing to Holmes et Al. ( 1994 ) [ cited in Rozali et al. , 2006 ] this phenomenon is because of the limited debt support chances for SMEs, which farther interpreted by Kotey ( 1999 ) saying that the funding restraints are chiefly imposed by Bankss ( cited in Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ) .
4.1 FACTOR ONE: Firm Size
Junjie et Al. ( 2008 ) indicated that most of the jobs related to financing arise preponderantly in SMEs. This statement is proved by other research workers whom reported that there is a direct relationship between house size and funding handiness ( Berry et al. , 2003 ; Beck, Asli & A ; Maksimovic, 2005 ; Beck & A ; Demirguc-Kunt, 2006 ; North et al. , 2008 ; Torre et al. , 2010 ) . This behaviour is criticized by Binks et Al. ( 2006 ) as the finance spread leads to competitiveness disadvantage and failure in working concern chance. In contrast, Berry et Al. ( 2003 ) interpreted from Bankss ‘ place that increases in house size allows greater variegation of hazards, which provide higher precautions toward Bankss.
4.2 FACTOR Two: CAPITAL ASSETS OWNED
Today, SMEs face with assorted financing restraints from Bankss ( Kotey, 1999 ; cited in Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ) , yet Bankss remain the premier beginning of external SMEs finance ( Keasey & A ; Watson, 1994, cited in Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ; Cosh & A ; Hughes, 2000, cited in Junjie et al. , 2008 ; Fraser, 2006 ) . Banks adopted different loaning attacks, some Bankss tend to look frontward to future net incomes from the refund of the loan and involvements, known as “ going-concern attack ” ; in contrast some Bankss preferred “ gone-concern attack ” which tend to hold security-based loaning attack ( Berry et al. , 2003 ) . By and large, Bankss prefer security-based loaning attack, where the determination criterion is much depends on the collateral provided by the assets ( Jordan et al. , 1998 ; cited in Junjie et al. , 2008 ) . Hence, in general footings, industries with high touchable plus retentions ( e.g. manufacturing-based industry ) are expected to entree to greater finance comparison with sectors associated with intangible assets ( e.g. service-based industry ) ( Joensen & A ; McMahon, 2005 ; Junjie et al. , 2008 ) .
4.3 FACTOR THREE: PREVIOUS PERFROMANCE
Van der Wijst & A ; Thurik ‘s research ( 1993 ) showed that debt ratio is extremely affected by the old concern public presentation ( cited in Joensen & A ; McMahon, 2005 ) . This sentiment is farther supported by North et Al. ( 2008 ) verifying that old trading record and indirect grounds drama more of import functions than the presentation of concern programs and fiscal projections. However today, Bankss emphasized more on future economic conditions alternatively of old public presentation and historical values ( Weiss, 2008 ) . This turning point has become more important particularly after the Economic Crisis, as harmonizing to Weiss ( 2008 ) a lag or shrinkage in the economic system non merely infer the figure of profitable investings, but besides increase the hazards of adoptions.
4.4 FACOTR FOUR: Information ASYMMETRY
In peculiar, several bing surveies drew the relationship between Bankss and SMEs on information dissymmetry jobs ( Lean & A ; Tucker, 2000 ; cited in North et al. , 2008 ) . On the Bankss ‘ point of views, this sensed restraint is chiefly caused by deficiency of historical public presentation informations and the exacerbated judgements as enterprisers possess a considerable informational advantage about their concerns ; besides the involuntariness to unwrap full information of the concern programs to avoid development by others ( North et al. , 2008 ) . This behaviour may take to the rejection of short-run and long-run loan application from Bankss, which might problem SMEs hereafter development and growing ( Keasey & A ; Watson, 1994 ; cited in Irwin & A ; Scott, 2010 ) . On the other manus, as SMEs are non needed statutory on audited fiscal statements ( Junjie et al. , 2008 ) , it is difficult for them to convey quality and construct up repute in get the better ofing the information opacity environing their activities ( Berger & A ; Udell, 1998 ) . This state of affairs is peculiarly undermines loaning from Bankss which ever require crystalline information ( Torre et al. , 2010 ) .
AUTHOR ( s )
RELATIONSHIPS between FINANCIAL ACCESSIBILITY and BUSINESS PERFORMANCE
Cressy ( 1996 )
The survey demonstrated that the ‘true ‘ determiner of endurance is human capital and the correlativity between fiscal capital and endurance is specious.
Junjie, Jining & A ; Catherine ( 2008 )
The research showed that bulk SMEs experienced rapid growing rates and support deficits during their embryologic old ages.
Schiffer & A ; Weder ( 2001 )
The literature summarized that “ Financing obstruction is the most of import drumhead obstruction to growing ” .
Beck, Asli & A ; Maksimovic ( 2005 )
The survey found that the failure in accessing long-run loans is non significantly correlated with concern public presentation.
North, Baldock, Ekanem, Deakins, Whittam & A ; Wyper ( 2008 )
The study indicated that about one tierce of the respondents unable to travel in front with the proposed undertakings in any signifier as a consequence of fiscal unavailability.
