The effect of teacher content knowledge on student achievement

The consequence of instructor content cognition on pupil accomplishment

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Introduction

Teachers need to get the hang two type of cognition:

1. Content ( deep ) cognition of the topic itself.

2. Curricular development

Content cognition ( CK ) includes the cognition of a topic or subject and is non alone to learning. It goes beyond the cognition of facts, constructs ; principles.it is called construction of cognition ( Grossman, 1990 ; Shulman, 1987 ; Van Driel, Verloop, & A ; De Vos, 1998 ) .

It deals with the instruction procedure, includes community content and how pupils best learn the specific constructs and subjects of a topic ( Shulman, 1992 )

Teachers, who have content cognition, experience, teacher preparation and enfranchisement and general cognitive accomplishment, can bring forth higher pupil accomplishment ( Shulman, 1992 ) .

Teacher experience is effectual in pupil accomplishment but some research surveies suggest that teacher experience is effectual than teacher characteristic, teacher content, overall academic ability

Some grounds suggests that factors like category size, teacher makings and school variables may play an of import function in what pupils learn. Teacher quality has more consequence on pupil accomplishment than student’s race, category, anterior academic record or school a pupil attends. This consequence is peculiarly strong among pupils from low-income households and African American.

. ( Glass, Smith, 1970, mosteller 1995, Ferguson, 1991, Haller, 1993 )

Teacher content cognition affects on pupil public presentation, and they have studied by gaining a major or minor in the field while in college or gaining an advanced grade in the subject are effectual and instructors who teach topics that they have high grade in college are more effectual ( personal thought ) .

.Teachers who have pedagogy train higher pupil accomplishment than instructors who don’t have this ability.among pupils who become instructors, those enrolled in formal preservice readying are more likely to be effectual than those who do non hold such preparation ( evertson, Hawley, and Zlotink1985 ) .

New instructors, who know method of learning preparation and were certified, are better to execute that instead certified instructor ( Raymond, Fletcher, and Luque 2001, ( Darling –Hammond, Holzman, Catlin and Heilig 2005 )

Fully certified instructors have a statistically important positive impact on pupil trial tonss relative to instructors who are non certified in their capable country, as do instructors who hold a grade in mathematics or mathematics instruction ( Gold Haber & A ; beer maker, 1999 ) .

Teacher with exigency certifications in scientific discipline had higher-scoring pupils after other teacher instruction and pupil demographic variables were controlled ( Linda darling Hammond, 1999 ) . Successful instructors tend to be those who are able to utilize a scope of learning schemes and who use a scope of interaction manners, instead than a individual, stiff attack ( Hamacheck, 1969 ) .

Effective instructors adjust their instruction to suit the demands of different pupils and the demands of different instructional ends, subjects, and methods ( Doyle 1985 ) .

A strong negative relationship between mean pupil tonss and the per centum of instructors on exigency certifications, every bit good as a smaller positive relationship between pupil tonss and teacher experience degrees, after commanding for pupil poorness rates ( Fetler,1999 ) .

Teachers who have had formal readying have been found to be better able to utilize learning schemes that respond to students’ demands and acquisition manners and that encourage higher order acquisition ( Peserk 1967-68, Hansen, 1988, Skipper & A ; Quantz, 1987 ) .

Student tilting depends well on what instructors know and can make, province differ greatly in the extent to which they invest in instructors ‘learning as a cardinal policy degree ( Linda darling Hammond, 1999 ) .

Good instructors in quality have more effectual in pupil public presentation in comparing to category, school of pupils.

Students who are non good in their lessons can be good more from good instructor than advantaged pupils. ( Nye, Konstantopoulos, and Hedges 2004 )

Teacher quality features such as enfranchisement position and grade in the field to be taught are really significantly and positively correlated with pupil results ( Linda darling Hammond 1999 ) .

Research workers besides suggest that the allotment of resources toward the betterment of instructor content cognition may be an of import facet of increasing pupil accomplishment.

Academic major of instructor may impact pupil accomplishment. ( Darling-Hammond, 1999 ; Harris and Sass, 2007 ; Monk, 1994 ) .

Student features such as poorness non- English linguistic communication position and minority position are negatively correlated with pupil results and normally significantly so ( Linda darling Hammond 1999 )

There is relationship between diverse instructor features and pupil accomplishment nevertheless there is no consensus on the importance of single instructor properties for pupil acquisition additions for illustration, experience trial tonss and regular licensure have positive connexion with pupil accomplishment. ( Ladd2008 ; Boyd et al. , 2008 ; Clotfelter, Ladd, & A ; Vigdor, 2007b ) ..

