Failure by conventional theories such as the merchandise life rhythm and closed invention to explicate recent tendencies in invention, have laid a foundation for the outgrowth of different attacks to innovation direction. One such attack is economical invention which has, in the recent yesteryear, been given acknowledgment both by practicians and faculty members. Frugal invention purposes at offering goods and services that are low-cost, robust and of acceptable quality in a volume-driven market. So far academic attending on economical invention has been paid to states outside Africa. The reappraisal of extant literature found merely one academic paper on economical invention in Africa. This paper was based on a individual instance survey and merely focused on the service industry. Therefore, the intent of this survey was to place illustrations of successful economical invention in Africa and categorise them based on local conditions. Using an analogical method, six successful instances of economical invention were identified in different states. Economical inventions were categorized into basic demands and luxury economical solutions severally. Further from the six instances, five success factors were identified. These are ; demands conceptualisation, passion, local webs, puting in local R & A ; D and a flexible and good defined turn overing out procedure. These instances suggest that companies wishing to develop economical solutions aimed at specifically turn toing the demands of clients in Africa must be receptive to the above factors. This survey highlights the being of economical invention in Africa and the critical factors vital for making new, low-cost and robust merchandises and services for what we call unthawed markets in Africa. The survey has besides shown that despite economical invention pulling academic attending in the last decennary, it has existed in Africa for a considerable period of clip. For the hereafter, surveies should be focused on placing more instances of economical invention in Africa. In add-on, such instances should be subjected to in-depth analysis. We besides encourage comprehensive surveies aimed at developing new theories and proving the proposed 1s.
Keywords: Frugal Innovation, Africa, merchandise life rhythm, unthawed markets, success factors
The on-going displacement in the planetary invention landscape has presented legion challenges ( Magnusson 2000 ; Chesbrough 2003 ) . These challenges have brought conventional theories such as the merchandise life rhythm and closed invention into the topographic point visible radiation. As a consequence many states and houses are developing new ways and agencies of carry oning concern. For illustration, multinationals from developed states are progressively globalising their R & A ; D activities. Firms from emerging economic systems such as India and Brazil, which traditionally played a secondary function in planetary invention, have now begun to catch up with developing their ain advanced capablenesss ( Mathews, 2002 ) . Some of these houses have emerged as major participants in certain sectors like information engineering and nomadic communications. In this displacement, peculiar attending has been paid to emerging constructs of invention. Recent research has identified five typical but interconnected invention constructs for the old ages in front ( Eagar et al. , 2011 ) . These constructs are: customer-based invention ; proactive concern theoretical account invention ; integrated invention ; high speed/low hazard invention and economical invention. The literature on all the five constructs is light because they are in their babyhood stage. Frugal invention besides known as contrary invention is about minimising the usage of stuff and fiscal resources in the complete value concatenation with the aim of cut downing the cost of ownership while carry throughing even transcending certain predefined standards of acceptable quality criterions ( Tiwari and Herstatt, 2012 ) .
From the organisation ‘s point of position, a economical solution is designed, produced, delivered and maintained to accomplish the demands of underserved consumers in forced environments ( Bhatti, 2012 ) . For the consumers, economical merchandises and services extend from merely costs to working with few resources, and deficiency of necessary substructure. Examples of successful economical invention include the Tata Nano auto in India that costs less than US $ 3000, a low-priced battery powered icebox in India ( called Chotukool ) created by Godrej Company and a mini-handheld EKG ( ECG ) machine called Mac 400 created by GE at its Bangalore research lab ( Howard, 2011 ) .
Based on grounds from economical solutions in and outside Asia, it is clear that economical invention is a cutting border enterprise that has challenged conventional ways of invention direction. It is destined to turn to the demands of both the lower and in-between income groups all over the universe. Despite these impressive paces, the enterprise has received small academic attending peculiarly in Africa. Scholarly works that have attempted to cover with this topic have chiefly concentrated on emerging economic systems in Asia ( Tiwari and Herstatt 2011, 2012 ; SAGPA 2011 ; Tood and Lawson 2003 ; Fukuda and Watanabe 2011 ; Kohlbacher and Hang 2011 ; Pinelli 2011 ; Eagar et al. , 2011 ) . Africa is in desparate demand of economical invention given the higher degrees of poorness in comparing to other continents. For case in 2011, 35 out of 45 states identified as holding “ Low Human Development on the United Nation ‘s Human Development Index were located in Africa ( UNDP, 2011 ) . The deductions of these facts are that the spread between the rich and the hapless in most African states is rather high and the population of the lower and in-between income groups is higher than those in the high income group. This means that there are fewer people who are able to bask certain things in life because of the low buying power. More frequently than note, people in the lower income group would wish to bask the same goods and services as those at the top of the economic pyramid but are non able to. Therefore there is a apparently hibernating and non-consuming market for which economical merchandises can take advantage. We call this market “ unthawed market ” because it is non to the full exploited and seems “ frozen ” . The limited research so far carried out on economical invention has non addressed emerging issues in this field in Africa. To our cognition at that place has merely been one survey conducted on economical invention in Africa. It was a individual instance survey that focused on service invention in Kenya ( Wooder and Baker, 2012 ) . There is demand to project the net broad and expression at Africa as a whole in order to place other instances of economical invention. This will give us a clearer image of both merchandise and service inventions for mass markets in Africa. As populations in Africa grow and demand for alone and moderately inexpensive goods and services go up, economical invention is a must for this continent.
Given the foregoing, it is imperative that a preliminary survey to happen illustrations of economical invention in Africa is conducted. Hence the intent of this survey is to turn to this spread. More specifically our survey aims to place instances of economical invention in African, categorise them and convey out success factors of such inventions. Identifying instances of economical invention will supply of import penetrations that will excite further research non merely in Africa but in other parts of the universe.
2. Economical Invention: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
In this epoch that is progressively being defined by the globalisation of competition every bit good as major financial and demographic challenges, the undertaking of pull offing invention is critical for companies of every size in every industry ( Tidd, 2006 ) . Although invention is a really hard procedure to pull off, it is critical in prolonging concerns and ensures competitory advantage. The manner organisations bring out new thoughts and take them to the market has undergone cardinal alteration. There is a paradigm displacement in how companies commercialize industrial cognition. In the followers we have shown how two conventional theories of invention and merchandise development are no longer sustainable. Subsequently, economical invention is going relevant.
