The intent of this survey is to understand the factors of advertizement on consumer behavior. This survey can steer to assist companies and organisations to better their selling schemes by understanding issues related to consumer based on their ground, feel, think and select between two options such as trade name and trade name image.
A company can non do dream to be a good known trade name until they invests in their promotional activities, for which consumer market have been ruling through advertizements ( Hussainy et al, 2008 ) .
Other than that, this survey can assist advertiser to understand the issues related to consumer which influenced by environment psychological science such as mottos and logo. In add-on, this survey on consumer behavior besides can do a mention of cognition to sellers and advertizers towards issues on consumer behaviors while they making selling determinations or buying. It besides can give consumers no limitations on treating information about determinations doing and selling result. Advertising typically has some positive or negative content that can trip affectional reactions ( Coulter, 1998 ) .
In add-on, the ground this survey was carried out because of the of import of advertizement for consumer cognition. This is because research on advertizement is hard to analyze in academic literature. It besides was made to depict the tendencies in advertisement industry to understand the consumer behavior issue. Consumer behavior analysis is helpful for advertizer to understand the behavior of consumer in purchasing different state of affairss. Harmonizing to traditional hierarchy-of-effects theoretical accounts, publicizing affect of advertisement exposure leads to trade name knowledge and knowledge about the ad, which so leads to the attitude towards the ad and the trade name until their purchase purpose ( Mendelson and Bolls, 2002 ) .
As a promotional scheme, advertizement besides can be tooling for control the consumer ‘s head to take concluding purchase determination. It can be an of import tool to make consumer behaviour believing. As advertizer ‘s primary mission is to make possible clients and act upon their consciousness, attitudes and purchasing behavior ( Ayanwale et Al, 2005 and Adelaar et Al, 2003 ) .
2.2 Literature Review
This survey will analyse the factors of advertizement that influence consumer behaviour such as trade name, trade name image, slogan and logo. It can be done by reappraisal the past research conducted in order to understand the relationship between advertizement and consumer behaviour.
The relationship between advertizement and consumer behaviour can be explained by how people interact to buy merchandises or services that act uponing by advertizement. For an illustration, people will buy Big Mac at Mc Donald ‘s because the Burger looks really delightful in advertisement.
Consumer is the last individual in the usage of merchandises or services in societal systems. Term of consumer can be defined as those person who purchase for the intent of single or family ingestion ( Fitzsimmons, 2001 ) . Consumer besides means a individual who buys goods and services for personal intents and non for sale.
2.2.2 Consumer Behaviour
With the concern environment changing, consumer behavior besides changed, it is hence of import for concerns and sellers to understand consumer behavior. ( Solomon et al, 2002:5 ) province that consumer behavior it is the survey of the procedures that ‘s are involved when people select, make a purchase and usage merchandises, services or experiences in order to fulfill demands and wants.
Similarly, ( Kotler, 2002 ) illustrates consumer behavior that, it covers all the land that is related to the choice of a merchandise or service, purchasing and so ingestion of the goods or services.
Lars Perner besides agrees with the Philip Kotler and Michael R. Solomon believing about the consumer behavior that it is the survey of the persons or the groups of the persons when they think about choice of the merchandise or service. Then it is the purchase and eventually consumes, in order to fulfill demands and wants ( Perner, 2001 ) .
2.2.3 Buying Decision Process
A purchasing determination procedure explicating the procedures of client will travel through when they purchase the merchandise. Many research workers have given their definition of purchasing determination theoretical account. Although, the theoretical account are different but there are common similarities in the theoretical account phases.
Although the descriptions of the consumer determination procedure vary across these theoretical accounts, five similar determination procedure phases occur in all these theoretical accounts ( Mitchell and Boustani, 1993 ) .
In purchasing determination procedure there are five basic stairss which is need acknowledgment, information hunt, rating of options, purchase determination, and station purchase behavior ( Kotler and Armstrong, 2004 ) .
