The Development Mechanism And Trading Of Sukuk Bonds Finance Essay

A Sukuk bond is an Arabic word for fiscal investing certifications, or sometimes can be refer as Islamic bonds. It is the celebrated component in the Islamic Finance among the Muslim and non-Muslim. Other than that, sukuk besides refer to swear certifications and engagement securities. Furthermore, it is one of the fastest growth tools in the Islamic capital market that triggered the desire of research and Hagiographas of many research workers and bookmans, as a consequence of which is the being of many academic Hagiographas and publications [ 1 ] . It has become one of the most dynamic tools for capital mobilisation in both the Islamic and conventional capital markets ( 2007, Umar ) .

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For your information, base on their Islamic jurisprudence, it is non allowed fixed income and involvement bearing bond. After that, Islamic Finance comes out the sukuk bonds to carry through its investing rules, which is bear downing or paying the involvement. Besides that, it is similar to the fiscal bonds in the conventional bank, which are cogent evidence of ownership rubric to the investor and utilized by fiscal establishment to raising the fund. For both conventional bonds and sukuk bonds are structured to bring forth gross on the physical assets. However, the distinction between both bonds is sukuk bonds can be consider as modern application of Islamic fiscal.

Malaysia ‘s to the full experience and concrete basicss in Islamic finance developed over 30 old ages, tied with its strength in the domestic sukuk market, offers strong exciting value propositions to authorities bureaus, transnational corporations and many-sided development Bankss or fiscal establishments across the universe to arise sukuk out of Malaysia.A Malaysia leads the planetary sukuk market, represented by 61 % of entire sukuk outstanding at the terminal 2008.2

Development of Sukuk Bonds

What is Sukuk?

Sukuk is an Muslim fiscal certification bond but it refuted to conventional bonds, which is debt based instrument and Sukuk is plus based instrument. Sukuk securities adopt the Islamic Torahs referred to as Shari’ah and it ain rules, Islamic spiritual jurisprudence, which no all involvement can do and its forbid the charging or payment of involvement such as fixed income, involvement bearing bonds are non allowable in Islam. Sukuk instruments are like a jobber or a span to issuers, chiefly crowned heads and corporations in other foreign states such as in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, with a big pool for investor to happening diversify their retentions beyond traditional plus categories. In Sukuk market, fund raised can classified in two manner which is an efficient and crystalline manner in over 100 non-member states in the universe.

Diagram 1: Different between conventional fiscal and Islamic fiscal

Selected Historical Highlights

Key Highlights in Malaysia ‘s Islamic Capital Market:

1990: Issue of first Islamic Corporate bond by Shell MDS Sdn Bhd

1993: Launch of first Islamic Equity unit trust fund by Arab-Malaysian Unit Trust Bhd

1994: First full fledged Islamic stockbroking company, BIMB Securities, was established

1999: Launch of the KLSE Syariah Index

2000: Launch of the first Islamic bond fund by RHB Unit Trust Management

2001: Issue of the universe ‘s first Global Sukuk by Kumpulan Guthrie

Beginning: Bloomberg ( based on Sukuk issued out of new and bing programmes for the YTD )

Global V Malaysia Sukuk Issuances 2005- 1H20112002: Issue of the universe ‘s first Global Sovereign Sukuk

Figure: Global V Malaysia Sukuk Issuances 2005- 1H2011

In 2005 to first half of 2011, planetary Sukuk market and Malaysia Sukuk market was faced few economic growing and crisis, therefore it was consequence issued Sukuk bond. Based on the informations, Malaysia Sukuk market does n’t showed important growing compared with planetary Sukuk market between 2005 to first half of 2011. However Malaysia Sukuk market looks more stable than planetary market.

In 2008, planetary Sukuk faced fiscal meltdown, it is planetary fiscal crisis and the Dubai debt sufferings, therefore it dropped from US $ 31 billion to US $ 14.2 billion, dropped around 54 % . Besides that, Malaysia Sukuk market besides dropped, but the dropped sum lower than planetary market, around 41 % .Apart from that, in 2009 Malaysia Sukuk market of the entire Sukuk issue growing around 31 % , it was showed those investor have assurance to Malaysia Sukuk market.

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Figure 2: Sukuk issue by state in 2009

In 2009, Malaysia is the largest state issuer Sukuk bond comparison with Indonesia, Sausi Arabia and Bahrain.Malaysia about holding about 45 % of issuer Sukuk bond. The 2nd largest is Saudi Arabia, they has about 22 % for issuer Sukuk bond.

Figure 3 Malaya: Outstanding Sukuk vs. Bonds

In this several old ages, Sukuk continues growing but comparison with normal bond, sum of outstanding Sukuk still lower than bond. In 2011, Sukuk still non celebrated for the investor or issuer therefore the figure was merely had little sum for the outstanding Sukuk. Besides that, between 2001 and 2007 the sum of outstanding Sukuk was growing significantly. In 2007, outstanding Sukuk was catching up the normal bond and after twelvemonth 2007 outstanding Sukuk still holding a positive growing in the market.