2.1 The Product Life Cycle can non explicate recent tendencies in invention
Historically there were efforts and enterprises to understand merchandise and service invention. One such enterprise was the merchandise life rhythm ( PLC ) theory developed by Raymond Vernon. The PLC is an economic theory that attempted to explicate the ascertained form of international trade. Vernon ( 1966 ) argued that many merchandises experience rhythms. The theoretical principle behind the PLC theory emanates from the constructs of diffusion and acceptance of inventions ( Everett, 1962 ) . Schematically, the PLC may be approximated by a bell-shaped curve that is divided into different phases ( see Figure 1 ) . Although the figure of stages suggested by different bookmans varies from four to six, for the intent of this paper we have adopted a four-phase rhythm as proposed by Polli and Cook ( 1969 ) . The four-phase rhythm is realistic. Some rhythms, which include a impregnation phase, have proved to be unrealistic and questionable. For illustration, a clear differentiation could non be drawn between the mature and impregnation phase ( Gardner, 1987 ) . Pollit and Cook ( 1969 ) stated that gross revenues follow a sequence of phases, get downing with merchandise debut and returns with growing, through adulthood and finally worsen.
Figure 1. Product Life Cycle
Beginning: Polli and Cook ( 1969 )
Below is the sum-up of the four phases in a merchandise ‘s life rhythm:
Introduction – New merchandises are introduced to run into local and national demands. Net incomes are frequently low because clients are few. This phase is characterized by important uncertainness sing the market size, consumer gustatory sensations and technological restraints.
Growth – Products become more widely known and accepted. Net incomes begin to be earned as the image of the merchandise is developed.
Maturity – Merchandises may be extended by adding both breadth and deepness. Gross saless are at their extremum and net incomes are high. There is production of standard merchandises through standardised production procedures.
Decline – Gross saless fall really fast and net income go down. Monetary values are besides likely to fall.
Vernon ( 1966 ) posited that merchandises are ab initio discovered and produced in developed states ( North ) and exported to the less developed states ( South ) . The accent was on the function of invention, scale ignorance and uncertainness. Vernon discarded the classical premise that cognition is a free good. He claimed that developed states spend more on merchandise development and invention than developing states. Hence they tend to develop high terminal merchandises. Initially, the industry of a new merchandise tends to be located in the state that developed it. This is mostly on history of big markets in the developed states hence early phases of a merchandise ‘s life production demand to be located near to the market. Vernon farther argued that when merchandises become mature their grade of standardisation and accordingly of monetary value snap of demand additions, cost considerations become more of import and production will frequently travel to less developed states. Concerns about productions costs and possibilities of economic systems of scale consequences in displacement of location of production from the ‘north ‘ to the ‘south ‘ . Hence the north produces merely ‘new goods ‘ while the south produces merely ‘old ‘ goods ( Funk, 2004 ) . The rhythm arises because what is a new good in one period finally becomes an old good in another period.
The PLC theory is a conventional construct which has stood the trial of clip. It has represented cardinal elements of invention and selling for four decennaries ( Mercer, 1993 ) . Following its development in the sixtiess and subsequent popularisation in the 1970s, the theory has remained a stable characteristic in international trade. A great trade has been written on the topic and several empirical surveies have validated its being ( Polli & A ; Cook 1969 ; Meenaghan & A ; Turnbull 1978 ; Klepper 1992 ; Mercer 1993 ; Funk 2004 ) . The PLC has been used for strategic planning, merchandise development, fiscal direction and has been considered to be an influential construct ( Moon, 2005 ) and an digesting selling model ( Golder & A ; Tellis 2004 ) . The construct has been used for specific engineerings ( Abernathy and Utterback, 1978 ) ; for dominant designs ( Tushman and Anderson, 1990 ) , for client versions of new engineerings ( Rodgers, 1962 ) and for specific industries and bunchs ( Audretsch and Feldman, 1996 ) .
Indeed the grounds back uping the PLC theory and the sum of attending bestowed upon the theory in the academic literature over the old ages have been impressive. However, in the recent past the PLC construct has begun to look unsustainable. There is a serious lack in the averment that new merchandises and inventions happen in developed states and subsequently acquire adopted in developing states. Recent scholarly work has brought out grounds demoing an increasing tendency of merchandise development and inventions arising from developing states such as India and China ( Tiwari & A ; Herstatt 2012 ; Prahaland 2005 ; Economist 2010b ) . These states are no longer merely borrowing inventions from developed states ; but from clip to clip are lending inventions to the remainder of the universe including advanced economic systems ( Govindarajan & A ; Ramamurti, 2011 ) . Recent research has suggested that endeavors are progressively utilizing aggressive developing economic systems as lead markets for introducing specific merchandises, services and engineerings ( Tiwari & A ; Herstatt, 2012 ) . An illustration of such inventions is a rinsing machine called Mini Magical Child introduced by Haier, a Chinese place contraptions house. This washing machine is being sold in the US and Europe. These inventions have been termed “ economical invention ” because they meet the demands of low terminal clients at low-cost monetary values and have acceptable quality ( Zeschky et al. 2011 ) . This tendency can non be sufficiently explained by the PLC theory and by factors such as grade of standardisation and monetary value snap of demand. To the contrary, the tendency has challenged the nucleus premises of the PLC theory and proves, in the meantime, that invention and new merchandises can emerge from anyplace and non merely in advanced states. The averment, by Vernon, that discarded the impression that cognition in a free good therefore can non stand.
2.2. The Closed Innovation attack has been eroded
The old paradigm was called closed invention which was based on the rigorous control of successful invention ( Chesbrough, 2003 ) . Under this position, organisations generate their ain thoughts, develop them, finance them and back up them on their ain. In short, companies maintain complete control of all facets of the invention procedure and innovations are kept extremely close. Traditionally many organisations followed this theoretical account and it worked good for most of the 20th century ( OVO, 2008 ) .
However, over the old ages a figure of factors have led to the eroding of the closed invention attack ( Chesbrough, 2003 ) . First, due to an addition in the mobility and handiness of extremely educated people, big sums of cognition leave the research research labs of many companies. Second, the handiness of venture capital has increased significantly in the recent yesteryear devising it possible for assuring thoughts and engineerings to be farther developed outside the organisation. Third, other houses in the supply concatenation began to play an progressively polar function in the invention procedure. Finally, today there is an copiousness of cognition in virtually every field. The proliferation of public scientific databases, on-line diaries, low-priced cyberspace entree hold given houses entree to a wealth of cognition that was far more expensive and time-consuming to make every bit late as the early 1990s.
