Nepali Government has brought the economic liberalized policy to develop the economic status and fiscal state of affairs in Nepal. Government has encouraged to establishment, growing and promote of Financial Institutions ; likewise: Commercial Banks, Development Banks, Finance Companies and Co-operatives. In general, an establishment loan, accepting sedimentation and reassigning the money. In the decennary of 30, there were merely two Commercial Banks in Nepal i.e. Nepal Bank Limited and Rastriya Banijya Bank. Nepal Bank Limited is the oldest bank in Nepal. It was established on 30th Kartik, 1994 ( 1938 AD ) and Rastriya Banijya Bank was established established by jurisprudence, which deals money and recognition is called bank. Commonly, an establishment involved in pecuniary dealing is known as bank. Section 2 ( a ) of the Nepal Rastra Bank Act 2058 ( 2002 ) defines bank as the work of interchanging money, supplying in 2022 B.S. ( 1966AD ) . Those Bankss were non capable to carry through the demands of the people with modern banking installations. So as to necessitate of demand on growing of public Commercial Banks, in recent twelvemonth, there are 20 Commercial Banks.
Most of the indexs we have used that the public presentation of the new coevals, private and public sector Bankss are better than that of all other Bankss. Can we reason from this that new public Commercial Banks are more efficient than other Nepali old Bankss? If we look certain particular advantages that they are basking, it becomes hard to see them superior to other Bankss. In the first topographic point, the new Commercial Banks have straight off adopted the new engineering, which keeps the cost of manpower depression. Their rewards measure to entire disbursals, as shown above, is really low. There is no job excess manpower as in the instance of populace sector Bankss. Second, the subdivisions of new Commercial Banks are located largely in urban and semi-urban countries and their rural sector exposure is really limited and their precedence sector loaning is really limited and they are free from all the disadvantages associated with rural loaning. However, the entry of new Commercial Banks has doubtless contributed to the strengthening of the Nepalese Banking system by making a competitory ambiance. Modern Bankss are more advanced than the ancient 1s. This is because of the growing in population, alterations occurred in the industrial field and trade.
In the short period Nepali Commercial Banks has raised their profitableness. The chief aims of the Commercial Banks are to financing the different undertaking and supply loan to concern intent and industrial sector in footings of return on payment of chief and involvement. But one time the distributed loan, sum or involvement is non seasonably returned by the clients and go delinquent, is known as Non-Performing Assets ( NPAs ) for the Commercial Banks. Minimize of NPA has been important job for every Commercial Banks which has been chief undertakings to under top precedence. Such as many barriers and obstructions on the recovery of NPA, all Commercial Banks has been losing their creditability, profitableness and fighting for their being. Then it could n’t try the stockholder ‘s wealth.
Borrowers, who have taken loan from bank and could n’t pay involvement and principal in clip is known as NPA Godheads. Bank clients, means borrowers and depositors, besides portion bank costs through a comparatively broad net involvement border, competitively determined market degrees. Therefore, they contribute to bank runing net incomes that over clip aid reconstruct Bank Balance Sheets. This is a flow attack to recapitalizing troubled Bankss and frequently requires regulative patience and revenue enhancement inducements.
The authorities considered, finally, the taxpayer contributes their portion when public financess are injected into the banking sector. Three statements put forwards to back up the usage of public financess to bail out problems Bankss as follows. First, if the troubled Bankss are province owned, the authorities has an duty to mend their Balance Sheets or, at least, to fund their issue from the market. Second, if Bank losingss are well related to past policy loaning, the authorities is straight implicated and needs to take the duty for cleaning up the banking sector. Finally, with or without a sedimentation insurance strategy, enforcing large losingss on a big figure of little depositors can take to even more dearly-won systemic hazards and even to political crises. ( China & A ; World Economy / 22 )
1.2 Definition of Non-Performing Assets ( NPAs )
The specific definition of Non-Performing Assets “ NPAs ” is bad debt, if refund of chief and involvement is defaulted by more than three months. “ Non Performing Assets ( NPAs ) could bust up bank ‘s profitableness both through a loss of involvement income and compose off the rule loan sum. It tackles the topic of in full starting from the phase of their designation till the recovery of dues in such sum ” ( Bidani, 2003:3 )
The degree of Non Performing Assets ( NPAs ) can besides be taken as an index of the efficiency of Bankss. Specific indexs that can be used in this context are: the per centum of Total Assets, net progresss, net and gross NPAs. If the indicant is positive, which means this Bankss public presentation has good and important such as its good will takes celebrated repute in the market. “ Performing Assets are those loans that repay chief and involvement to the bank from the hard currency flow it generates. Loan is hazardous assets, though a bank involvement most of its resources in allowing loan and progresss. If an single bank has about 10 ( 10 ) per centum Non-Performing Assetss ( NPAs ) loan, it sounds the decease knell of that bank catteries call other thing staying changeless. The aims of edge loan policy is to keep the fiscal wellness of the Bankss, which result in safety of depositor ‘s money andIf the job is non addressed decently and timely it will hold a long-run consequence in the national economic system. NPA as the current Directives of Nepal Rastra Bank ( NRB ) has been categorized as classified loans and progress NPA has terrible impacts on the fiscal establishments. The chief survey of the loans go bad is ; deficiency of recognition doctrine and civilization, hazard direction scheme, cognize your client ( KYC ) , deficiency of clear criterions and proper financials, stiff competition and size of the market and undue influences. NPA direction should see the above traveling bad debt. ( Adhikary M.P. )
The suited NPA is merely 3-5 per centum in the international criterion, but in Nepal NPA is adhered 16 ( 16 ) per centum on norm. Which is most sensitive. So every Commercial Bank has to be sing the survey of the undertaking assessment and hazard minimizing on supplying loan to different establishment is better than single or household. The refund of involvement to the depositors is complicated due to cost of financess and surplus of sedimentations. On other custodies, an investing is speaking the duty alternatively of concern.