Teachers who dominate their capable affair are able to make better chances to heighten students’ acquisition and involvement and are more capable of turn toing diverse larning demands in their schoolrooms. ( Ball, 2000 ) .

Monk ( 1994 ) found that instructor ‘content readying, as measured by coursework in the capable field is positively related to student accomplishment in mathematics and scientific discipline ( Linda darling Hammond, 1999 )

Teacher must be able to place the strength and failing of different scholars and must hold the cognition to work with pupils who have specific larning disablements or demands.

Teacher must cognize about curriculum resources and engineerings to link their pupils with beginnings of information and cognition that let them to research thoughts achieve information and work out jobs.

Teacher must cognize how to work with pupils ‘parents to cognize more about kids ( Shulman, 1992 )

Teaching in ways that connect with pupil requires and understanding of differences that may originate civilization, household experiences, developed intelligence and attacks to larning.A adept instructor thinks about these elements and pupil cognition and their belief about a subject and how scholars are likely to acquire new thoughts ( Shulman,1992 )

Chiefly three methodological issues originate when gauging teacher effectivity. First, it is hard to isol1ate the consequence of instructor quality from other inputs, peculiarly those deducing from contextual factors. Second, it is non ever possible to mensurate all of the step ining determiners of pupil accomplishment. . Last, and most significantly, causal illation in this model is compromised since pupils are, in general, non indiscriminately assigned to instructors. Therefore, teacher effects may be confounded by unobservable properties of pupils, such as their ability and motive. Teacher’s consequence is isolated from other factors such as anterior pupil public presentation and socioeconomic position, by concentrating on larning additions during on school twelvemonth efforts of value-added attack. ( Ladd 2008 ) .

There is small and no relationship between measured intelligence and their pupil accomplishment.explanation for the deficiency of strong relationship between steps of IQ and teacher effectivity have included the deficiency of variableness among instructors in this step and its tenuous relationship to existent public presentation ( Schalock 1979, Soar, Medley & A ; Coker 1983, Vernon 1965, Murnane 1985 ) .

There is positive relationship between students’ scientific discipline accomplishment and the teachers’ class taking background in both instruction and in scientific discipline and relationship between them was greater in higher degree scientific discipline class ( Druva & A ; Anderson 1983 ) .

Student achieve at higher degrees and are less likely to drop out when they are taught by instructors with enfranchisement in their instruction field, by those with maestro ‘s grade and by those enrolled in alumnus surveies ( Council for school public presentation 1997, Knoblock 1986, Sanders, Skonie –Hardin & A ; Pheleps 1994 ) .

A consistent positive consequence of teachers’ formal instruction developing on supervisory evaluation and pupil acquisition was reported ( Evertson, Hawley, and Zlotnik 1985 ) .

Mentions

Darling-Hammond, L. ( 1994, September ) . Will 21st-century schools truly be different?The Education Digest, 60,4-8.

Ornstein, A. C. , Thomas, J. , & A ; Lesley, I. ( 2000 ) .Strategiesfor effectual instruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shulman, L. ( 1986 ) .those who understand: Knowledge growing in instruction.Educational Research worker,15( 2 ) , 4-14.

Shulman, L. ( 1987 ) .Knowledge and instruction: Foundations of the new reform.Harvard Educational Review,57( 1 ) ,1-22.

Shulman, L. ( 1992, September-October ) . Wayss of seeing, ways of knowing, ways of instruction, ways of larning about instruction.Journal of Curriculum Studies,28,393-396.

Richardson, V. Placier, P. ( 2001 ) . Teacher Change. In V. Richardson ( Ed. ) ,Handbook of Research on Teaching( pp. 905-947 ) .

Van Driel, J. H. , Verloop, N. , & A ; De Vos, W. ( 1998 ) . Developing scientific discipline instructors ‘ pedagogical content cognition.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35 ( 6 ) , 673-695.

Ball, D. ( 2005 ) . Effectss of instructors ‘ mathematical cognition for learning on pupil accomplishment.American Educational Research Journal,42 ( 2 ) , 371– 406.

Grossman, P. L. ( 1990 ) .The devising of a instructor: Teacher cognition and instructor instruction. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

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