The above factors have rendered the closed invention theoretical account unsustainable. Consequently, some mature houses got stuck in a narrow hunt for efficiency, exposing short eyesight and an inability to introduce to the extent needed to prolong their fight ( March, 1991 ; Dougherty and Hardy, 1996 ) . Hence, many organisations started looking for other ways of increasing the efficiency and effectivity of their invention processes. On the other manus, these conditions have led to the globalisation of invention and outgrowth of what Chresbrough ( 2003 ) has called unfastened invention. Under this paradigm, houses can and should utilize both internal and external thoughts to develop and commercialize merchandises and services. Open invention provides means to profit from a much broader base of persons and organisations. Ideas coming from clients and concern spouses may place spreads and demands that internal squad may hold been disregarding or unable to place. Firms are tapping into internal and external beginnings of cognition to reexamine development rhythms, re-think development costs and develop merchandises for peculiar markets with differing client gustatory sensations, geographic conditions or regulative demands ( Buse et al. 2010 ; Cantwell, 1995 ; OECD, 2008 ) . Internationalization of R & A ; D which was thought to be phenomena of the developed states such as Japan and Germany has now shifted to developing states ( Carlsson, 2006 ) . There is a singular tendency of transnational endeavors choosing locations in emerging economic systems such as India and China to carry on invention activities ( Tiwari, 2007 ; OECD ; 2008 ) .
2.3 The outgrowth of economical invention
The unfastened invention attack and the failure by traditional theories such as the PLC to clarify the current invention tendencies, have laid a footing for the outgrowth of different attacks to innovation direction. One such attack is economical invention which targets in-between and lower-income clients in rapid growing markets ( Pinelli, 2011 ) . Frugal invention is besides called contrary invention ( Govindarajan and Ramamurti, 2011 ) constraint-based invention, intending sparse in the usage of natural stuffs and their impact on the environment ( Innovation Post, 2011 ) . It is driven by resource restraints imposed by infrastructural and concern environment ( Sehgal et al. 2010 ) . Practitioners have referred to frugal invention as a holistic rethinking of merchandises and services offered to the clients and implicit in procedures and concern theoretical accounts so that companies can squash costs and spread out the client base, concern and net income ( Jagati, 2011 ) . These clients are basking their first gustatory sensation of modern prosperity and are purchasing for the rudimentss non for fancy characteristics ( Prahalad, 2005 ) . They have alone demands that are non normally addressed by mature market merchandises, chiefly due to prohibitory cost base of developed universe merchandises.
To bring forth economical goods, complex and concerted R & A ; D attempts are required ( Jagati, 2011 ) . In this respect, the field of technology has besides undergone some alterations in order to confront these challenges. In 2006, the Chairman and CEO of Renault-Nissan Alliance, Carlos Ghosn came up with the term economical technology to depict the competence and propensity of Indian applied scientists in developing merchandises like Tata Motor ‘s Nano. Frugal technology is an overarching doctrine that enables a true ‘clean sheet ‘ attack to merchandise development ( Sehgal et. Al. 2010 ) . It avoids gratuitous costs and references 1000000s of consumers at the underside of the pyramid who are traveling out of poorness in developing states. Kumar and Puranam ( 2012 ) in their recent research identified the following implicit in rules on which economical technology attempts seem to rest:
Robustness – The feature of being physically strong and inured to endurance. Most of the developing states have rough environments such as utmost temperatures.
Portability – Poor roads and transit in the emerging economic systems call for the importance of goods that are easy portable. Small and lightweight merchandises become extremely desirable.
Defeaturing – This refers to have rationalisation. Normally features accumulate in merchandises over clip. Therefore there is demand to take some of them that do little to heighten the existent merchandise.
Leapfrog engineering – Leapfrogging is a procedure of doing advancement by big leaps as opposed to little increases. This may look contradictory for developing states. However, applied scientists in India and China have adopted engineerings that make dependance on bing substructure irrelevant.
Mega-scale production – It is estimated that the in-between category in Asia entirely is 525 million people, greater than the full population of the European Union ( Pinelli, 2011 ) . This monolithic population can assist houses produce on a monolithic graduated table and thrust costs down.
Service Ecosystems – By utilizing efficient service ecosystems, houses utilizing economical technology have been selling big volumes to multiple sections, each with somewhat different demands. With ecosystems low costs have been achieved.
In India, economical invention is known as Jugaad invention which means making the best with what one possesses ( Innovation Post 2011 ) . Jugaad is a conversational Hindi word which approximately translates as “ an advanced hole ; an jury-rigged solution born from inventiveness and inventiveness ” ( Radjou et. al. , 2012 ) . The term refers to a alone manner of thought and moving in response to challenges. Juggad is, rather merely, accomplishing more with less. India is going a leader in economical invention ( Tiwari and Herstatt, 2012 ) . In fact it is quickly emerging as one of the hot spots for the development of inventions tailored to the demands of lower income groups ( Kubzansky and Karamchandani, 2009 ) . As mentioned earlier, the best known illustration of a economical merchandise is likely the Tata Nano auto, which has become so popular in India and dubbed ‘the people ‘s auto ‘ ( Howard, 2011 ) . At the terminal of 2010, 70,000 units had been sold. Tata ‘s purpose was to develop and bring forth a auto that would be much cheaper than any other auto in the universe. To accomplish this, the company reengineered parts to salvage weight, reconfigured assembly methods and developed a complex web of 3rd party providers to increase efficiency ( Pinelli, 2011 ) . In position of this land interrupting engineering, some established auto industries from advanced economic systems have seen a decrease in their gross revenues. Harmonizing to the Society of India Automobile Manufacturers, in 2011 Suzuki ‘s auto gross revenues in India dropped by 11.9 per centum for the first clip in 9 old ages ( Nagata, 2012 ) . Suzuki ‘s market portion in India which was 50 per centum in 2009 dropped to under 40 per centum in 2011. Another illustration of economical invention is India ‘s technologically sophisticated solutions. The state is supplying satellite launch services at the India Space Research Organization ( ISRO ) . This organisation is offering commercial services to infinite bureaus and research establishments all over the universe for costs that are significantly lower than those of its rivals in the developed universe ( Chandrashekar, 2011 ) . In the medical field, a alone and interesting tendency has emerged. Sometime back people seeking specialised medical intervention from developing states would go to developed states for intervention. However, because of new and low-cost medical services in India, patients from affluent states are traveling at that place for specialised intervention ( Moriyasu, 2012 ) . The comparably nice intervention is much cheaper and waiting clip is short. For case, the bosom beltway surgery which costs US $ 144,000 in the US is available for US $ 8,600 in India ( Moryyasu, 2012 ) . In this respect, the figure of medical tourers received by India has grown to 4.6 times the figure received five old ages ago. At Indraprastha Apollo Hospital in New Delhi, patients from the US, the UK and the Persian Gulf States have been treated.