These five stages-Problem/Need Recognition, Information Search, Alternative Evaluation, Purchase, and Post-Purchase/Outcomes- were foremost introduced by John Dewey in the early last century ( John Dewey, 1910 )
Buying determination procedure is of import to sellers because they must hold the cognition how the clients make their purchasing determination. Buying determination procedure involves:
i. Need/Problem Recognition – Sellers identifies client job or demands. This is because sellers must cognize the demands of the consumer and how these demands can be satisfied. For an illustration, if a individual is thirst so H2O is desirable comparison to nutrient.
two. Information Search – In this phase, consumer searches the information of merchandise in order to happen out what they feel is the best solution. The information can be come from household, vicinity, friends, advertizement or seeking the merchandise.
three. Alternate Evaluation – Consumers evaluate different merchandises to run into their consumer ‘s demands. Basically, monetary value, trade name name and state of beginning are the most standards that consumers use to measure different merchandises in market place. These three standards frequently differ in their influence on consumer ‘s merchandise choices and some dimensions will hold a greater impact than others, which is defined as ” saliency ” ( Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard, 1991 ) .
four. Purchase Decision – In this phase, consumers will do determination to buy the merchandise. The concluding purchase determination can be disrupted by two factors: negative feedback from others costumiers and degree of motive to follow or accept the feedback ( Philip Kotler, Keller, Koshy and Jha, 2009 ) .
v. Post Purchase Behaviour – Phase whether the consumers satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the purchase will act upon the consumer ‘s determination procedure for their similar purchase particularly at the phases of demand acknowledgment and information hunt. If the consumer is non satisfied, he/she will be disappointed and it will convey negative impact on the merchandise or services that they bought. Meanwhile, if consumer is satisfied, it will convey the positive impact on the merchandises or services.
2.3 Evaluation of cardinal surveies
In this survey, there are 4 of import key surveies to understand the factors of advertizement towards consumer behaviors such as trade name, trade name image, slogan and logo. These factors can be of import facet in order consumer to buy merchandises or services.
Brand is a something that represents a company or an image to the goods or services. It has a greater significance even though many people had given an sentiment that a trade name is a logo, motto and trade name image. Basically, a trade name is a symbol of specific company and of import affair to distinguish merchandises or services of a company.
Kotler and Amstrong ( 1999:260 ) provide the undermentioned definition of a trade name as “ A trade name is a name, term, mark, symbol or design, or a combination of these, intended to place the goods or services of one marketer or group of Sellerss and to distinguish them from those of rivals ” .
The relationship between trade name and client is really of import. This is because of it is non logo or trade name name itself that differentiates a merchandise or service but trade name and client frequently of import for each others. A trade name has to be thought of as a relationship with client ( Khermouch, 2001 ) .
A trade name is a mechanism for accomplishing nucleus competences for houses, through distinction motivation. The properties that differentiate a trade name provide the client with satisfaction and benefits for which they are willing to pay mechanism ( Wood, 2000:666 ) .
The trade name name of the merchandise is really of import affair. This is because trade name name can distinguish to others trade name that represent others merchandise or company. Trade names have both functional and symbolic dimension ( Del Rio, Vasquez and Iglesiaz, 2001 ) .
Meanwhile, a large trade name in advertisement industry can give a better image and merchandise to the consumers. Big trade name means a better image and better merchandise ( Del Rio, Vasquez and Iglesiaz, 2001 ) .
2.3.2 Brand Image
There has been much argument on the relationship between trade name and image ( Tasci and Kozak, 2006 ) , nevertheless one manner in which to sort trade name image is, being a signifier of consumer-based equity ( Pike, 2004 ) . In this sense, trade name image can be defined as being “ The perceptual experience of a trade name in the heads of individuals. The trade name image is a mirror contemplation ( though possibly inaccurate ) of the trade name personality or merchandise being. It is what people believe about a brand- their ideas, feelings, outlooks ” ( American Marketing Association, 2008 ) . These beliefs, or perceptual experiences, are developed from the associations or attributes that come a consumer ‘s head when contemplating a peculiar trade name ( Shrimp, 2007 ) .
A trade name image is a set of associations, normally organized in some meaningful manner. An association and an image both represent perceptual experiences which may or may non reflect nonsubjective world. A trade name association is considered as anything that can be linked in memory ( callback ) to a trade name. The association of a trade name non merely exists as such but has a degree of strength. A nexus to a trade name will be stronger when it is based on many experiences or exposures to communications ( Aaker, 1991 ) . Brand image is one of the first consumer trade name perceptual experiences that were identified in the selling literature ( Gardener and Levy, 1955 ) .
Brand image can be conceptualized as a set of associations perceived by an person. The associations perceived by an person can functional properties, events or with people. Although it is improbable two people will hold accurate same trade name image, the image they may hold same features. Such characteristics are said to represent the image of a trade name ( De Chernatony, 2001 ) .
