The Distributed leadership and teacher leadership

This assignment will research the leading patterns of both distributed leading and teacher leading. Where necessary these patterns will be applied to the environment of school A. School A is an interior metropolis comprehensive secondary school with a big consumption of English as an Extra Language ( EAL ) pupils.

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In 2009 School A achieved its best of all time GCSE consequences in history with 72 % of pupils accomplishing an A-C class in Maths and English. These consequences placed the school within the top 10 best acting schools in the LEA. Other schools in the top 10 included independent grammar schools or outer metropolis comprehensive schools. However, in 2010 the school was unable to keep the successes of the old twelvemonth as overall GCSE consequences fell by 4 % .

It could be argued from this, that the school had neither the leading capacity to prolong or better ( Ansell, 2004 ) its place. Kotter ( 1998 ) has identified eight chief mistakes that cause administrations to neglect and the applicable rule in this scenario is declaring triumph excessively shortly. However ; this was non the instance for school A, the job was that three strong leaders whom held senior places were promoted to other schools around the borough and as a consequence the lifting GCSE tendency was unsustainable. Lewis ( 2003 ) describes such state of affairss as an unmanageable barrier that impacts upon administration betterment. A differing position by an external practician had highlighted that the deficiency of distributed leading or teacher leading patterns may hold hindered the schools opportunities of bettering.

Leadership was the term normally used in all of the illustrations given above and the sentiments of the external practician provided me with a focal point for this assignment. As a consequence I intend to analyze the literature around leading, in peculiar how distributed leading and teacher leading are perceived and practiced. The policy and theory related literature reappraisal will let me to develop a greater penetration into the two leading manners, which may good better my pattern as a in-between leader. To run into the purposes of my undertaking I will reply the undermentioned inquiries and where necessary use these to the context of my school ;

What is leading and educational leading?

What are the cardinal characteristics of distributed leading and instructor leading?

What are the similarities and differences between distributed leading & A ; teacher leading?

What are the virtues and restraints to administer leading & A ; teacher leading?

2. What is leading and educational leading?

Despite decennaries of research into leading, authors still remain divided over the reply to the inquiry ‘what is leading? One powerful unfavorable judgment is that leading is a label attributed to human behavior and that this term can be interchanged with another term ( Lakomski, 2005 ) . Cuban ( 1988, p190 ) states that “ there are more than 350 definitions of leading ” . Paglis and Green ( 2002 ) depict leading as the procedure whereby a individual identifies where the group is at nowadays, where they need to be and so devises a scheme for making their finish. Northouse ( 2007 ) defines leading as a procedure where an single influences a group to accomplish a common end. Out of the two definitions I feel that Northouse ( 2007 ) definition provides the stronger reply to my research inquiry as the definition takes history of personality traits such as ‘influence ‘ which Paglis and Green ‘s ( 2002 ) definition does non brood into. Yukl ( 2002 ) explains this influence procedure as a societal influence procedure whereby knowing influence is applied to construction the undertakings and relationships within an administration.

Earlier research workers by Stodgill ( 1948 ) reviewed 124 trait surveies of leading and found several personal factors of leading which included duty, engagement capacity and position. However, the unfavorable judgment was that these surveies did non analyze how facets of contexts and personality traits were interrelated in leading surveies. As a effect many efforts to happen cosmopolitan qualities of leading proved to be bootless ( Shorter and Greer, 1997 ) . This led to the outgrowth of many leading theoretical accounts.

However, the term leading within administrations became associated with invention and the thoughts of alteration, as a consequence was elevated in position above direction ( Gronn 2004 ) . Cuban ( 1988 ) stated the contrast in leading and direction to be huge, as leaders sought alteration and wholeheartedly implemented it whereas directors preferred to keep the ‘status quo ‘ . For this ground, many concerns recognised the importance of leading as the key driver to their hereafter success. However, using Gronn ‘s ( 2004 ) and Cuban ‘s ( 1988 ) thoughts to instruction I feel that it is necessary for the Headteacher to both play the function of a director and a leader. This is because the Headteacher is responsible for the school vision ( leading ) but needs to take practical stairss to implement the school scheme ( direction ) . Bolman and Deal ( 1997 ) portion my ideas and province that modern administrations require practical directors that lead others in accomplishing a common end.