This three chart showed that investor have assurance with Malaysia Sukuk market because it has its possible. In 1990s, Malaysia already had a powerful and crystalline Islamic construction. Other than that, Malaysia besides do more attempt to promoted to foreign investor show that Malaysia is an international Islamic fiscal hub and had recognized by worldwide and continues lead at the forepart of the development of Sukuk bond.

The strength of Sukuk is lies in its ain alone model. Sukuk can transport distinguishable value place to issuers and investors. The Sukuk growings quickly because had few factors.

1. Structure growing edification. Sukuk have a good high quality which is it had the flexibleness of Sukuk construction to take its growing continuously and it besides can run into the demand and penchants of investor and issuers by trim suited Sukuk to them. Now a twenty-four hours, Malaysia have more than a types of Sukuk in the market such as net income and loss sharing ( Musyarakah ) , cost plus funding ( Murabahah ) , deferred payment ( Al-Bai ‘ Bithaman Ajil ) , renting ( Al-Ijarah ) , agent ( Al-Wakalah ) and so on to wider scope of investors.

Figure 4: Type of Sukuk apporeved in Malaysia

In 2011, Malaysia has few types of Sukuk approved in Malaysia Sukuk market and types of Sukuk in Malaysia market can sort to Contracts of engagement and exchange. Contracts of engagement are such as Mudharabah Sukuk and Musyarakah Sukuk. Contracts of exchanges are such as Murabahah and Ijarah. The largest figure of investor invest is Musyarakah, the figure is about 63 % in Sukuk market. The 2nd largest is Ijarah, it ‘s about 15 % in Sukuk market.

2. Clarity on the regulative intervention. Excellent regulative intervention in Sukuk construction has provided regulative certainty to Islamic fiscal establishments with respect to their investments.The attachment of the Capital Adequacy Standard was accomplish and issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board ( IFSB )

3. Strategic centralize to develop overall Islamic fiscal system. Every investor or issuers have it ain demand or demand hence Sukuk can establish on each investor or issuers to pick suited ain Sukuk to themselves. For illustration, in takaful operators the investors can pick medium or long-run liabilities of takaful financess.

2.1 Introduction to Mechanism of Sukuk Bond

Sukuk bond is one of the Islamic fiscal merchandises which grow quickly today. It is by and large known as Shariah compliant[ 1 ]bond as it is structured harmonizing to the Islamic rules. The Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions ( AAOIFI ) has defined sukuk as the certifications of equal value that represent an undivided portion in the ownership of the implicit in plus, usufruct, services or investings in peculiar undertakings or particular investing activities. ( Institutions, 2008 ) Besides, sukuk bond besides can be described as an asset-based investing because the investor which is the sukuk holder owns the undivided involvement in the implicit in plus even if bad state of affairs occurs.

Sukuk bond is non a debt certification, hence, the claim of sukuk bond is non merely a claim to hard currency flow but it besides represents the ownership claim on a pool of underlying assets. However, under the assorted types of sukuk which structured based on different Islamic rules, the investor has different rights and duties. When the sukuk is represent the ownership of the implicit in plus such as Ijarah sukuk, the investor can claims non merely on the implicit in plus. But, at the same clip, it can be claimed against the hard currency flow and grosss generated from the sale of the plus.

Besides, for the sukuk which issued as the sale of asset-based through the contract of exchange such as the Murabahah and Istina sukuk, the investor has the rights to claim against the hard currency flow from the contract of exchange but non on the physical plus. This is due to the transportation of ownership which is now to the obligator. On the other manus, for the type of sukuk which provide financess for undertakings such as Musyarakah sukuk and Mudharabah sukuk, the investor has the rights on the undivided involvement in the specific investings. The difference in both of this sukuk is merely that the musyarakah sukuk holder portions both the net income and loss nevertheless the mudharabah sukuk holder portion merely the net income while loss will non be sharing. ( Bank Negara Malaysia and Securities Commission Malaysia, 2009 )

There ‘re many types of sukuk bond which is structured based on assorted approved Islamic constructs and rules. Among the 14 types of sukuk which are identified by AAOIFI, the most common sukuk included Ijarah sukuk ( leasing of specific assets ) and the Musyarakah sukuk ( net income & A ; loss-sharing strategy ) . There ‘re besides other types of sukuk which included Murabahah sukuk ( cost-plus sale ) , Istina sukuk ( project finance ) , Mudharabah sukuk ( profit-sharing ) , Salam sukuk, Hybrid sukuk and so forth. In the terminal of October 2011, Musyarakah sukuk leads the biggest proportion among the assorted types of sukuk bond which is 59 % . It so was following by Ijarah sukuk ( 13 % ) , Murabahah sukuk ( 10 % ) , Mudharabah sukuk ( 9 % ) and Wakalah sukuk ( 9 % ) . ( Team, 2012 )

2.2 Similarities and Differences between Sukuk Bond and Conventional Bond

Sukuk bond shared some similar features with the conventional bond. For cases, both of these bonds have a fixed term adulthood, can bear a voucher and are tradable on the normal output monetary value. Besides, both of the sukuk bond and conventional bond have similarities in the undermentioned characteristics: marketability, rate ability, enhance ability and besides the versatility. ( What is Sukuk? ) Both of them are liquid instruments, therefore can be easy transferred and tradable in the fiscal markets. Furthermore, both of these bonds are structured based on the assets that generate grosss. The gross generated from the implicit in plus is the beginning of income to pay for the net income on the sukuk bond. ( Bank Negara Malaysia and Securities Commission Malaysia, 2009 )