“ The trade name image and trade name placement must be clear, focussed and etched into the heads of the mark chances and consumers. ( Shimp, 2003 ) states that the more unerasable that trade name, the more loyal your consumers will be. The companies are seeking to make a strong image of their trade name in the head of the consumer so that they can derive an of import topographic point in the market. This can be done with the usage of advertisement through the media pass oning to their mark consumers.
In today ‘s increasing competitory market place, consumers frequently have to do a pick among a scope of merchandises or trade names in the market that differ really small in its monetary value or map. In such fortunes, their concluding determination depends on the image they associate with different trade names. A trade name image can be characterized in assorted ways by the consumers, such as being modern or antique, lively or dull, conventional or alien. Brand image is one of the closest relationships with the trade name. It is a major influence on buying determination through trade name acknowledgment and trade name individuality. The consumers must be able to place a trade name in order to buy it. There are two types of trade name consciousness: acknowledgment and callback. Recognition occurs at the point of purchase when the consumers recognize the trade name on the shelf. Whereas callback, the consumers must conceive of the trade name on their ain prior to purchase.
Joseph Plummer ( 1985 ) indicated that there are three constituents to a trade name image: merchandise attributes, consumer benefits and trade name personality. The dimensions of a trade name personality are mostly perceptual. They relate to images that have been created over clip by the assorted facets of selling communications. It is possible to alter the implicit in perceptual experience of a trade name with some advertisement attempt, but till the coveted alteration is achieved, the trade names should present to the outlooks of the existent consumers ( Yeshin, 1999 ) .
“ Merely Make It ” : Nike ‘s beat uping call to jocks everyplace is every bit familiar as the trade name name itself. This illustration illustrates absolutely the huge power and might that can be wielded by the device known as the motto. Together with trade name name and logo, the slogan represents one of the three cardinal elements of trade name individuality ; that is, the elements by which the trade name communicates with the universe around it ( Kohli, Suri, and Thakor,2002 ) .
Slogan is a really of import component to merchandises or services. That is because, it makes users more easy drawn to what is in merchandise or a service. It ‘s a statement about advertisement of merchandises or services for a specific company. Some mottos have a different significance like Airasia ‘s Everyone Can Fly and Adidas ‘s Impossible is Nothing. There are many deceptive mottos in presents. That is because, to be an effectual motto, sellers should set up simple and concise motto for consumers.
Mottos are an of import component in the trade name ‘s individuality and trade name ‘s equity. In a market competition presents, about all trade names use mottos. This is because mottos can bridge the spread between consumers and sellers and can state something about the image of the merchandise, thereby doing it possible to pass on what the trade name is approximately. In this mode, mottos provide a alone and important part to a trade name ‘s individuality. This individuality, in bend, enhances trade name consciousness and trade name image through acknowledgment, callback, and favorable associations for the trade name. Therefore, mottos can function as “ maulerss ” or “ grips ” in capturing the significance of a trade name and in relaying what makes the trade name particular ( Dahlen and Rosengren, 2005, Keller, 1998 ) . This research should be of usage to concern practicians because motto is one of factors in advertizement that influence consumer behavior.
A logo is a symbol and design that reflects a company, concern organisation, company and etc. It is a differentiate mark between company and organisation. However, the logo preponderantly used by commercial companies. It is suited for any organisation, company and concern organisation in order to function as the symbol of the organisation individuality based on attractive and alone type of logo. Logo besides can remind the consumer of their merchandises or services. Other than that, logo is the individuality of a concern and differentiates concern organisations with others.
A company should set up the trade name before doing a logo. This is because a logo ca n’t make a trade name meanwhile a trade name can make a logo.A In add-on, a logo is a representation for merchandise or trade name of a company. Branding would act upon the market that perceives a company by create image and repute. A logo is a manner of undertaking the market ‘s perceptual experience in order to demo to consumers of what sort of a concern that you are enter.
I believe that the logo is the basis of the corporate image. That it builds a ocular span between a company, its merchandises and its service. If the design is alone and memorable it forms a concrete image in the consumers mind, puting the company apart from its rivals, giving a separate and alone corporate individuality ( Rolf Ruiz, 1991 ) .
2.4 Theoretical Model
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
-Brand -Consumer behavior