Educational leading is a specific country of leading within instruction. Although as highlighted earlier specifying leading is impeccably hard, nevertheless educational leading within a school scene is defined as a procedure that guides the endowments and energies of, instructors, pupils and parents to accomplish the common educational purposes. Preliminary the purpose of successful leading is procuring and prolonging betterment ( Hopkins, 2001 ) .

School betterment has been at the head of educational reform taking to many authors discoursing the positive benefits of leading to student acquisition and school betterment. Wallace ( 2002 ) explains the impact of leading upon school effectivity and school betterment to be of great importance. Leithwood and Riehl ( 2003 ) portion a similar position and province that big scale surveies of schooling conclude the effects of leading on pupil acquisition to be educationally important. For this ground the term educational leading has made its grade within instruction.

It is apparent from the literature reappraisal that no cosmopolitan definition has been noted for leading ; nevertheless it has allowed me to detect that leading is a procedure and one which brings about many theoretical accounts of leading. In school, leading is considered to be a procedure that will back up schools to be successful ( Harris 2004 ) .

Traditionally, educational leading focused around the epic theoretical account of leading where the Headteacher demonstrated epic characteristics such as authorization, bravery and control ( Johnson, 1997 ) . The post-heroic theoretical account lays accent on teamwork, engagement and authorization. In this state of affairs, school leading does non order and command, but collaborates with others sing organizational programs and operations. ( Eicher, 2006 ) . As schools become more ambitious topographic points to command and take it has become necessary for Headteacher ‘s to advance school leaders as a agency of prolonging betterment. The National College for School Leadership support this position and province “ As schools become more complex topographic points to pull off and take, we need many more leaders than of all time before ” ( NCSL, 2008 ) .

The capacity edifice theoretical account is focused around the publicity of leaders. At the Centre of the capacity edifice theoretical account, it has been discussed, is “ distributed leading along with societal coherence and trust ” ( Hopkins and Jackson, 2002, cited in Harris 2004 p12 ) . In short, administering leading equates with taking full advantage of the human capacity within an administration. This creates chances for all instructors to go leaders and contribute towards the schools vision ( Harris & A ; Muijs, 2005 ) . In the context of my ain state of affairs as a in-between director the school has supported my development extensively, as two old ages ago I started off as a NQT, now I am a in-between director on a fast path senior leading preparation programme. Through the support of this development it can be argued that a signifier of capacity edifice has taken topographic point.

3. What are the cardinal characteristics of distributed leading and instructor leading?

Distributed Leadership

Distributed leading is one signifier of leading that has raised the involvement of many research workers within the educational field. Outstanding research workers within this field include James Spillane, James Duignan and Alma Harris. As a consequence Bennett et Al. ( 2003 ) reference that there is small understanding to the term of distributed leading and accordingly the readings of this term vary from author to author and some of the readings of distributed leading are related to collegiality. Connections have besides been made between thoughts of democracy, authorization, and liberty ; nevertheless the integrating of these elements is non made explicit. ( Harris 2004 ) . Most helpfully Bennett et Al. ( 2003 ) suggest that it is more practical to conceive of distributed leading as a manner of believing approximately leading as oppose to seeing it as another technique or pattern. This position is shared by Spillane ( 2006 ) who suggests the cardinal characteristic of distributed leading to be used as a model to analyze leading.

Another cardinal characteristic discussed by Woods et Al, ( 2004, p441 ) is that “ distributed leading high spots leading as an emergent belongings of a group networking of interacting persons ” . This procedure portions some resemblance to transformational leading as both focal point on the actions of the group which Gronn ( 2000 ) describes as ‘concertive action ‘ and an extra moral force that is the merchandise of conjoint activity. But different to transactional leading as this focuses around a leader and its followings.

The distributed leading procedure besides allows educational constitutions to see the boundaries of leading, spread outing upon the traditional leading places such as those of Assistant Heads and in-between leaders. Forests et Al ( 2004, p442 ) province that this procedure is “ predisposed to widen the convectional cyberspace of leaders ‘ this in bend raises the inquiry of which group and persons are to be brought into leading or seen as subscribers of it ” . So hence distributed leading dressed ores on how leading pattern is distributed between informal and formal leaders. As Bennett et Al. ( 2003 p3 ) note, “ distributed leading is non something “ done ” by an single “ to others ” , instead it is an emergent belongings of a group or web of persons in which group members pool their expertness ” .