Another state with successful instances of economical invention is China. For illustration, BYD in that state has developed a really low-priced method of bring forthing lithium-ion batteries whose cost has been reduced from US $ 40 to less than US $ 5 per unit ( Kharas, 2010 ) . Other economical merchandises in China include a washing machine called Mini Magical Child developed by Haier, a place contraption company in 1996 ( Hang et. al. , 2010 ) . The merchandise was designed for little day-to-day tonss and offered an option to big expensive lavation machines. These are all illustrations of “ good plenty ” merchandises designed to carry through the basic demands at low cost thereby supplying high value.
From the scarce literature, three surveies that attempted to turn to economical invention theoretical issues were identified. The first one proposed a economical theoretical theoretical account on the footing of resource restraints, institutional invention and societal invention ( Bhatti, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to this theoretical account, the intersections among these three invention streams show a fertile infinite where economical invention can be located. If each watercourse is taken individually, it can non cover with the challenges of introducing for the underserved in emerging markets. The 2nd survey presented a conceptual model for merchandise invention ( Ray and Ray, 2011 ) . As shown in Figure 2, they contended that to function the markets at the underside of the pyramid three constructs need to be harnessed ; architectural invention, modularity and collaborative partnerships. When public presentation of bing merchandise engineerings far exceeds what clients in mass markets are able to use or pay for ; pioneers need to develop simpler and cheaper merchandises. They likened this to Christensen ‘s theoretical account of riotous engineerings. In this context, architectural invention becomes the logical low cost pick, since it recombines bing constituent engineerings in new ways, to make and change price-performance bundles without farther investings in developing new nucleus engineerings. Modularity incorporated in such merchandises enables houses to better public presentation overtime to appeal to more discerning mainstream clients, finally easing a engineering to emerge. In short modularity is for customization and betterments. Furthermore, given that developing riotous engineerings is prone to high uncertainnesss and unanticipated costs, which possibly further exacerbated by institutional failings in emerging economic systems, the writers drew on the construct of collaborative partnerships. Such steadfast patterns will take down the costs and hazards associated with invention. The 3rd survey focused on economical service invention in Kenya, Africa. The purpose of the survey was to research how the MPESA solution ( which will be discussed subsequently in this paper ) was conceived, designed and delivered to the clients ( Wooder and Baker, 2012 ) . The survey proposed a service invention model consisting how to ; make, present, gaining control, defend and sustain value. Unlike the theoretical account proposed by Bhatti, the last two conceptual models have been subjected to some testing. While the three theoretical accounts are in tandem on affordability, resource restraints and internal capacities of houses, the Bhatti theoretical account appears complicated and hard to implement. To prove the intersection of societal invention, institutional invention and resource restraints is such a gigantic undertaking.
Federal bureau of prisons
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY – simpler, cheaper than mainstream merchandises
Figure 2: A Conceptual Framework for merchandise invention for mass markets in emerging economic systems
Beginning: Ray and Ray ( 2011 )
In order to understand how MNCs are forming economical invention attempts in emerging markets, an in-depth survey of five houses was carried out ( Zeschky et al. , 2011 ) . Initially 13 houses, stand foring a assortment of industries, were identified. The houses were sieved and eight dropped due to deficient available informations. The staying five were found suited instance surveies. Analysis was based on three standards ; merchandise features, motive for developing merchandises and execution of merchandise development. The survey found that besides holding similar constructions sing organisation of R & A ; D, all of the five houses had a successful history of economical invention. Based on the above standards it was established that successful economical invention:
Should be grounded in the thrust to run into the demands of resource-constrained clients at the lowest possible cost.
Require local organisational constructions and resources.
Should ensue in merchandises and services that are easy to utilize, robust and dependable.
The above and other old surveies provide empirical grounds and a yardstick upon which future surveies can be benchmarked. First, primary information was used ; 2nd the sample was sensible and 3rd houses represented different industries.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This research focuses on placing illustrations of economical invention in Africa. Bing the first survey of this sort in Africa, we used analogical thought to place of economical invention. The usage of analogies in research involves the transportation of cognition gained from one country ( beginning sphere ) to another country or field ( aim sphere ) ( Kalogerakis et al. 2010 ; Keane 1988 ) . The cognition and grounds of economical invention in some emerging economic systems ( beginning sphere ) presented in this paper was used to place illustrations of economical invention in Africa ( aim sphere ) . As shown in this paper, there are successful illustrations of economical invention in India and China and these will be the yardstick against which instances in Africa will be identified.. Specifically the Zeschky et Al. ( 2011 ) choice standard was used to turn up exceeding instances of economical invention in Africa. We scanned research databases and reviewed studies, articles and documents from old surveies and undertakings. Beginnings of such informations included the United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) , World Bank, reputable diaries, African Union ( AU ) and New Partnership for Africa ‘s Development ( NEPAD ) . This methodological analysis was appropriate at this phase of the research. For the hereafter, there will be need to transport out comprehensive in-depth instance surveies of the identified instances. Such surveies will supply us with elaborate penetrations of the houses ‘ design, and production procedures and commercialisation of merchandises.
4. Examples OF FRUGAL INNOVATION IN AFRICA
Pulling from the literature, we present six illustrations of successful economical invention in Africa. These instances are drawn from a scope of wide countries runing from lodging building to electronic money transportation engineerings.
4.1 Moladi: Low-cost houses in South Africa
In many African states, lodging is one of the most sensitive issues impacting the lower income groups. In South Africa for illustration, near to 13 % of the 14.3 million families are informal homes ( Statistics South Africa, 2011 ) . The term “ informal home ” is frequently used in South Africa to denominate hovels, corrugated-iron constructions and other stopgap shelters. The above statistics represents about 1.8 million families ( between 7.2 and 10.8 million people ) . Informal constructions are frequently made of extremely combustible stuffs such as wood and composition board which pose serious safety and environmental concerns. The constructions are easy damaged and exposed to the external elements intending that people frequently live in moistness, really hot or really cold conditions. The other concern is unequal or deficiency of sanitation and running H2O which constitute a serious wellness jeopardy for the population. Similar conditions are present in many parts of Africa.