However, there still have differences among the sukuk bond and the conventional bond. First of all, conventional bond is structured in such a manner that the “ involvement ” is the chief point of all those minutess. The issue of conventional bond is based on the exchange of paper and it does n’t stand for the ownership of conventional bondholders in the endeavors that issue the bond. Rather, it represents the interest-bearing debt owed to the conventional bondholders. Consequently, the issuer of conventional bond has the contractually duty in paying the involvement and besides the principal to the bondholders on a specific day of the month. On the other manus, sukuk bond is structured in a manner that the issue is based on the exchange of an sanctioned plus. Because of the prohibition of involvement charging by Islamic jurisprudence, sukuk bond allows the sukuk bondholders to claim an undivided ownership in the implicit in plus and portion the grosss generated from the implicit in plus.

Furthermore, sukuk bond is different with conventional bond due to its asset-based characteristics. When the state of affairs occurs where the issuer of conventional bond is unable to pay for the debt they owed to the bondholders, the bondholders which is the investors will confront a great loss on their investings. This is because the contract normally does n’t vouch that the plus can be secured and be used to retrieve at least partial of the investings. However, for sukuk bond, because it is asset-based and the sukuk bondholders have undivided ownership on the implicit in plus, even how bad the state of affairs, the investors can claim against major portion of their investing. Hence, the sukuk bondholders are more protected from this sort of hazard compared to the conventional bondholders.

Besides, the issue of sukuk bond must compliant with the Islamic jurisprudence in its nature and usage. However for the conventional bond, it can be issue for about any intents every bit long as it is legal under legal power. Following, for the sukuk bondholders, the disbursals that related to the implicit in plus may be attached to them while the conventional bondholders are non responsible in these asset-related disbursals.

2.3 Benefits of Sukuk Bond

Sukuk bond which structured compliant with the Islamic jurisprudence have the undermentioned benefits. First of wholly, it acts as a tool for Bankss and Islamic fiscal establishments in liquidness direction. ( Benefits of Sukuk ) When the bank and fiscal establishments have extra sum of liquidness, they can utilize these extra money to buy and put in sukuk bond.

Meanwhile, when they ‘re in the demand of liquidness, they can take to sell their sukuk bond through the secondary market. This clearly shows the characteristics of sukuk bond which is liquid and hence can be easy traded in the fiscal market.

Besides, sukuk bond provides a manner in raising financess. It allows the corporate to raise financess through the issue of sukuk bond. However, the sukuk bond can merely be issue for any intent that ailment with Islamic jurisprudence. Furthermore, due to the asset-based characteristic of sukuk bond, it offers a lower hazard and hence reduces the cost of funding. This is because even when bad state of affairs happen to the issuer of sukuk bond, the investors can claim against the ownership on the implicit in plus and acquire recover from major partial of their investing.

2.4 Sukuk Guidelines

Starts from 1 July 2000, any issue, offer or invitation of sukuk has to acquire blessing from the Securities Commission Malaysia ( SC ) under subdivision 212 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007 ( CMSA )[ 2 ]( Malaysia S. C. , Introduction, 2011 )

The undermentioned information are the guidelines which stated by Securities Commission Malaysia ( SC ) and effectual from 12 August 2011 ( Malaysia S. C. , 2011 ) . Any corporation that wishes to publish, offer or do an invitation of sukuk has to first name a chief advisor who specified by the SC in the Principal Adviser Guidelines. The intent of naming a chief advisor is to assist the corporation to seek blessing from SC for the proposed issue, offer or invitation of sukuk. ( Malaysia S. C. , Issuers & A ; Submission of Proposals, 2011 )

There ‘re a set of paperss and a declaration missive that SC requires the issuer to subject through the chief advisor. These paperss and the declaration missive are needed to obtain the blessing from SC. ( Malaysia S. C. , Appendix, 2011 ) Two difficult transcripts and one electronic transcript of these paperss should be submitted. Within 14 working yearss after SC receives the needed paperss and declaration missive, SC will either allow its blessing or reject the proposal which does n’t to the full follow the guideline. Once the issuer obtains the blessing from SC, they should subject another set of paperss ( Malaysia S. C. , Appendix, 2011 ) to SC through their chief advisor. ( Malaysia S. C. , Documents and Information Required, 2011 )

Besides, the issuer is required to conjunct with the principal advisor in naming a Shariah advisor to do certain that the certification, construction and the mechanism of sukuk are following the Islamic jurisprudence. There ‘re plentifulness of Shariah opinions that have to follow for all types of sukuk every bit good as some specific type of sukuk in the demand of implicit in plus, plus pricing, compensation and so forth. ( Malaysia S. C. , Appointment of Shariah Adviser & A ; Shariah Rulings Applicable, 2011 )

