Globalization and its effects on national and cultural individuality
Undoubtedly, globalization is one of the most complex and controversial universe tendencies presents, having a great trade of involvement non merely from faculty members, but besides from concern professionals ( French, 2010 ) . Possibly non surprisingly, the impact of globalization on the cultural domain has been interpreted in assorted, even contradictory ways by research workers and theoreticians. On the one manus, critics argue that globalization is a moving ridge of alteration accompanied by the decomposition of households, devastation of stable vicinities, paralysing political systems, atomization of the emerging values and civilizations and a general market-driven homogenization of cultural experience ( Momeniet al. ,2014 ; Nazet Al., 2011 ) .Tomlinson ( 2003 ) explains that this is believed to finally take to an ‘obliteration of the differences between locality-defined civilizations which had constituted our identities’ ( p269 ) . This position is besides shared by anti-globalisation militants, who tend to construe globalisation as an extension of western cultural imperialism ( Shepard and Hayduk, 2002 ) , or what Castells ( 2006 ) calls ‘Americanisation’ . On the other manus, there are others, by and large referred to as Global Expansionists ( Babran, 2008 ) , who believe national economic systems, civilization and policies will incorporate into a planetary web and take advantage of the ever-increasing impulse of development. Wang ( 2007 ) for illustration argues that globalization is non at all incompatible with diverseness, and it can really heighten the sense of cultural individuality for persons, since ‘people become much more concerned about the singularity and specialness of their ain culture’ ( p83. ) . Nevertheless, in malice of the myriad of contradictory sentiments on this topic, it is of import to maintain in head that, as Ibrahim ( 2004 ) explains, in world globalization both homogenises and fragments. This essay will concentrate on how globalization has impacted the sense of national and cultural individuality of people from different parts of the universe, and will chiefly concentrate on five major cultural and societal dimensions: faith, political relations, gender, linguistic communication, and imposts. The intent of this paper is to exemplify how globalization can hold a powerful and even riotous consequence across these cultural dimensions, and to supply a better apprehension of something.
First, it is indispensable to find the significance of the construct of ‘cultural identity’ for the intent of this essay. Horowitz ( 2001 ) explains that cultural individuality is the individuality of an person every bit far as one is influenced by one ‘s belonging to a group or civilization and which is associated with a geographic country where people portion many common traits like linguistic communication, faith and civilization. Similarly, Jones ( 2003 ) considers the societal system to be an organic system made up of construction and cultural values, regulations, established beliefs and patterns to which their members are expected to conform. With this in head, Nazet Al.( 2011 ) travel further to propose that cultural individuality and globalisation are correlated and interconnected phenomena presents, where globalisation is a beginning of transmutation and modern thoughts, development of human capital and information, but on other side it can besides be a menace to the socio-cultural environment in the context of individuality. Note that this statement besides supports the paradox highlighted in the debut of this essay, viz. that in world globalization brings both cultural homogenization and atomization.
As mentioned earlier, faith is an of import facet of cultural individuality, and at the same clip has a strong influence on political systems ( Horowitz, 2001 ) , which is why these two cultural dimension will be discussed together. Harmonizing to Haynes and Ben-Porat ( 2010 ) , societies which had antecedently considered themselves instead homogeneous began to be challenged by assorted cross-border flows associated with globalization, that separately and/or jointly affect mundane life, and besides societal and political constructions. Examples include immigrants conveying with them spiritual beliefs and traditions that may dispute local ways of life, which in bend can promote evident contradictions in traditional spiritual mores and norms and, as a consequence, can ‘undermine or face spiritual leaders and authorities’ ( p125 ) . To exemplify how this translates into the existent universe, see the instance of the strong Islamist motions in the Muslim universe in recent old ages. Dalmasso and Cavatorta ( 2010 ) claimed that these motions and their defense mechanism of traditions are frequently considered an obstruction to democracy because, on the whole, Islamists reject many of the values of broad globalization. The nexus between faith, political relations and globalization therefore becomes more evident, and, as Haynes ( 2009 ) pointed out, the dominant tendency of broad and democratic globalization goes manus in manus with the separation of church and province, which is believed to be a necessary constituent of modern administration. Alicino ( 2012 ) argues that in the western universe, the phenomenon of globalisation is in peculiar taking to an increasing ‘blurring’ of the line between the populace and the private domain, and that spiritual credos are seeking a greatly increased function in the public infinite every bit good as the political sphere. As a consequence, the rapprochement of constitutionalism and faith through secularism is going progressively hard. The argument in some states about the presence of spiritual symbols such as the rood, headscarf, kirpan, nigab etc. , and topographic points of worship in public infinites are clear illustrations of that.
Interestingly, Alicino’s statement was confirmed by an empirical survey conducted by Nazet Al.( 2011 ) , who collected questionnaires from 100 instructors from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa state in Pakistan to analyze to association between globalisation and its impacts on the psychological and socio-cultural crises in Pakthuns civilization, including spiritual crises. The quantitative analysis shows that 90 % of respondents favoured the statement that globalisation encourage spiritual crises. Among these, 49 % were of the position that globalisation has brought secularisation in spiritual domain of life while 20 % considered that globalisation reduces spiritual societal control. The statistical analysis further describes that globalisation brings spiritual struggle and increases spiritual intolerance. For a more thorough apprehension, a tabular array with the original questionnaire consequences has been provided in Appendix 1 of the paper. Some faculty members pointed out that one facet of the globalization of faith is the acceptance and version of faiths to the societal demands of nomadic new in-between categories. Turner ( 2006 ) gave the illustration of the Welsh countryside of Great Britain, where Turkish migrators have brought their ‘whirling dervishes’ to village life, where the local dwellers are encouraged to believe that twirling is psychologically good for them. Or see the instance of Yoga patterns from Hinduism, which have been widely adopted in the West, where pattern is stripped of its religious significance and developed simply as a speculation technique. Harmonizing to Turner ( 2006 ) , these flows of spiritual beliefs threaten to bare them of their reliable significance and significance. Similarly, Kurth ( 2010 ) studied the New Age motion and claimed that these ‘post-modernists’ are peculiarly drawn towards superficial, Americanized versions of certain Eastern faiths, particularly “lite” Buddhism and Hinduism, or even Americanized version of nature worship, a kind of neo-paganism. He goes on to propose that even if globalisation brings about more secularisation, it will neglect to convey about one common, planetary worldview, since Globalization, ‘by interrupting up and fade outing every traditional, local, and national construction, will convey about the cosmopolitan victory of expressive individualism’ ( p17 ) .
Appendix 1: Association between globalisation and spiritual crises in Pakhtun society
Beginning: Naz et al. , 2011