Teacher Leadership

Upon reexamining literature environing teacher leading, it is apparent that a precise significance ca n’t be found. The thought of teacher leading focuses its attending towards the encouragement of instructors going leaders and steeping in leading activities outside the schoolroom environment. Barth ( 2007 ) describes this procedure of leading where instructors take on enterprises that will inturn hold a positive impact within the schoolroom. Similarly, Wasley ( in Harris and Muijs, 2005 ) suggest that the cardinal feature of teacher leading is to back up co-workers to develop work on their ain enterprise, instead than be lead by enterprises derived from a formal leader.

Within my duties as a manager of specialism ( Business and Enterprise ) in my school I have to co-ordinate several whole school endeavor yearss throughout the twelvemonth. Rather than organizing and taking activities myself, I get my squad on board and discourse the bringing of these enterprise yearss. By acquiring the squad on board I am making chances for these members to construct upon their strengths and offer chances where they can present these Sessionss independently. It is clear from this illustration that a signifier of teacher leading is taken topographic point within my section.

Another facet of instructor leading is for instructors to work together, building significance and cognition jointly and collaboratively ( Lambert 1998 ) . It is argued that if everyone has the capacity to make this, merely so will school betterment take topographic point ( Katzenmeyer and Moller, 2001 ) . This is why schools should hold an apprehension that leading should non merely be assigned to those within formal places ( Harris and Lambert, 2003 ) . Research has besides addressed that understanding leading entirely will non be plenty to promote all staff to play a portion in the schools betterment procedure entirely, a signifier of capacity edifice will besides be required. ( Harris and Muijs 2005 ) . It has been highlighted from the Ofsted study during our last review that Assessment for larning patterns should be systematically applied throughout the whole school. This has resulted to several teacher developing yearss focused around assessment patterns. Opportunities have been provided during these yearss for instructors to work collaboratively and portion good pattern to all. So, it can be argued that these patterns portion the sentiments of both Katzenmeyer and Moller ( 2001 ) and Harris and Muijs 2005.

The largest Numberss of staff within a school are instructors and hence are at the Centre of the capacity edifice theoretical account. The statement for this, is instructors are in the alone place to do alteration go on given that they are straight involved in the instruction procedure ( Lieberman & A ; Miller 2004 ) . Therefore, the cardinal feature of teacher leading is to develop instructors to go leaders beyond the schoolroom therefore taking to improved educational pattern ( Katzenmeyer and Moller, 2001 ) .

4. What are the similarities and differences between distributed leading & A ; teacher leading?

The focal point of distributive leading is the distribution of power that is stretched over a figure of persons and where the leading activities are achieved through the interaction of many leaders ( Spillane and Louis 2002 ) . Harris ( 2005 ) portions a similar position and suggests that distributive leading is centred on the creative activity of conditions where people work together and larn together. So it could be argued that teacher leading is merely one country under the umbrella of distributed leading. Whereby, this procedure of distributive leading is all about giving authorization to instructors and authorising them to take, ( Harris 2005 ) . This is a move off from the individuality and isolation of learning brought frontward by Lortie ( 1975 cited in Spillane et al 2001 )

Teacher leading and distributed leading portion many similarities ( Muijs and Harris, 2003 ) . Both leading procedures are centred on people working together and it is argued that the cognition base of persons would increase when compared to persons who worked entirely ( Bennett et al 2003 ) . This is why both leading types promote the building of cognition through cooperation and active engagement ( Harris and Lambert, 2003 ) .

5. What are the benefits and restraints of distributed leading and instructor leading?

This subdivision will be broken into sub-headings generated from typical elements of distributed leading, distinguished upon reexamining related literature environing this type of leading pattern. ( Gronn 2000 ; Harris 2004 ; Timperley ; 2005 ; MacBeath et Al 2005 ; Spillane 2006 ) .

Within this subdivision I will discourse the benefits and restraints of both leading types. As addressed earlier teacher leading forms one strand of distributed leading so hence my treatment environing the benefits and restraints of this leading type will besides be addressed within this subdivision.