In order to turn to this job and as portion of public policy, the South African authorities took a figure of enterprises. It became one of the few states in the universe where the right to ‘adequate lodging ‘ of all citizens is enshrined in the fundamental law. Harmonizing to subdivision 26 of the fundamental law, the province has an duty to take “ sensible legislative and other steps, within its available resources, to accomplish the progressive realisation of this right [ to lodging ] . ” ( Republic of South Africa, 1996 ) . In order to interpret this committedness into consequences, the first to the full democratic South African authorities, instantly upon taking office in 1994, embarked on a far-reaching economic policy model called the “ Reconstruction and Development Programme ” , widely known as the RDP ( Republic of South Africa, 1994 ) . Despite these serious attempts to turn to the deficiency of lodging, the Department of Human Settlements ( the authorities section in charge of lodging ) estimates the current backlog to still be of at least 2.1 million units impacting 12 million people ( Times Live, 2010 ) . As a consequence of rapid urbanisation and demographic force per unit area, this backlog keeps turning. Recent service bringing protests across South Africa have, one time once more, shown the predicament of the poorest and the pressing demand to turn to their challenges ( Burger, 2009 ) .
One household company in South Africa called Moladi took advantage of this yawning market and developed an appropriate engineering for the building of low cost houses. The company was founded by Hennie Botes and it developed a new manner of edifice walls which replaced the conventional brick walls. In November 1985, Botes started experimenting with a mold system which would enable him to project full walls at a clip, instead than individual bricks. He besides rapidly realized that if he could project one wall, he could really project all walls at the same time for an full house or a edifice, by pouring a concrete-based howitzer into the casting and taking the casting one time the mixture had dried inside the pits ( Coetzer, 2010 ) . Botes looked at different types of stuffs that would be appropriate for the formwork ( or projecting ) , and ab initio looked at steel and wood, before settling for injection-moulded plastic constituents. This method was cost-efficient as piecing plastic panels required no skilled labor in the signifier of carpenters and welders, which are in short supply in South Africa. The fictile moldings enabled him to successfully project a wall. The basic construct was born, but Botes had many more mileposts to make: both on the engineering side, and with respects to conveying the merchandise to the market.
In 1987 Botes worked with a chemical applied scientist to explicate a chemical which mixed with the concrete, aerated the wall, ensured it was rainproof and gave the wall better thermic belongingss compared to barricade constructions. This mix is now patented as “ MoladiCHEM ” and is used as an indispensable ingredient of the howitzer mix. The following mileposts were reached during the 1990s. Moladi foremost had to obtain choice accreditation and conform to all the regulative demands needed to follow with indispensable edifice criterions. In 1994, the company obtained enfranchisement from the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research ( CSIR ) . Basic hardiness trials were so conducted and certified by the South African Bureau of Standards ( SABS ) . The trials included a H2O incursion trial, a soft organic structure impact trial and a chisel impact trial ( Coetzer, 2010 ) . In all three criterion trials, walls built through the Moladi trial surpassed the minimal criterions required. Massive constructions such as Moladi walls besides contain the cardinal advantage of being able to defy natural catastrophes like temblors. Extra mileposts were reached as Moladi earned awards for its engineering. In 1997, Moladi received the SABS Design for Development Award, and in 2006, it won the Housing Innovation Award jointly awarded by the National Homebuilders Registration Council NHBRC and ABSA Bank ( one of South Africa ‘s chief banking establishments ) .
The first Moladi house was completed and sold in 1987 in Springs, an industrial metropolis E of Johannesburg. But most of the house ‘s commercial successes were reached outside South Africa. During the 1990s, Hennie Botes established partnerships with belongings developers and building companies based chiefly in Central and South America. Through these partnerships, Moladi ‘s engineering was rolled out and used by developers in Mexico and Panama. Its biggest undertaking to day of the month is in Mexico, where a 1,000-unit undertaking was completed in 2006. This initial enlargement in emerging markets was consolidated in the late ninetiess and 2000s, during which clip Moladi expanded its web of spouses on the African continent, and in India. Today, Moladi has appointed agents in charge of advancing and administering its engineering in Ghana, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Sudan, Kenya, Zambia, Angola and Nigeria. Moladi besides gets a watercourse of visitants from other parts of the underdeveloped universe, including from Nepal, the Philippines and Iraq.
The indispensable part of Moladi ‘s engineering to frugal invention prevarications in how the solution has addressed the six key challenges faced by developing states when it comes to lodging:
Lack of resources
Lack of skilled labor
Work flow control
The Moladi invention has departed from a traditional brick edifice procedure. This invention, aside from its built-in part to constructing engineering, has besides created value by extinguishing inefficiencies in the traditional brick-based procedure. The end-users of Moladi houses are, finally, the people whose lives Moladi says it wants to alter ; people at the base of the economic pyramid who are in demand of low-cost lodging and shelter. A typical illustration of such a individual is Mrs. Charmaine Ruiters and her household. Charmaine, who used to populate in an informal adjustment, now portions a Moladi house with 14 other household members in the town of Despatch outside Port Elizabeth ( Coetzer, 2010 ) .
4.2 Safaricon and Vodafone: Electronic Money Transfer in Kenya
In Kenya there are less than two million bank histories functioning the state ‘s population of 32 million people ( UNDP, 2007 ) . The grounds for this disparity include the high cost of banking and the fact that the bulk of the people have low incomes with a big per centum of them populating on an norm of one dollar a twenty-four hours. Such people do non experience comfy interacting with commercial Bankss that typically target in-between and upper income clients. Micro-Finance Institutions ( MFIs ) such as Faulu Kenya do successfully supply fiscal services for the hapless, but they are hampered by hapless substructure and low degrees of engineering.
