The Effect of Teaching The IPA Chart on Iranian High School Learners’ Listening Skills

The Effect of Teaching The IPA Chart on Persian High School Learners ‘ Listening Skill

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Abstraction

This survey was conducted to look into the consequence of learning IPA phonic chart on Persian high school pupils ‘ hearing accomplishment. Since random choice of topics was non possible, the integral group design was used to analyze two first class high school categories as experimental and control groups. The two groups received the same hearing instructions ; nevertheless the intervention was merely applied to the experimental 1. A listening trial was applied as pretest and posttest to look into the subjects’ hearing accomplishment. The dependability of the trial was estimated through KR-21 expression. The consequences of the t-test from the posttest showed that the experimental group who received phonic direction had a better public presentation than the control group who did non have it. The findings suggested that learning phonic and phonemic written text could positively impact listening accomplishment.

The Effect of Teaching IPA Chart on Persian High School Learners ‘ Listening Skill

As we all know, unwritten linguistic communication is the chief channel of communicating. However listening accomplishment seems to be neglected in Persian EFL context, and both hearing and speech production accomplishments are less emphatic in school text editions. These accomplishments are non tested in the concluding test during the four old ages of high school. Teachers put much accent on reading, composing, grammar, and vocabulary, but unwritten drills, pronunciation, hearing, and talking accomplishments do non have equal attending. Persian pupils normally study the English linguistic communication for seven old ages in school, but really few of them will be able to utilize it communicatively. Harmer ( 1993 ) stresses the demand for doing certain that pupils can ever be understood and say what they want to state. They need to get the hang “good pronunciation” , non perfect speech patterns. Bott ( 2005 ) asserts, “In recent old ages, increasing attending has been placed on supplying pronunciation direction that meets the communicative demands of non-native talkers ( NNSs ) of English. Rajadurai ( 2001 ) asserts, portion of the implicit in doctrine of including hearing and speech production classs in any course of study is to learn pronunciation as an built-in portion of unwritten communicating. Celebrated Persian linguistic communication testing and instruction specializers, such as Farhady, Jafarpoor, & A ; Birjandi ( 1994 ) , have already confirmed that even Persian pupils at the university degree are non able to utilize the English linguistic communication for communicative intents as they are expected to. Harmonizing to Elliot ( 1995 ) , instructors tend to see pronunciation as the least utile of the basic linguistic communication accomplishments and therefore they by and large sacrifice learning pronunciation in order to pass valuable category clip on other countries of linguistic communication. Since small attending has been given to the instruction of pronunciation and the fact that some English phonemes do non be in Persian, Persian pupils have trouble in larning English pronunciation. Furthermore, since articulating English words in written signifier is non ever predictable, phonemic written text can depict the unwritten signifier of the words to cut down the confusion related to symbol-to-sound dealingss. Harmonizing to Wells ( 1996 ) , transcribing a word or an vocalization in a linguistic communication such as English, whose spelling is conspicuously irregular, illustrates a direct specification of its pronunciation and enables the linguistic communication scholar to obtain precise and expressed information on pronunciation from a dictionary. Cheng ( 1998 ) reported that instructors should take meaningful stuff to be used as theoretical accounts for practising pronunciation facets such as emphasis. Harmonizing to Brown ( 2007 ) and Nunan ( 2004 ) , task-based linguistic communication instruction has gained world-wide popularity. In line with this recent tendency, the research worker tried to exhibit a manner in pronunciation preparation in which the pupils become cognizant of the phonological characteristics of the English linguistic communication. The intent of this survey was to look into the undermentioned inquiry: Does learning the IPA phonic chart affect Persian high school Learners ‘ hearing accomplishment? To accomplish the purpose of this survey, the undermentioned void hypothesis was formulated: Teaching the IPA phonic chart does non hold any consequence on Persian high school scholars ‘ hearing accomplishment.

Method

Participants

The participants of this survey were 50 1strate male high school pupils from Amir Kabir Private High School, Zeytoon Karmandy District of Ahvaz, where the research worker works as an English instructor. Since random choice was non possible, the integral groups design was employed in this quasi-experimental survey. The topics were assigned to two groups. Each group contained the pupils of one category. The two categories were considered as to be two groups. One category was regarded as to be the experimental group, and the other was observed as the control group. The 25 topics in the experimental group were given phonic and phonological direction along with listening preparation, while the 25 topics in the control group were given listening developing merely.

Instruments and Materials

The stuffs used in this survey as intervention included the IPA phonic chart which is a system of symbols for composing the sounds of English, a usher to the symbols along with pictures to demo how to articulate each of the sounds, and a listening trial administered by the research worker to mensurate students’ listening ability before and after the intervention. To fly the trial, it was administered to 20 topics similar to those of this survey and the dependability of the trial was proved through KR-21 expression.