Emergent belongings of interaction

One of the primary maps of distributed leading is the development of interaction between groups of people ( Woods et al 2004 ) . Spillane et Al ( 2001 ) depict this as a corporate leading procedure that leads to an development of leading pattern, one which is far greater than the amount of each persons pattern. In the context of my school, this type of procedure could affect groups of professionals ( instructors and senior leaders ) coming together and sharing their expertness on a peculiar subject i.e. betterment schemes of Assessment for larning within schoolrooms. A shared attack compared to a singular led attack would non merely give a stronger pool of information, but besides create a sense of belonging amongst instructors. After all, it is instructors who are required to implement these patterns. This attack is similar to theories of teamwork, where the position is that working together produces far greater consequences than working entirely ( Harris 2004 ) . It is besides suggested that the interaction attack would be best utilised in an environment where relationships are based on support and common protection ( Belbin 2000 ) .

In respective of teacher leading, Griffin ( 1995 ) highlights the demand for instructors to thrive as leaders so they can back up the development of other instructors. The knock on consequence of instructors non interacting with each other can be seen as an rational resource being wasted. A similar position is shared by Harris and Mujis ( 2005 ) who have reported that instructors ‘ cognition and expertness addition after being involved in treatment Sessionss with other leaders. These point of views are shared by my co-workers who are on the instruction and learning commission within my school. Having the clip to interact with other instructors and discourse betterment ideas/good pattern has improved the learning within their ain schoolroom and this would non hold been possible prior to the commission being set up.

‘Top-down ‘ Vs ‘Bottoms-up ‘

The term ‘top down ‘ leading in schools is a procedure whereby schemes and solutions are identified by senior leaders and are so passed down the administration ( Hodgkinson 1991 ) . Whereas the ‘bottoms up ‘ attack promotes employee engagement at all degrees of the determination devising procedure. Ryan ( 2003 ) suggests that distributive leading is a non-hierarchical collaborative attack. The benefits of the collaborative attack would increase work public presentation compared to the traditional hierarchal attack. ( Leithwood and Riehl 2003 ) . As a in-between director I have witnessed the undersides up attack to be more favorable than the hierarchal attack. For illustration, when the Deputy Headteacher runs CPD Sessionss some staff are displeased with the development support provided as their positions are non taken into consideration. When the parts and positions of instructors are considered, so there is a greater opportunity that instructors will implement school schemes and support school ends. ( Sheppard,1996 ) .

Research has made it cognize that the autocratic ‘top-down ‘ manner of leading is common in schools that are in particular steps ( Gray, 2000 ) compared to bettering schools that have embedded distributive leading ( Muijs and Harris 2003 ) . It is evident from this research that ‘top-down ‘ leading attacks are found within neglecting schools ; nevertheless this point can non be generalised as other factors could play a portion towards a school deemed to be neglecting. Murphy and Meyers ( 2008 ) highlight deficiency of preparedness for school, low socioeconomic position of pupils and urban school scenes as a component to a failing school.

Furthermore, I feel that ‘top down ‘ and ‘bottoms up ‘ leading attacks can coexist within a school and still be classed within the spectrum of distributed leading. For illustration the Assistant Head in charge of learning and larning at my school had put frontward the five rules to supervise advancement of pupils in lessons. The instructors administered these rules and were given the chance to discourse the consequences with the Assistant Head to place betterment schemes for the job countries. This procedure both involved formalised leaders and informal leaders working together on a similar cause and is described by Spillane ( 2006 ) as coordinated distributed leading.

As a acknowledgment of expertness

Distributed leading focuses its attending on delegating experts to allow undertakings within formal and informal functions and this is different to the traditional leading theoretical account which would merely delegate formal leaders to take on leading undertakings. Owens ( 2004 ) suggests that schools operate under complex systems so hence ; it is unrealistic for the Headteacher to be an expert in all countries of the school. Applied to the context of my school, the Headteacher has recruited a concern director to cover with the fiscal facets of the school and supervise the Building School of the Future ( BSF ) programme. The ground for this is, the concern director has old experience non merely in finance but most significantly holds the expertness in pull offing a school rebuild elsewhere. Although the Headteacher is finally accountable for the school fundss and the rebuild, this function is assigned to an expert to guarantee the efficient running of school operations.