In order to turn to this job Safaricom Kenya and Vodafone, the two nomadic service suppliers presently runing in Kenya, developed an appropriate engineering. The engineering was called “ M-PESA ” , an electronic money transportation merchandise aimed at doing fiscal minutess faster, cheaper and more secure for the less privileged. M-PESA ( “ M ” for Mobile, “ PESA ” the Swahili word for hard currency ) is a nomadic money transportation service invention ( Wooder and Baker, 2012 ) . It allows the transportation of money between persons, transportation of money between persons and concerns, hard currency backdown and sedimentation at registered retail mercantile establishments as payment for goods and services through the nomadic phone short message service ( SMS ) . M-PESA history holders can lodge or retreat money into or from their practical histories at Safaricom seller stores or at an increasing figure of mercantile establishments such as supermarkets and gasoline Stationss. Once the money is in their histories, they can utilize it to pay measures, transportation to other people or purchase goods and services.
In October 2005, M-PESA tests were successfully launched in Mathare ( a Nairobi slum ) and Thika ( a market town an hr ‘s thrust from Nairobi ) . The tests featured eight Safaricom trader stores and 450 Faulu Kenya clients and concluded in May 2006. Vodafone Group Plc provided 990,000 Sterling Pounds ( GBP ) and DFID 910,000 Sterling Pounds to finance the pilot undertaking. The merchandise has been successfully launched by Safaricom. More fiscal establishments and users were recruited. Vodafone besides plans to present the system in other developing states. M-PESA was an original thought of Vodafone. The company initiated treatments among the spouses with the overall purpose of widening societal benefits to mobile phone endorsers. Safaricom Kenya provided the local Mobile telephone web, Vodafone and DFID funded the pilot undertaking, Faulu Kenya provided the micro-finance clients who pilot tested M-PESA and the Commercial Bank of Africa was the banker to M-PESA.
At the start of the pilot, the clients selected to take part were issued cell phones equipped with a particular endorser individuality faculty ( SIM ) card. The particular SIM card enabled the practical minutess to be tested. Clients keeping M-PESA histories applied for micro-finance loans in the normal manner, but when the loan was granted, they were non given a check or hard currency. Alternatively the money was transferred from Faulu ‘s M-PESA bank history into the Faulu field officers M-PESA history. The field officer so dispersed the loan via SMS to the micro-finance clients at a group meeting. The client so had many options ; she or he could retreat hard currency from an authorised agent store, reassign value to other persons or pay for purchases from merchandisers. Clients of Faulu may turn their loans into hard currency by sing nearby authorized retail merchants such as Safaricom stores or other mercantile establishments and reassign recognition from their phones to the store, having hard currency in return. The retail merchants receive a committee for each dealing. The clients besides have the option of paying for goods and services by reassigning value from their histories to the retail merchants ‘ M-PESA histories.
The M-PESA engineering is a digital fiscal transportation enterprise. Among the M-PESA ‘s inventions advantages include the followers:
Replacing hard currency with electronic money among low-income people
Applicability for both urban and rural hapless
Radically cut downing dealing costs for the hapless
New functionality including distant payments or other pecuniary minutess
A safer manner of directing money and clients had no demand to transport hard currency.
It negated the demand to go to the bank and waiting line
Simple and fast to utilize
The M-PESA system is meant to supply the hapless with efficient, dependable and low-cost banking services and to at the same time excite concern operations that provide the hapless with a agencies of support and employment. To turn these purposes into world, Vodafone and its spouses plan to spread out M-PESA to other local MFIs and Bankss so that they can cut down dealing costs and more easy supply entree to low-cost loans for micro-entrepreneurs. Safaricom and Vodafone benefit from the system by bear downing a little fee for every dealing conducted through the system. By maintaining dealing costs really low, 1000000s of Kenyans can be drawn into the new system, ensuing in 1000000s of minutess being conducted through the system day-to-day and finally making bigger net incomes for Vodafone and Safaricom. The MFIs on the other manus, would do net incomes through the involvement they can bear down on loans and through the fees that they can bear down for all the minutess they would carry on for their clients through the M-PESA system. DFID can profit by wining in their mission to cut down poorness in Kenya.
4.3 Eskom: Prepaid Metering Technology in South Africa
Eskom is a South African province owned endeavor established in 1923 and is responsible for the coevals and distribution of electricity. In 2002, Eskom was converted from a statutory organic structure into a public company as Eskom Holdings Limited in footings of the Eskom Conversion Act 13 of 2001. Prior to 1989, Eskom ‘s electricity distribution activities were limited to direct sale to big commercial and municipal clients. The municipalities so sold electricity to residential consumers. As municipal electricity distribution was concentrated on the flush and mostly white countries, big parts of the township population were left without electricity. This was identified as a important job, and accordingly in 1989 Eskom launched the ‘Electricity for All ‘ programme, which aimed to widen electrification to over one million families in traditionally underprivileged countries. Acknowledging the low income degrees of the targeted families, unequal substructure and high administrative costs of administrating the recognition based system, the company began to look for alternate ways of supplying electricity to the lower income group ( Iliev, 2005 ) . The socioeconomic conditions in the targeted countries made the usage of bing engineering ( the credit-based metering ) hard and dearly-won. Most of the targeted consumers were in informal employment, had limited entree to banking, postal or other substructure and were capable to high degrees of offense.
Eskom identified the Pre-Paid Metering ( PPM ) engineering as a manner of increasing the proviso of electricity to these consumers and extenuating the impact of the jobs on the costs and disposal of the electrification. The handiness of appropriate PPM merchandises domestically and internationally was explored. However, in the 1980s and 1990s the PPM engineering internationally was still in the early phases of development, and did non run into Eskom ‘s operational demands. The taking PPM engineering was in the UK, but it was seen as inadequate for Eskom ‘s scheme ; as the prepayment metres were operated either by coins or movable magnetic strip cards, the security degree was low and the fraud hazard was seen as really high. Given the worlds of the South African state of affairs, Eskom decided that a movable item system would transport a really high degree of larceny and fraud hazard, and that a non-transferable system would be most appropriate. Hence, a important determination was so taken to develop a local engineering ( Iliev, 2005 ) . Eskom would organize the development of a non-transferable item PPM system, with the aid of the private sector.
Eskom led a strategic confederation of domestic makers for the development of a South African PPM engineering. Once the engineering had matured sufficiently, Eskom withdrew from active engagement in the engineering ‘s development, concentrating on driving the cost of the merchandise down. As at the terminal of 2005, the aim of supplying electricity to one million families had been achieved, with 2.6 million South African families utilizing the PPM engineering. The South African makers and developers of PPM engineering have successfully grown export degrees and attracted transnational investing in the industry. The standard underlying the engineering has received international acknowledgment through its acceptance as the footing for a new International Electrotechnic Commission criterion for pre-paid metering engineering. The PPM industry represents a instance of successful local development of cutting border planetary engineering, based on the originative combination of familial local technological capablenesss, imported cognition, and strong coaction of public and private sector histrions.