Meanwhile, the underwriting of any issue, offer or invitation of sukuk will depends on the determination of the issuer. ( Malaysia S. C. , Underwriting, 2011 ) The execution clip frame for sukuk issue is within one twelvemonth from the day of the month of the blessing of SC except for the instance of shelf enrollment strategy which must be implemented within two old ages. ( Malaysia S. C. , Implementation Time Frame for Sukuk Programme or Sukuk Issuance, 2011 )

2.5 Sukuk Market in Malaysia

From the diary, we know that the sukuk market has been developed quickly in this decennary with the grounds that more than 50 % of Malaysia ‘s bond market belong to the sukuk market. Sukuk market in Malaysia successfully pull the attending of international corporations and many-sided bureaus and pull a tonss of engagement of these parties in raising financess and every bit good as puting in the sukuk market. Furthermore, sukuk market of Malaysia is now holding uninterrupted invention such as it offers the opportunity for international corporations to take part

and plays a function in our Islamic fiscal system.

As mentioned before, there have a greater development compared to the beginning of Malaysia ‘s sukuk market which our state started with a RM125 million of issue size by Shell MDS Sdn. Bhd.. The improving development one time once more can be clearly proven by the shoot up of the value of sukuk issue which is at RM15.4 billion by the Binariang GSM Sdn. Bhd. Besides, Malaysia is the fastest turning state in the planetary for the country of sukuk market with 22 % of

mean one-year growing within the period of 2001 until 2007.

There ‘re a tonss of attempts that has been put in the sukuk market to heighten its stableness. First of wholly, to guarantee the fiscal stableness, Malaysia had cooperated with several regulative governments and participates in Islamic Financial Services Board ( IFSB ) , Islamic Financial Stability Forum ( IFSF ) , Islamic Development Bank ( IDB ) and besides affect itself in the International Islamic Liquidity Management Corporation ( IILM ) . Besides, the debut of new type of fiscal instruments which has the extended adulthood profiles has brought the Malaysia ‘s sukuk market to go more advanced. This is because it increases the diverseness of both local and foreign participants and besides meets the demands of both issuers and investors so that there will be a win-win state of affairs. Meanwhile, the increasing figure of issue in foreign currency had successfully extended the international gateway and attracts the engagements from foreign states in Malaysia ‘s sukuk market. This in bends speed up the development of our sukuk market and besides ease a good relationship with the international fiscal markets.

The development of Malaysia ‘s sukuk market brings the economic system to go more diversified and more driven by the private sector than the authorities. This is shown by the increasing demand for the funding demands from private sector compared to the market which is antecedently chiefly control by the Government debt securities.

In a nut shell, Malaysia leads the development of sukuk market non merely in footings of entire sukuk issue which accounted 68.9 % of entire planetary outstanding at the terminal of 2007, but at the same clip showed first-class public presentation in the advanced sukuk construction and is more competitory in pulling the investors. In the hereafter, Malaysia will go on its attempts to heighten the relationship with others international fiscal markets through ways such as partnership or possibly cooperation. ( Technology, Sukuk Market in Malaysia, 2011 )

2.6 Challenges of Sukuk Market

Harmonizing to the diary, we understand about few challenges that occur in sukuk market. First of wholly, the sukuk market faced the job when there is deficiency of uniformity in the processs that applied Shariah ‘s rules. The deficiency of professional in Shariah criterions and besides the deficiency of consciousness of the employers and director of sukuk even make the things worse.

Besides, when it comes to the coactions among the states, things become challenges because each state has their ain Torahs and some of their Torahs will conflict with Islamic fiscal system and has to be amending in order to run the system. Furthermore, there ‘re still occur the spread of cognition even though AAOIFI, Central Bank of Malaysia and besides other organisations have put attempts in administering the information to the populace. Therefore, more focal points have to set at the information airing through ways such as forums, preparation every bit good as set up more instruction centre.

Last but non least, it is hard to keep the alone characteristics of sukuk. This is because those who already acquire used with the features of conventional merchandises will be given to bespeak for the merchandises which has the same features with conventional merchandises. This in bends will pretermit the individuality of the alone sukuk bond. ( Technology, Challenges in Sukuk Market, 2011 )

Trading of Sukuk Market in Malaysia

Between these ten old ages, the institutional agreements peculiar gave a greater focal point to develop the sukuk market. The sukuk market now accounts for more than 50 per centum of Malaysia ‘s bond market. The market has drawn the engagement from a broad scope of international corporations and many-sided bureaus in raising financess and puting in the sukuk issuances out of Malaysia. More recently, there has besides been uninterrupted invention and an increasing figure of issues in foreign currency. As Malaysia offers international engagement in the Islamic fiscal system, besides offer to be an international gateway, peculiarly in beef uping the nexus between the two of import dynamic growing parts of Asia and the Middle East. ( Zeti Akhtar Aziz, 2010 )