Irwin & A ; Scott ( 2010 )
The research highlighted that bulk of the enterprisers give up their concern due to the troubles in raising finance.
Table 1: The relationship between fiscal handiness and concern public presentation from bing literature
With the bing literature in analyzing the relationship between fiscal handiness and concern public presentation, the undermentioned hypotheses are developed.
H1: There is no association between fiscal unavailability and SMEs concern public presentation.
H2: There is an association between fiscal unavailability and SMEs concern public presentation.
Tracing back the history of big companies, it is non hard to establish that bulk of them started up as SMEs before accomplishing today successes. Hence, SMEs Masterplan has been drafted to back up the New Economic Model and the Tenth Malaysia Plan in the following 10 old ages ( 2011-2020 ) ( NSDC, 2010 ) . Due to the low SMEs part to national GDP ( 31 % ) compared with other states, Malaysia authorities launched out SME Annual Report 2009/10 themed “ Transformation to the New Economic Model ” , aimed to accomplish the quantum spring in GDP growing ( NSDC, 2010 ) .
Numerous plans and strategies are launched with the aim to further the SMEs development ( Abdullah, 1999 ) ; one of them is fiscal and recognition aid. The blessing rate for SMEs funding via banking establishments was up to 78 % in 2009 ( RM50.9 billion to 140,141 SME histories ) , and rose further to 80 % in the first half of 2010 ( NSDC, 2010 ) . Meanwhile, incremental on one-year GDP contributed by SMEs by 40 % ( NSDC, 2010 ) ensuing authorities viewed that the up-going tendency as the result of their comprehensive policies. However, harmonizing to Abdullah ( 1999 ) , a big proportion of respondents did non derive entree to the authorities support plans, whilst bulk of those who gained the support did non bask the aid. Therefore, Abdullah stressed that although authorities stated its committedness and involvements in SMEs plans, the purpose does non turn into effectual action.
With the background information, hypotheses are developed to entree the effectivity and prosperity of authorities fiscal policies in helping SMEs growing.
H3: There is no association between authorities fiscal plans and SMEs public presentation.
H4: There is an association between authorities fiscal plans and SMEs public presentation.
Before measuring the research paper, secondary informations – papers reappraisal is conducted with the purpose to obtain a background and history of the research subject – “ The impact of fiscal handiness on SMEs public presentation ” . From the reappraisal, it is found that bulk of the SMEs faced fiscal handiness jobs, for case Australia ( Johnsen & A ; McMahon, 2005 ) , UK ( Beck & A ; Demirguc-Kunt, 2006 ) , Scottish ( North et a ; . , 2008 ) , China ( Junjie et al. , 2008 ) , etc.
The attack to this research involved garnering informations via self-administered questionnaire study, enabling the research worker to depict and mensurate the phenomena at a point of clip and to find the causality to do “ if-then ” statements. Three types of measuring graduated tables are used in the questionnaire, including nominal, ordinal and scale. Non-probability convenience and quota sampling are implemented due to the clip and cost limitations. The questionnaire which consisted of five chief subdivisions: Personal inside informations, Company background, Business public presentation measuring, Financial handiness, and Government fiscal enterprises, is distributed to targeted respondents, whom are entrepreneurs/managers of 150 SMEs in two provinces of Malaysia through mail or personal. The limited geographical countries are Penang and Perak, stand foring industrialized country ( Penang ) and non-industrialized country ( Perak ) in Malaysia, with the intent to obtain comparative samples. During the phase of questionnaire design, pre-test survey will be conducted and the feedback are revision with the purpose to accomplish dependability and cogency on the concluding version of questionnaire. The information collected will be analyzed utilizing the SPSS package.
Research moralss is defined as the application of moral regulations and professional codifications in aggregation, analysis, coverage and publication of information about research topics ( Dictionary of Sociology, 1998 ) . The respondents will be informed that the questionnaire study is under voluntary nature of engagement. A written consent is non ever necessary, for illustration, in questionnaire studies, finishing and returning the questionnaire signifier to the research worker can itself be interpreted as implied consent to take part ( Finnish Social Science Data Archive, 2008 ) . Yet the research worker has the responsible in guaranting the respondents are under comprehension of consent when affecting in questionnaire study. As it is under voluntary footing, the respondents have the rights to retreat from the survey anytime if the feel uncomfortableness or emphasis in replying the inquiries.
Indeed the primary informations aggregation in majority is with minimum sensitivity and the purpose of qualifying populations alternatively of single respondents ( Seltzer, 2003 ) ; some of the respondents worry that the confidential information provided will be entree by 3rd parties. As a research worker, I will handle the information given as purely confidential and guarantee that the personal privateness will be maintained. The information will be collected under namelessness footing, personal inside informations such as personal individuality Numberss, names, reference and telephone Numberss are non required. These moralss are believed will assist in smoothen the informations aggregation procedure. In decision, other than a well-designed questionnaire, attitude and moralss when nearing the respondents play of import functions.