4.4. Uniliver: Food, soap and healthful merchandises in different parts of Africa
There is grounds that much of Africa ‘s growing is driven non by the sale of natural stuffs, such as oil or diamonds, but by a burgeoning domestic market, the largest exterior of India and China ( Guo, 2010 ) . In the last few old ages, the rush in private ingestion of goods and services has accounted for two tierces of Africa ‘s GDP growing. It is expected that this ingestion will turn along with the population of Africa. By 2030, the population of Africa will transcend the population of North America, Europe and Japan combined. For now, few African consumers have the sort of disposable income found in Asia and the West. Yet, African comptrollers, instructors, amahs, cab drivers, even roadside street sellers, are driving up demand for goods and services including cell phones, bank histories, upmarket groceries and existent estate ( Mahajan, 2009 )
Uniliver, a London-based transnational company, has conducted concern in Africa selling nutrient, soaps, personal-care merchandises and more for more than a century. From the 1920s through the early 1990s, Unilever dominated trade but was n’t focused on a specific merchandise line. In fact, Unilever ‘s West Africa Company would sell anything from rinsing pulverization to trucks. Today, the company is much more focussed and defines its market as sub-Saharan, an country of 657 million people, and sells merchandises in 48 states. Unilever has developed a scheme focused on the low income consumers. It has started utilizing the “ little unit packs/low unit monetary value ” construct. For illustration, Uniliver packages its Omo lavation pulverization or Blue Band oleo in little sachets and sells them for less than the equivalent of 10 cents ( US ) a package. In Ghana, the company produces bantam battalions of Frytol cooking oil and Close-up toothpaste, merely because that is all most consumers can afford. The company ‘s distribution web, built up over many old ages, is besides adapted to these economic systems where many people have no nest eggs. Goods are efficaciously given to street bargainers on one hebdomad ‘s recognition, and the payment is collected a hebdomad subsequently when the bargainer has accumulated some hard currency from his or her clients.
With this scheme, the company has successfully moved consumers through the value concatenation. Unilever starts by selling hapless Africans the low cost per unit battalions of Omo and so moves them to larger battalions when they become more flush. In a concern study on Unilever ‘s African scheme, Anthony Simon, the caput of selling for Unilever ‘s nutrient division said: “ The trueness of hapless consumers to a trade name is at least every bit strong as a more flush 1. ” ( Nissa, 2003 ) .
4.5 Toyola: Charcoal stove in Ghana
Over the past three decennaries assorted enterprises and policies have been adopted at international and national degrees for sustainable energy usage. For case, under the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( EBRD ) Sustainable Energy Initiative, up to a‚¬1.5 billion was to be invested in energy efficiency, renewables and clean energy undertakings over a three-year period get downing in 2006 ( Osei, 2010 ) . In Ghana, the Ministry of Mines and Energy in 1989 developed the “ Ahinbenso ” improved wood coals stove with the purpose of bettering the efficiency of the cook ranges used preponderantly by hapless families. This is declarative of the important function energy dramas in the development docket of states. Hence, in seeking to minimise poorness and better homo development, entree to low-cost and sustainable energy services is indispensable. Wood continues to be the chief domestic fuel for both urban and rural families in Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is comparatively easy available and cheaper than modern fuels ( Wood and Baldwin, 1985 ) . However, the inefficient combustion of these fuels is reported to ensue in really high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as C monoxide and all right particulate affair. The most affected are adult females and kids since they spend a relatively greater portion of their clip in the kitchen. Globally, indoor pollution as a effect of firing biomass and coal for energy demands causes two million deceases yearly, about all in developing states ( Legros et al, 2009 ) . There is besides grounds of links to oculus disease, TB and low birth weight ( Pokhrel et al. 2005 ) . Coupled with these major wellness concerns are the potentially annihilating effects of nursery gas emanations and depletion of forest resources, aggravated by the fact that the demand of developing states for their chief domestic fuel is expected to turn in proportion to population growing. Thus, exchanging to fossil fuels such as kerosine and liquefied crude oil gas ( LPG ) or alternate energy beginnings such as air current and solar would cut down the sum of nursery gases emitted by African families. However, the cost deductions put these energy beginnings beyond the range of most people in Africa and other parts of the underdeveloped universe. The instance in Ghana points to a state of affairs where many hapless families can non afford modern and efficient fuels. The bulk of the hapless continue to utilize fuel wood for their most intensive energy usage ; cookery. Even though consecutive authoritiess have enacted policies to increase family entree to fuels such as kerosine, gas and electricity, the high costs associated with the usage of these energy types have counteracted such policies ( Heltberg, 2003 ) .
Toyola Energy Limited saw this chance and started bring forthing and administering energy efficient wood coal ranges and solar lanterns for domestic usage in both urban and rural countries in Ghana. Toyola is a limited liability company whose enterprisers are Mr. Suraj Wahab and Mr. Ernest Kyei. The two craftsmans implemented an advanced concern theoretical account that includes the hapless along the whole value concatenation as providers, makers, retail merchants and clients and histories for positive economic, societal and environmental effects. The Toyola cook range is fitted with a ceramic line drive to better fuel efficiency by 50 % in comparing with the traditional coal pot. This engineering is aimed at minimising the rate of deforestation and C emanations. Users benefit from reduced indoor air pollution and from salvaging money. The efficient range besides creates employment particularly for the young person. Toyola has trained and created employment for over 300 craftsmans in Ghana. Employment is generated along the whole value concatenation which comprises bit providers, range makers, distributers and retail merchants. Toyola believes that inclusion creates important positive impacts on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in their value concatenation.
The metal bit providers go around scavenging or purchasing the bit to sell it to Toyola. However, when they come across big measures of bit metal which they can non afford to purchase, they contact Toyola to purchase it straight and the bit dealer/supplier is paid a committee of about 10 % of the value of the bit metal. The bit metal constitutes an of import constituent of the cook stoves. The Toyola cook ranges are manufactured by three classs of craftsmans viz. , the constituent providers, the metal frame providers and those who assemble the constituents. A figure of craftsmans produce assorted constituents of the range utilizing their ain bit metal. In the terminal, the constituents are sold to Toyola to be assembled by a group of craftsmans who specialize in piecing the ranges.