Shell MDS Sdn. Bhd. started Malaysia ‘s sukuk market with a simple issue size of RM125 million in 1990 and is turning in size and progressively sophisticated now. This development is apparent in the largest sukuk issue late valued at RM15.4 billion which is USD4.7 billion by Binariang GSM Sdn. Bhd. Now, the sukuk market in Malaysia with an mean one-year growing of 22 % issued for the period 2001-2007 is among the fastest growth in the universe. Malaya has continued it success by presenting advanced sukuk constructions such as exchangeable sukuk musyarakah by Khazanah Nasional Berhad, the Malayan authorities investing keeping company after presenting the first crowned head planetary sukuk in the universe in 2002. This combines the characteristics of the first full convertibility is normally merely used for conventional equity-linked minutess is a historic issue of the first of its sort in the universe. ( Central Bank of Malaysia, 2007 )

Malaysia besides continues to join forces with other regulative governments to guarantee fiscal stableness in the Islamic fiscal system. This will be through Malaysia ‘s active engagement in the Islamic Financial Services Board ( IFSB ) , the Islamic Financial Stability Forum ( IFSF ) , the enterprises by the Islamic Development Bank ( IDB ) , and eventually in the freshly formed International Islamic Liquidity Management Corporation ( IILM ) . Depth and liquidness of the market has increased by secondary trading in the Malayan sukuk market with the engagement of more companies, including foreign-owned companies continued usage of this market for support intents. Long-run support demands are financed by a big figure of corporate issue. The diverseness and size of the sukuk dealing was the increasing value proposition is really attractive to investors who want to diversify their plus portfolios, therefrom making a vivacious secondary market.

The Malayan sukuk market has besides grown to go more sophisticated and advanced to run into the manifold risk-return demands and profiles of both investors and issuers. Diversified scope of participants have been generated by the proliferation of new types of instruments with drawn-out adulthood profiles, both local and foreign to take part in the market. This was facilitated by the liberalisation of the market in 2005 to let for issue of debt securities by foreign corporations and many-sided bureaus in ringgit denominated documents. This was extended to foreign currency denominated issues in twelvemonth 2007. Actually, this has attracted many many-sided bureaus, transnational corporations and foreign corporations to raise financess and put in inception and issuances out of Malaysia, hence heightening the Malayan market, and beef uping Malaysia ‘s inter-linkages with other international fiscal markets.

The transmutation of the Malayan economic system has been accompanied by the development of the sukuk market in Malaysia that has now become more private and diversified sector driven. The Government debt securities ab initio dominated the market, now reflects the turning demand for the long term funding demands of the private sector. Now, the corporate sector raises 58 % of their funding demands through the sukuk market and debt securities compared to ten old ages ago is about 33 % . The presence of a liquid and deep debt securities and sukuk market therefore contributes towards the stableness of the fiscal system.

Now, with a figure of Malaysia ‘s sukuk issues by 68.9 % , or USD62 billion ( or RM213 billion ) of entire planetary outstanding at the terminal of twelvemonth 2007, Malaysia is the universe ‘s largest sukuk market. Amount of corporate sukuk in Malaysia more than RM30 billion in twelvemonth 2007. Malaysia non merely take the development of the sukuk market in footings of entire sukuk issue, even in footings of the debut of advanced sukuk constructions and competitory to pull more single or corporation investors. Traveling frontward, Malaysia will go on its attempts in beef uping our international linkages in the planetary Islamic fiscal system through cooperation and collaborative partnerships with the aim of lending towards greater economic integrating and international fiscal. Surely, sukuk ( Islamic bond ) proved that it is among the most successful Muslim fiscal merchandise in the industry and be one of the fastest-growing sectors in the planetary fiscal landscape.

Type of Sukuk Bonds

Ijarah Sukuk

Ijarah sukuk is an Muslim surrogate of conventional leasing. Ijarah is a contract the distribution of financess to utilize right transportation ( benefit ) of an point within a certain clip to the rental payments ( ujrah ) , between the finance company as the lease giver ( mu’ajjir ) with renters ( musta’jir ) non followed by transportation of ownership of the goods themselves [ 1 ] . These are sukuk that represent ownership of equal portions in a rented existent estate or the usufruct of the existent estate. In other words, publishing certifications of ownership of assets, leased to a peculiar consumer is known as Sukuk Al Ijarah or merely Ijarah Sukuk.

Other than that, Ijarah sukuk besides is a bond between a bank with consumer to take on an point or even object rentals and bank-owned Bankss have a service fee for points which is rent, and at the terminal with the purchase of renting object by the consumer. ( In Shaukat ‘s ( 2010 ) article, Common Structures of Sukuk, Ijarah sukuk were described as “ Ijarah sukuk are the securities stand foring ownership of good defined bing and known assets tied up to a rental contract, lease of which is the return collectible to sukuk holders. “ ( P. 10 ) . ) Ijarah sukuk have a chief construct which means selling the benefit of apply or service for a fixed monetary value or wage. Base on this construct, the Islamic bank make it available to the consumer applies of service of assets or equipments for a fixed period of clip and besides the monetary value.

1Source: Sharia Economy Journal, Ijarah Definition ( 2011 )

Figure 5: The procedure of Ijarah SukukSukuk al-Ijarah.png

The chart above shows few phases of the dealing procedure. First phase is Contract of Cash Sale. SPV purchases belongings from obligator as the measure 1 above, such as SPV purchases infirmary from authorities. After that, the assets purchased by the SPV are funded by the issue of sukuk which is trust certifications which represents beneficialA ownership in the assets and the rental as the measure 3 shown supra. Besides that, authorities received hard currency returns as measure 7 while Phase 2 is Contract of Leasing ( Ijarah ) .