The nucleus concern of the fiscal establishment is non as they by and large assume- taking sedimentations and doing loans. Successful loaning is based non on doing loans but on minimising the hazard roll uping back. Therefore every fiscal establishment ‘s nucleus concern is the profitable direction of hazard could be minimized to a larger extent. The loan loss proviso is to be maintained by debiting net income history. Thus the quality of loan degrades the ratio of loan loss proviso is increased impacting the profitableness of the Bankss. The survey will hold attempt to happen out the relationship of Non-Performing Assets or loans have multiple benefits to the society while Non-Performing Assets or loan erodes even bing capital.
1.3 Statement of the Problems
One of import facet of banking in Nepal that has received great attending in the recent old ages is the most intractable job of Non-Performing Assets ( NPAs ) . This has been considered to be the most ambitious job confronting the Banking and fiscal sector and the recent old ages have witnessed great attempts to work out the job. Nepali Commercial Banks and fiscal establishment are mobilising the spreads sedimentations and using it for imparting to industrial sectors, imparting concern in corporate houses and other productive and fabrication sector so as to accomplish intent which consequence in to economic growing.
About loaning besides carries recognition hazard, which creates job from the failure of borrower to carry through its contractual duty during the class of dealing. In fact it is good known Bankss and fiscal establishments in Nepal face the job of swelling Non-Performance Assets ( NPA ) and the issue is going more unwieldy. It is even deserving status in instance of two largest Commercial Banks Rastriya Banijaya Bank and Nepal Bank Ltd. Nepalese banking sectors has been enduring a victim of big NPAs. To sum up, the survey will cover with the undermentioned issues.
1 ) Whether or non Nepali Commercial Banks are following NRB Regulations/Directives sing their loaning, particularly to keep the proviso for NPA?
2 ) What are major internal factors, external factors and other chief causes to growing of NPA?
3 ) What per centum of Total Assets and Entire Lending is busying by NPAs of Nepalese Commercial Banks?
4 ) How does Non-Performing Assets consequence on return on return on Entire Assets ( ROA ) and stockholders equity ( ROE ) ?
1.4 Aims of the Study
The of import current state of affairs the economic liberalized policy has been followed by our state, authorities has been broad on public and private sectors concern for the entrepreneurship development and other intents. The specific aims of the research is to analyze and analyze of degree of Non Performing factors of development of state is puting and funding activities by the Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions through the assorted concerns. Which affects and act upon the national economic system. In Assets ( NPAs ) in Total Assets, entire deposition and Entire Lending of Nepalese Commercial Banks. The chief aims are follows:
1. To recite and analyze the degree of NPA to Total Assets, Entire Lending and Total Deposit of Nepalese Commercial Banks.
2. To happen out whether the Nepali Commercial Banks are following the NRB Directives sing loan loss proviso for Non Performing Loan/Assets or non.
3. To place the internal and external factors and other causes of NPA growing.
4. To place the effects of Non-Performing Assets on ROA and ROE of Nepalese Commercial Banks.
5. To supply suggestions/recommendations to get the better of the troubles in pull offing with high degree of Non-Performing Assets of the Nepali Commercial Bank..
1.5 Restriction of the Study
There will be some restrictions while undergoing this survey. The chief restrictions of the survey will be:
1. The present survey is concerned merely with Non-Performing Assets of Nepali Commercial Banks. It does non see other facets of the bank.
2. The survey is focused on Nepali Commercial Banks merely. Hence findings may non be applicable to the other Bankss.
3. The survey is based on the Secondary informations available from fiscal statement and limited Primary information of the Sample Banks.
4. The survey covers five-year period from the financial twelvemonth 2058/59 to 2062/63 B.S. ( 2001 to 2006 AD ) , which relevancy informations can non be gather easy. Research Methodology
Research methodological analysis necessary to includes that research methods/techniques to acquire the concluding consequence of research. Research methods refer to the behaviours and instruments used in choosing and building research technique. We can state that methods are more general. It is the methods that generate techniques. It is necessary for the research worker to plan his/her methodological analysis for his/her job as the same may differ from job to job. In this survey, we have to keep the model of the research design.
Research design is the program, construction and scheme of probe conceived so as to obtain answer to research inquiries and to command discrepancy. The research should be more specific and covered the overall model.
The item survey of the NPAs of the Bank can be choose as population size ; the trying figure of the bank is three to five Bankss. Datas can be collected from the related Sample Banks, SEBO and Nepal Rastra Bank. The information should be analyzed and interpreted by the different sorts of statistical tools.