Toyola encourages craftsmans to specialise in bring forthing one of the 26 parts that make up the coal pot. Wahab and Kyei estimate that this increased specialisation helps to increase the productiveness of the craftsmans by about sextuple. Toyola delivers ranges to rural inhabitants that mostly depend on firewood and wood coal for their domestic cookery and besides on kerosine for illuming. The Toyola merchandises ( ranges and lanterns ) provide the users with cleaner, healthier and cheaper energy. Toyola frequently sells their merchandises on recognition to local market sellers who earn 10 % committee from selling the merchandise. Toyola sometimes besides allows swap financing to give the most disadvantaged entree to their merchandises. Over the past three old ages of operation, the company estimates that it has supplied about 35,000 families ( out of a sum of 3,701,241 families in Ghana ) with their merchandises and has offset 15,000 dozenss of C dioxide emanations.
4.6 Appropriate Development, Architecture and Planning Technologies ( ADAPT ) : Construction Technology in Egypt
In Egypt in 1997, 92 % of homes in the urban sector and 87 % of retentions in the rural sector were informal. The combined existent estate was tantamount to US $ 240 billion of dead capital. This value for illustration was 55 times greater than the value of foreign direct investing in Egypt until 1996. While 90 % of occupants build their ain places, they do so without proficient aid, planning or audience sing cost or resistance-tests on stuffs utilized. Technical inefficiencies means that building stuffs such as cement, which pollute air and dirt resources, or expensive imported stuffs, are overused in an inappropriate edifice rhythm, due to the deficiency of updated cognition or engineering. There is an estimated demand of 5.3 million in-between and low cost units over the following 10 old ages. This is a clear indicant that there are great chances for value creative activity that are rooted in assets already within close range in local markets. Hence a company called Appropriate Development, Architecture and Planning Technologies ( ADAPT ) developed a solution to present low-cost houses to the Egyptian market. As portion of its concern theoretical account, ADAPT partnered with maestro builders and Masons in the informal sector to make value by configuring local resources and edifice cognition into new concern theoretical accounts. The company includes greater engagement of communities and uses technology-intensive and low-priced methods. Attendant solutions are relevant for the hapless, and besides for any market seeking ecological and energy efficient techniques in the green building industry. ADAPT develops low-priced lodging that is environmentally sustainable by leveraging engineering to bring forth appropriate edifice stuff. The company cuts the cost of lodging by 30 % through two chief schemes:
Sourcing stuffs that are locally abundant ( such as clay and rock ) . This saves on high importing and transit costs.
Reconfiguring available stuffs utilizing engineering ( lab-testing ) . This produces cheap and environmentally friendly building stuff mixes.
Lab-testing stuff is the engineering used in the early phases of the concern theoretical account ‘s value concatenation. It helps place and introduce edifice stuff. At the production phase, simple tools like wood molds or hydraulic machines used to do bricks are developed as good. With scientific planning, the types and measures of constructing stuff used in urban development are certifiably ecological and already abundant. The pilot proving procedure takes on mean three to six hebdomads, depending on the environment of the site. By utilizing engineering that is cheap, based on local inputs and simple to larn, a more compatible, less expensive therefore enduring solution has been established. This solution has created value and lower costs over clip.
5. PATTERNS OF ORGANISING FRUGAL INNOVATION
All the houses identified had a similar attack to forming their economical invention ( see Table 1 ) . From a strategic position they all wanted to function the hapless people of Africa. They took advantage of unthawed markets. Although cost advantages were a relentless motive for developing these solutions, the consequences show that understanding the users and local environments was cardinal to frugal invention success. Unilever found, through its local presence, that large and fancy packaging was expensive. Based on that determination, they reduced the packaging. Toyola, discovered that conventional energy beginnings such as crude oil gas, air current and solar were beyond the range of most people in Ghana. Through coaction with local craftsmans, they developed an energy efficient wood coal range. Eskom, through the combination of familial local technological capablenesss, led an confederation of domestic makers to develop a place grown pre-paid metering solution. With the exclusion of Toyola, all of the houses ab initio developed solutions for Africa and merely subsequently marketed these merchandises to other continents. All the solutions developed by houses were low-cost and easy to utilize. At this phase the issue of quality with some solutions might be raised. However, the bulk went to great lengths in guaranting hardiness and high quality of their merchandises was achieved. Moladi obtained quality accreditation and conformed to all regulative demands. The pre-paid metering engineering developed by Eskom has successfully grown to export degrees. In fact it has received international acknowledgment for electrotechnic criterion for pre-paid metering engineering.
Table 1. Analysis of Frugal Innovation in Africa
Moladi: Low-cost houses.
Safaricon and Vodafone: MPESA Technology
Eskom: Prepaid Metering Technology
Uniliver: Food, Soap and Sanitary Products.
Toyola: Charcoal Stove
ADAPT: Construction Technology
-Replaced conventional brick walls with injection-molded plastic walls.
-Passed hardiness trials.
-Better thermal belongingss for walls.
-Electronic money transportation solution.
-User friendly through nomadic phones.
-Cheaper and more secure.
-Prepaid metering engineering.
-Easy to utilize.
-Non-transferable system to avoid larcenies and fraud.
-Small unit battalions.
-Easy to utilize.
-Energy efficient wood coal range.
-Easier to utilize than traditional brasiers.
-Affordable houses that.
-Use of locally abundant stuff.
Motivation for developing Product/Service
To develop an appropriate engineering for building of low-cost houses and run into the demands of 2.1 million hapless South Africans who do non hold proper houses.
To supply banking solution to low income groups who can non afford conventional banking installations.
To increase proviso of electricity to low income consumers and extenuate jobs on the costs and disposal of electrification.
To assist low income consumers become more flush.
To assist many hapless families who can non afford modern and efficient fuel.
To configure local resources and edifice cognition to develop low-priced lodging.
Execution of Product/Service
-Initial mark market: South Africa.
-The merchandise has been sold to all over Africa, Mexico and Panama.
Initial mark market: Kenya
-Plans underway to present the engineering in other developing states.
Initial mark market: South Africa
-Technology has been used in other states such as Zambia.
-Multinational houses have invested in the engineering.
Initial mark market: Sub-saharan Africa
-Products now sold all over the universe.
Initial mark market: Ghana
-Product now sold to adjacent states.
Initial market mark: United arab republic
-Product now sold to many states in Africa.
6. Classification OF FRUGAL INNOVATION IN AFRICA
The six instances in the old