Expertness can besides be drawn from school instructors. By making a clime that identifies instructors ‘ know-how will convey out the leading within those instructors. For the Headteacher to seek expertness outside the formalistic functions will authorise those persons ( Hargreaves, 1999 ) . However, in my sentiment at that place proves to be unreciprocated inquiries with Hargreaves ( 1999 ) ideas as no reference is made when the expert i.e. instructor is non skilled or enthusiastic to take and as a consequence the procedure of placing expertness may go unproductive. However, Duignan ( 2006 ) does cast some visible radiation on my ideas and references recognizing expertness will advance an ‘allowed-to-be-a-leader ‘ civilization ; this can be a powerful tool in the motive, support and appreciate of instructors. Conversely it is argued by Katzenmeyer & A ; Moller ( 2001 ) that instructors can be supported to develop their leading potency, but teacher leading can merely bloom within a civilization where the sentiments of these leaders are respected.

However, it is suggested that the support and expertness offered by instructors can carry through the duties of the site leaders ( Keedy & A ; Finch 1994 ) . Lambert ( 1998 ) believes that this allows experts to reflect from outside the formalistic functions of leading and will increase their capableness of going leaders. These positions could potentially back up the jobs towards the diminution in GCSE consequences within my school. An initial idea to the cause of this job was through the going of three senior leaders who were promoted to stations at other schools. The position here was that when strong leaders left their stations, it led to the diminution in pupils ‘ academic consequences. Lambert ‘s, Keedy ‘s and Finch ‘s ( 1998 ) positions could non be applied to the context of my school, as there was small grounds of a civilization of instructor leading being recognised, nurtured and built upon within my school. If the instructor leading civilization was evident so the school may non hold been affected when the senior leaders left their stations. Harris and Lambert ( 2003 ) support my position and set frontward the impression that all instructors harbour leading capablenesss and if unlocked can be engaged for the benefit of the school.

It has been noted from the literature on teacher leading that formal functions such as lead instructors were established to recognize the attempts of instructors, nevertheless ; these programmes were found to be uneffective as Smylie and Denny ( 1990 ) found out. These teacher leaders could non to the full back up their fellow instructors as most of their clip was taken up attending meetings as opposed to disbursement clip at bettering the pattern of other instructors.

Supporting school betterment

It is argued that leading that is distributed can back up capacity edifice in school and contribute to school betterment ( Harris 2004 ) . This position is supported by Silns and Mulford ( 2002 ) , their research within this country has identified that pupil results are likely to increase if the leading is distributed throughout the school community. However, it is Harris ( 2004 ) that brings to our attending that more grounds is required to corroborate the relationship between pupil larning results and distributive leading.

Hallinger and Heck ( 1998 ) besides conveying to our attending that the quality of instruction and larning play a polar function in back uping pupil accomplishment. If the pupils are making better compared to the old twelvemonth so the school is seen to be bettering. School leaders need to recognize that instructors have contributed extensively to this betterment. Literature has besides highlighted that teacher leading can take to improved pupil outcomes as cognition and accomplishments are shared in order to better instructional pattern ( Smylie, 1994 ) This position is shared by Lieberman and Miller ( 2004 ) who suggest, when instructors have chances to take and portion good pattern the opportunities of procuring the quality of learning acquisition is increased. Barth ( 2007 ) adds to this position by saying that “ schools severely need the leading of instructors if they are to better ”

It is evident from the positions of the authors above ; that teacher leading plays a important function in raising attainment. If effectual instructor leading patterns are in topographic point so pupils ‘ attainment will increase. This may non be the instance within my school as GCSE consequences had fallen by 4 % compared to the old twelvemonth. Therefore ; this raises the inquiry is teacher leading non outstanding in my school or is leading on a whole hapless? Furthermore, Mendez-Morze ( 1992 ) research into effectual urban schools has highlighted that pupil accomplishment could merely be raised with the counsel of an effectual leader.

-Tensions & A ; barriers to distributed leading and instructor leading

There are no guidelines available as to how distributive leading should be implemented and this is the cardinal concern of this type of leading. Other leading theoretical accounts that exist, encompass ushers of bringing for illustration, John Adairs ( 1973 ) Action Centred Leadership model provides a design for the leading of a squad or an administration. As the theoretical account is unfastened to reading, the distributive procedure may take to the maltreatment of power and as a consequence the purposes of this leading manner may turn out to be invalid ( Maxy and Nguyen 2006 cited in Mayrowetz 2008 ) . Gunter and Ribbins ( 2003 ) support this position and reference concerns to what distributive leading will look like in an administration. Spillane ( 2005 ) disputing these concerns and points out that distributive leading is a manner of thought of leading and as a consequence no design can be made available nor an direction of how leading should be practiced in a school. This position is supported by Harris ( 2005 ) , upon the reappraisal of both Spillane ‘s and Gronn ‘s work into this procedure of leading and addresses that distributive leading is a manner of analyzing leading as opposed to explicating leading pattern.