Procedure

After the pretest, the preparation session was held for eight Sessionss within two months from October 22, to December 16, 2012. Each session met one time a hebdomad for an hr. The topics in the experimental group received 30 proceedingss of direction on pronunciation activities, such as phonic symbols and phonemic written text. Then, they listened to the related audio stuff for the remainder 30 proceedingss. They were required to hold a dictionary with them each session. The phonemic symbols were taught within two Sessionss utilizing tutorial pictures on how to joint each phoneme by a native expert. The pupils needed to look up certain words and look into their ain phonemic written text in their lexicon in the undermentioned Sessionss. The research worker would explicate the articulation of specific phonemes to the topics and inquire them to reiterate after him. Then, the topics were asked to articulate the words utilizing their written text, and the research worker would seek to assist them when necessary. After covering with all phonemic symbols, the concluding measure was to listen to the sound once more in order to increase listening ability. The topics in the control group merely listened to the same sound exercisings for the whole 60 proceedingss of the category clip without passing any clip on pronunciation activities. To see the important consequence of the intervention, the same trial of hearing was administered to both groups as the posttest at the terminal of the last session. The pretest and posttest were indistinguishable but the points were rearranged in the posttest in order non to be familiar for the pupils as to be seen before. Since there was an interval of two months between the two trials, the posttests consequences were assumed non to be influenced by the pupils ‘ memory.

Consequences and Discussion

The package SPSS was used to analyse the information in this survey. A t-test was used to see whether there was a statistically important difference in the mean tonss for pretests and posttests of the two groups. The consequences are summarized in the tabular arraies below.

Pretest

Mean

Standard Deviation

Sig.

Experimental Group

10.50

3.75

P = 0.934

Control Group

10.25

3.50

Table 1. The t-test for the pretests

Posttest

Mean

Standard Deviation

Sig.

Experimental Group

17.25

2.75

P = 0.001

Control Group

14.50

3.50

Table 2. The t-test for the posttests

As indicated in Tables 1 & A ; 2, there is a important difference between the addition tonss for the experimental group and the addition tonss for the control group in the posttest, since the important value is less than 0.005. This consequence suggests that the experimental group who received phonic direction had a better public presentation than the control group who received merely listening direction. Therefore the void hypothesis is rejected, and we can state that learning the IPA phonic chart affects Persian high school scholars ‘ hearing accomplishment.

Decision

One of the necessities for linguistic communication proficiency is to keep apprehensible pronunciation for the linguistic communication scholars. Fraser ( 2000 ) stated that ESL/EFL instructors need to be provided with classs and stuffs to assist them better their effectivity in learning pronunciation. One of the primary ends of learning pronunciation in any class is “ apprehensible pronunciation ” non perfect pronunciation. Apprehensible pronunciation is an indispensable constituent of communicative competency ( Morley, 1991 ) . The consequences of the t-test from the posttests showed that the experimental group who received phonic preparation outperformed the control group who did non have it. Thus the findings suggest that phonic direction and learners’ phonemic written text of different words benefit them in larning the sound system of the English linguistic communication more accurately. Since this instruction method seems to hold facilitated the procedure of listening sweetening, its application can be suggested to reenforce the information that pupils may have amiss by ear. However, the application of phonic direction and phonemic written texts in the schoolroom as a instruction method is worth farther research.

Mentions

Bott, A. ( 2005 ) .Computer-aided self-access pronunciation stuffs designed to learn

emphasis in American English. Unpublished MA thesis. Brigham: Brigham

Young University.

Brown, H. D. ( 2007 ) .Principles of linguistic communication acquisition and instruction( 5ThursdayEd. ) . White

Planis, NY: Pearson Education.

Cheng, F. ( 1998 ) . The instruction of pronunciation to Chinese pupils of EnglisH.

English Teaching Forum, Jan-Mar, 37-39.

Elliot, A. R. ( 1995 ) . Foreign Language Phonology: Field independency, attitude, and

the success of formal direction in Spanish pronunciation.The Modern Language Journal, 79 ( four ) , 530-542.

Farhady, H. , Jafarpoor, A. , & A ; Birjandi, P. ( 1994 ) .Testing linguistic communication accomplishments: Fromtheory to pattern.Teheran: SAMT Publications.

Fraser, H. ( 2000 ) .Organizing betterments in pronunciation instruction for grownup

scholars English as a 2nd linguistic communication,Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.

Harmer, J. ( 1993 ) .The pattern of English linguistic communication learning. New York, NY:

Longman.

Morley, J. ( 1991 ) . The pronunciation constituent in learning English to talkers of

other linguistic communications,TESOL Quarterly,25( 1 ) , 51-74.

Nunan, D. ( 2004 ) .Task-based linguistic communication instruction.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge

University Press

Rajadurai, J. ( 2001 ) . An Probe of the Effectiveness of Teaching Pronunciation

to Malaysian TESOL Students.Forum,39( 3 ) , 10-15.

Appendix

The phonic charts and symbols used for direction:

1. Consonants:

P

m

degree Fahrenheit

E?

B

N

V

a??

T

?

?

tE?

vitamin D

tungsten

?

da??

K

J

s

cubic decimeter

g

H

omega

R

2. Vowels:

I:

C?

U:

E?

E? :

ES

vitamin E

E?

E” :

?

E‘ :

E’

3. Diphthongs:

E‘E?

E?C?

C?ES

eE?

ESC?

E‘ES

E”E?

eC?

x

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