At first, SPV rents belongings to the authorities for specified period which is measure 2 shown above. After that, step 6 shows that SPV collects leases. During the term of office, SPV passed the leases to investors as the measure 9. For your information, illustration is periodic distribution or voucher. Continually, at the adulthood, SPV sells the belongings to the authorities at an in agreement monetary value. Government pays hard currency to SPV. Last, SPV at the same time pay investors hard currency for sukuk salvation.

Musharakah Sukuk

Musharakah sukuk is a construction of partnership which is used in Islamic finance alternatively of interest-bearing loans. It is besides a manner of funding against which Sukuks can be issued for. It does non differ from the Mudaraba sukuk except in the organisation of the relationship between the party publishing such sukuk and holders of these sukuk, whereby the party publishing sukuk signifiers a commission from the holders of the sukuk who can be referred to in investing determinations [ 1 ] . Musharaka Sukuk are used for mobilising the financess for set uping a new undertaking or developing an bing one or financing a concern activity on the footing of partnership contracts ( Shaukat, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Musharakah Sukuk have a specified adulthood day of the month, and are negotiable in the secondary market.

In the assets of the Musharakah sukuk, for every sukuk would hold a representative holder ‘s proportionate ownership. These Musharaka certifications can be treated as negotiable instruments and can be bought and sold in the secondary market [ 2 ] . Musharakah sukukA allows each party involved in a concern to portion in the net incomes and hazards. Other than that, net income earned by the Musharakah sukuk is shared harmonizing to an agreed ratio between the Issuer and Investors at an understanding. Although the net income and loss is sharing, while it shared between the investors as per investing ratio merely. Besides that, to guarantee the tradability of Musharakah sukuks, all the assets should non be in liquid signifier.

1Source: Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institution, AAOIFI 2Source: Common Structure of Sukuks, Mughees Shaukat

Figure 6: The procedure of Musharakah SukukSukuk al-Musharaka.png

From the above shown that, at the beginning, Corporate and the Particular Purpose Vehicle ( SPV ) enter into a Musharakah Arrangement for a fixed period and an in agreement profit-sharing ratio. Therefore, the corporate undertakes to purchase Musharakah portions of the SPV on a periodic footing. First, Corporate ( as Musharik ) contributes land or other physical assets to the Musharakah. After that, in 2 a & A ; b shown that SPV ( as Musharik ) contributes hard currency, which is the issue Proceeds received from the investors to the Musharakah.

Come to the 3rd, the Musharakah appoints the Corporate as an agent to develop the land ( or other physical assets ) with the hard currency injected into the Musharaka and sell/lease the developed assets on behalf of the Musharakah. Continually, in return, the agent who is the corporate will acquire a fixed bureau fee plus a variable incentive fee collectible. The net incomes are distributed to the Sukuk holders as shown at above. Last, the Corporate irrevocably undertakes to purchase at a pre-agreed monetary value the Musharakah portions of the SPV on say semi-annual footing and at the terminal of the fixed period the SPV would no longer hold any portions in the Musharakah.

Mudaraba Sukuk

Mudaraba is a certification that represents the ownership in dealing managed in the BASIC of Mudaraba. It is a subclass of Musharakah sukuk. In Mudaraba bonds, the spouse is appointed to move as the mudarib [ 1 ] . ( In Shaukat ‘s ( 2010 ) article, Common Structures of Sukuk, were described as “ Mudaraba means an understanding between two parties harmonizing to which one of the two parties provides the capital ( capital supplier ) for the other ( Mudarib ) to work with on the status that the net income is to be shared between them harmonizing to a pre-agreed ratio. ” ( P. 15 ) . ) Sukuk al-Mudaraba.png

Figure 7: The procedure of Mudaraba Sukuk

Stairss involved in the construction above are for the beginning is Mudarib enters into an understanding with undertaking proprietor for building or commissioning of undertaking. Second, SPV issues sukuk to raise financess. After that, Mudarib collects regular net income payments and concluding capital returns from undertaking activity for onward distribution to investors. Continually, upon completion, Mudarib hands over the finished undertaking to the proprietor.

1The entrepreneurial spouse in a Mudaraba partnership who provide the expertness and direction

Murabaha Sukuk

Murabaha is a peculiar sort of sale, compliant with shariah [ 1 ] . It is besides a sale of goods at a monetary value consisting the purchase monetary value plus a border of net income agreed upon by both parties concerned. Sukuk al-Murabaha is certifications of equal value issued for the intent of financing the purchase of goods through Murabaha so that the certification holders become proprietors of the Murabaha trade good ( Shaukat, 2010 ) . This Murabaha is similar in construction to lease or have an agreement. Furthermore, the intermediary retains ownership of the belongings until the loan is paid in full. It is really of import that to forestall riba [ 2 ] . Different Bankss use this instrument in changing the ratio.