Besides, the distributive procedure encourages instructors to take on leading functions, in my sentiment there is a important job with this as an premise is made that instructors are capable in taking on leading functions. Smylie ( 1994 ) survey of instructor leaders and their rules brought out that instructors raised concerns about the deficiency of preparation that was provided towards constructing new working relationships. In my experience leaders require some signifier of developing anterior to taking on leading duties. The expertness of possible instructor leaders hold may non be effectual if the instructors are non capable to take. This is why in my school the bulk of leaders assigned to middle leading and senior leading places attend preparation classs delivered by the NCSL.

Centralized systems of answerability that hold the Headteacher accountable can turn out to be another barrier towards successful execution of distributive leading. One ground for this is that the Headteacher may be loath to depute their power as he/ she may experience vulnerable due to the deficiency of control they harbour one time others bear the load of duty. OECD ( 2008 ) province that this may be true in instances where legal, HR, and fiscal control is given to others in the school. This is non the instance with my school as the Headteacher has given away some of her power to others for illustration the duty of the school fundss has been passed down to the concern director within the school and the course of study design and direction passed down to the Deputy Headteacher. This demonstrates that distributed leading is taking consequence as duty has been delegated to experts within their Fieldss.

Hierarchical systems that remunerate staff in conformity to their functions and duties can turn out to be a barrier to teacher leading. Teachers may experience that the addition work load of extra duties may non be worthwhile if fiscal wagess are non provided, in return may take to instructors non being motivated adequate to take on leading functions. In my experience of taking on extra instruction and larning leading duties when I was learning a full timetable, I had jobs carry throughing my function to the full due to the deficiency of clip made available for me to implement my extra leading duties. My position is supported by several other surveies which recommended that clip has to be made available for instructors to be after and discourse whole school programs, course of study affairs or interceding with external organic structures ( Ovando ; Seasore-Louis et al. , cited in Muijs and Harris 2003 ) .

6. Decision

I am cognizant of the benefits that distributed leading can supply, in peculiar holding a model to analyze and understand leading pattern and developing group interactions through the coaction procedure. However, the literature has acknowledged that distributed leading is a new phenomenon that encompasses a limited literature base and a widely accepted definition ( Bennett, Harvey, Wise & A ; Woods, 2003 ; Harris, 2004 ; Timperley, 2005 ; Spillane, 2006 ) . In add-on there is besides small empirical grounds towards the effectivity of the impact that distributed leading has towards increasing pupil attainment and advancing instructional betterment. On this footing, I was unable to happen a unequivocal reply to my hypothesis, which was to find whether distributed leading could better pupil classs. What I have become cognizant of is, distributive leading can play a portion to increasing pupil attainment.

Apart from the betterment of pupil classs, distributed leading is a powerful leading scheme where grounds has shown contributes straight to school effectivity and development ( Muijs and Harris, 2003 ) .

It is besides suggested that the construction of teacher leading creates a more professional work atmosphere ( Little, 1995 ) , which leads to edifice of a professional community.

Surveies have found that a school with higher degrees of instructor acquisition and leading, significantly enhances instructor work in the schoolroom ( Silns and Mulford, 2002 ) as such an environment encourages coaction and trust. However ; the research has found Headteacher ‘s must be prepared to make a civilization and clime that is favorable to teacher leading ( Bishop, Tinley & A ; Berman, 1997 ) as instructor leading offers a realistic apprehension of the thought maintained by the theory of distributed leading as it presents leading as an innovation of a corporate activity with all instructors being involved.

Overall, the literature reviewed has allowed me bring forth a deeper apprehension of both distributed leading and teacher leading. It was besides evident from the application of the literature to the context of my school that distributive patterns do be with some elements of teacher leading. However, I am cognizant that it was non possible for me to straight link/test the literature to my job as no action research into distributed and teacher leading methods were trialled and tested. Nevertheless the literature has enabled me to construct a theoretical base that would be applied to my thesis undertaking, concentrating on instructors ‘ and Headteacher ‘s perceptual experience of teacher leading in a secondary school. Furthermore, the literature will besides back up my learning pattern as a in-between leader, in peculiar paying more attending towards easing and developing instructor leaders within my section.


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