The mediator can non be compensated in add-on to the agreed upon footings of the contract. In other word, if purchaser is late on payment, they can non bear down any late payment punishments. Besides that, it is besides one of the celebrated sukuk used by Islamic bank to advance the riba free dealing. Murabaha can be lawfully acceptable is merely executable in the primary market. It is non allow negotiate or trade in secondary market due to the permitted of sharia law. The Murabaha could be negociating when they are the smaller portion of a portfolio or a bundle. Murabaha sukuk are popular in Malayan market due to a more broad reading of fiqh [ 3 ] by Malayan legal experts allowing sale of debt ( bai-al-dayn ) at a negotiated monetary value [ 4 ] .

1Moral codification and spiritual jurisprudence of Islam 2Represent Interest 3Islamic law 4Source: Common Structure of Sukuks, Mughees Shaukat

Figure 8: The procedure of Murabaha Sukuk

Stairss involved in the figure at above are the procedure of Murabaha. At the beginning, a maestro understanding is signed between the SPV and the borrower. Second as the 2a and 2b above, SPV issues Sukuk to the investors and receive Sukuk returns. After that as 3a and 3b above, SPV buys trade good on spot footing from the trade good provider. Forth, as 4a and 4b showed above, SPV sells the trade good to the borrower at the topographic point monetary value plus a net income border, collectible on installments over an in agreement period of clip. Fifth, 5a and 5b above mean the borrower sells the trade good to the Commodity purchaser on topographic point footing. Last, the investors receive the concluding sale monetary value and net incomes. Sukuk al-Murabaha.png

Salam Sukuk

Salam is the sale of a specific trade good, it good definite by a certification of an equal value issued for the intent of mobilising Salam capital so that the good can be delivered on the BASIC of Salam come to the ownership of the certification holders. The issuer of the certifications is a marketer of the goods of Salam ; the endorsers are the purchasers of the goods, while the financess realized from subscription are the purchase monetary value ( Salam capital ) of the goods [ 1 ] . In other word, the proprietor of the Salam good is the holder of Salam certification. Overall in merely word, a contract in which beforehand payment is made for goods to be delivered subsequently on.

After that, the goods for this Salam sukuk can non be gold, Ag, or currencies based on these metals. One of the Shariah conditions for Salam is the demand that the purchased goods are non allow to re-sold before existent ownership at adulthood. Such minutess amount to merchandising of debt. Furthermore, this bound renders the Salam instrument illiquid and therefore reasonably less attractive to investors. Therefore, if investor expects monetary values of the implicit in trade good to be higher on the adulthood day of the month, the investor will purchase a Salam certification.

Sukuk al-Salam.png

Figure 9: The procedure of Salam Sukuk

1Source: Common Structure of Sukuks, Mughees Shaukat

Procedure at above involves several measure to depict the dealing of Salam sukuk. At the begining, SPV marks an project with an obligatory to beginning both trade goods and purchasers. The obligator contracts to purchase, on behalf of the end-Sukuk holders, the trade good and so to sell it for the net income of the Sukuk holders. Second, as shown at above mean Salam certifications are issued to investors and SPV receives Sukuk returns and 2b above shows that the Salam returns are passed onto the obligator who sells trade good on forward footing. After that, SPV receives the trade goods from the obligator. Last, 4a above shows that is a obligator, on behalf of Sukuk holders, sells the trade goods for a net income and 4b shows the Sukuk holders receive the trade good sale returns.

Al-Istisns Sukuk

Istisna sukuk is an understanding for fabricating good and trade goods. It is leting hard currency payment in progress and future bringing. In other word is future payment and future bringing. It besides can be usage for supplying the installations of industry funding or other building. Istisna sukuk are certifications that carry equal value and are issued with the purpose of mobilising the financess required for bring forthing merchandises that are owned by the certification holders ( Shaukat, 2010 ) .

Besides that, the issuer of the Istisna is the maker or provider while the purchaser of the intended merchandise is the endorser. It is rather utile for big funding substructure undertaking. After that, Shariah non let the sale of these debt certifications to a 3rd party at any monetary value other than their face value. It besides clearly such certifications can non be traded in the secondary market.

Figure 10: The procedure of Al-Istisna SukukSukuk al-Istisna.png

From the above is demoing the procedure of Istisna sukuk. In the figure have several stairss involved at above. First, the figure shows that SPV issues Sukuk certifications to raise financess for the undertaking. Second, Sukuk issue returns are used to pay the contractor/builder to construct and present the hereafter undertaking. Third, rubric to assets is transferred to the SPV. After that, 4a and 4b average belongings or undertaking is leased or sold to the terminal purchaser. The terminal purchaser pays monthly installments to the SPV Last but non least, the returns are distributed among the Sukuk holders.

Hybrid Sukuk

Sing the fact that Sukuk issue and trading are of import agencies of investing and taking into history the assorted demands of investors, a more diversified Sukuk – loanblend or assorted plus sukuk – emerged in the market [ 1 ] . In this sukuk, the underlying pool of assets can include of Istisna, while the Murabaha receivables every bit good as Ijarah. In other word, it holding a group of assets including the different of categories allows for a greater mobilisation of financess. However, for thr Murabaha and Istisna contracts can non be traded on secondary markets as securitized instruments due to the no permitted of sharia law. Because of the fact Murabaha and Istisna receivables are portion of the pool, the return on these certifications can merely be a pre-determined fixed rate of return.

Figure 11: The procedure of Hybrid SukukHybird Sukuk.png

Above is demoing the procedure of Hybrid sukuk. There are few stairss involved in the construction showed above. First, Islamic finance conceiver transportations touchable assets every bit good as Murabaha trades to the SPV. After that, SPV issues certifications of engagement to the Sukuk holders and have financess. The financess are used by the Islamic finance conceiver. Third, Islamic finance conceiver purchases these assets from the SPV over an in agreement period of clip and the last the investors receive fixed payment of return on the assets.

Companies who have offer Sukuk Bonds

Nowadays, an investing in Islamic capital market in Malaysia was highly demanding non merely by listed houses but besides unlisted houses. A Malayan capital market was developed based on two types of celebrated market which are stock markets and bond markets. Furthermore, Malaysia becomes to be leader state by publishing Islamic securities either Shariah compliant securities for listed houses in chief market or Islamic Sukuk bonds. Below is those companies which have offered Islamic Sukuk bonds.

Cagamas MBS Berhad

– Cagamas MBS Berhad ( Cagamas MBS ) naming its sukuks bonds on Bursa Malaysia at 2009. This marks Bursa Malaysia ‘s first listing of Ringgit Malaysia ( RM ) sukuk bonds.

Petronas Global Sukuk Ltd.

– Petronas ‘ sukuk is structured based on the globally accepted shariah rule of Ijarah.

GE Capital Sukuk Ltd.

-Sukuk bonds sold through GE Capital Sukuk Ltd. and the issue will be of a benchmark size since 2009.

CIMB Islamic Bank Berhad

-CIMB ‘ sukuk is Tier 2 Junior Sukuk Programme of up to RM2.0 Billion in Nominal Value.

Wakala Global Sukuk Berhad

-USD2.0 billion Trust certifications issued by Wakala Global Sukuk Berhad

Paka Capital Ltd

-Paka Capital Ltd offered a zero voucher exchangeable trust certifications since 2008.

Khazanah Nasional Berhad

-Offered a authorities guaranteed sukuk issue installation at 2009.

Danga Capital Berhad

-Offered a Ringgit- denominated Islamic securities and multi-currency denominated Islamic securities plan.

Rantau Abang Capital Berhad

-Offered an Islamic medium term notes issuance plan.

Sime Darby Berhad

– Sime Darby Berhad ‘s Islamic Programmes consisting an Islamic Medium Term Note Programme of RM4.5 billion and an Islamic Commercial Paper / Islamic Medium Term Note Programme of RM500 million with a Combined Master Limit of RM4.5 billion.

1Malaysia Sukuk Global Berhad

– USD1.25 billion Trust Certificates issued by 1Malaysia Sukuk Global Berhad, a particular intent vehicle established by the Government of Malaysia

AmIslamic Bank Berhad

– Senior Sukuk Musyarakah Programme of up to RM3.0 billion in nominal value

Tadamun Services Berhad

-Offered a Trust Certificate Issuance Programme of RM1.0 Billion

Malaysia Airports Capital Berhad

– The first tranche of Islamic medium term notes ( “ 1st IMTN Issuance ” ) of RM1.0 billion nominal value issued under the Islamic medium term notes programme

IDB Trust Services Limited

– Trust Certificate Issuance Programme of US $ 3.5 Billion at the rental rate of 1.775 %

Pulai Capital Limited

– USD357,800,000 Exchangeable Trust Certificates due 2019 exchangeable into ordinary portions of par value of HKD0.02 each of Parkson Retail Group Limited


Until today, Sukuk has now become the strongest portion in Islamic finance. It besides involved in the international market and generates a major cross-border flow of financess as may be achieved beyond domestic markets. The sukuk market is now maturating and there is an increasing impulse in the aftermath of involvement from issuers and investors.A Although it is strongest portion in Islamic finance, it still has to develop more and all states have the possible to spread out the function of Islamic finance.

Besides that, put on sukuk are the best investing for investors necessitating a fixed investing return with low hazard. Sukuk besides should be issued for new commercial and industrial ventures. If they are issued for construct up concerns, so the sukuk must do certain that sukuk holders have full ownership in existent assets. There are different type of sukuk constructions and have been lifting over the old ages but most of the sukuk issue to day of the month hold been ijarah sukuk. Since they are based on the undivided pro-rata ownership of the underlying chartered plus, it is freely tradable at par, premium or price reduction.

The tradability of the sukuk makes them more attractive in the secondary market. Although there is less common than Ijarah sukuk, other types of sukuk are besides playing of import function in emerging markets to assist issuers and investors likewise to take part in major undertakings. The independent sukuk issues, following Malaysias lead are basking common and positive acclamation among Muslim investors and planetary institutional investors in a similar manner. Last but non least, sukuk bonds are playing an of import function non merely for Islamic. It will be really popular among the worldwide in approaching twelvemonth.


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