The Current Energy Situation In Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

There is an increasing consciousness worldwide on the demand to populate and move sustainably ; this is being applied to virtually all domains of human life and activities. Though natural gas is one of the conventional dodo fuels, it is really less polluting compared to others and its handiness in Nigeria is what makes it a feasible campaigner in this survey which focuses on the state.

Energy being an of import demand to transport out most day-to-day activities comes into consideration. The current energy state of affairs in Nigeria is that which calls for major concerns as there is small or close to nil that is sustainable about it. Abundant natural gas resources is being wasted ( flared ) in the state and this is a rich beginning of energy which can be used to augment the spreads in the energy state of affairs in the state every bit good as cut down the environmental impact of gas flaring. This study examines the ways and agencies by which the natural gas can be put to utilize to accomplish ethical, energy and environmental sustainability to fulfill the hereafter needs of energy of the state.

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1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background

Natural gas is one of the taking traditional energy beginnings for distributed coevals. Because of the big proved militias and the environmental benefits of utilizing natural gas, it should be made one of the prima picks for power coevals and a beginning of energy in Nigeria. Natural gas is a mixture of gases ( The chief ingredient in natural gas is methane ) that formed from the dodo remains of antediluvian workss and animate beings buried deep in the Earth. Methane is a molecule made up of one C atom and four H atoms. Its chemical expression is CH4 ( API, 2009 ) .

1.2 Natural gas militias in Nigeria

Proven militias statistics show Nigeria to be the largest in Africa as shown in Figure 1 and the 8th Largest in the universe with 185.4 trillion three-dimensional pess shown in Figure 2 ( BP Statistical reappraisal of universe energy 2010 ) . Nigeria ‘s proved militias of Natural gas is more than one tierce of the whole militias in Africa but unluckily a ample sum of it is flared due to the unavailability/inadequate substructure for its processing and use. The gas militias are distributed 50-50 % for both associated gas ( AG ) and non-associated gas ( NAG ) ( Sonibare and Akeredolu, 2004 ) .

Figure 1: World natural gas militias by Geographic part, 2009 ( Beginning: EIA International Energy Statistics ) .

Combustion of natural gas which is a comparatively clean fuel and the lowest in C intensive dodo fuels ( Lom and Williams, 1976 ) gives lesser pollution and therefore in pollution potency is lower when compared with others, but this can be of environmental concern besides if the pattern were uninterrupted and in immense proportions. This is the instance in flame uping activities in Nigerian upstream crude oil operations.

Figure 2: Top proven Natural Gas modesty holders, 2010 ( Beginning: Oil and Gas Journal 2010 )

The chief merchandises released when natural gas is burned are carbon dioxide, H2O vapor and few particulates. Coal and oil are more chemically complex than natural gas, so when burned they release a assortment of potentially harmful chemicals such as sulfur oxides, partly oxidized hydrocarbons, C monoxide, carbon black other solid compounds and inorganic fly ash into the air. Nigeria being a high ranking state with proved militias, there is non adequate substructure for the use if Natural gas in Nigeria. The majority of its energy ingestion still come from single coevals and this can take many signifiers and most of this signifiers use fossil fuels which are a major beginning of pollution which in bend cause environmental clime alteration. Figure 3 shows how more frequently ( local ) the usage combustibles which does non merely give up nursery gases ( methane and CO2 ) , but besides particulate which is one of the primary beginnings of respiratory wellness issues which is prevailing in the rural parts of the state.

Figure 3: Entire Energy Consumption in Nigeria by type 2007 ( Beginning: International Energy Agency )

The call for a sustainable development has been of a great concern and with the current power state of affairs in Nigeria, the state of affairs in the state soon name for concern as majorly all of the signifiers of power coevals are those which are of a great environmental debasement. Due to the current province of irregular electricity supply in the state, people ever end up holding to come up with their ain sort of power and energy coevals merely to augment supply from the national grid which is normally fickle. The single power coevals types chiefly used are outlined as follows:

Use of gasolene generators for electricity production ( domestic and industrial )

Use of fossil fuels to run mechanical machines ( industrial )

Burning of biomass, combustibles and wastes for cookery ( chiefly rural )

Kerosene ranges for cookery ( A really little fraction of the whole population usage Gas cookers, usage of electric cooker is non effectual with the epileptic electricity supply )

1.3 Environmental concerns of Natural gas Flaring

It should be noted that all of these procedures give out emanations and these procedures could hold been avoided if the natural gas militias of the state are good utilized in the countries of power coevals which can now be used as a beginning of energy for most of the other processes either domestic or industrial. Natural gas production in the state is presently standing at 3.5 billion three-dimensional pess per twenty-four hours ( 37 % being Non-associated gas and 63 % Associated gas ) , a little fraction of this is used domestically with the available engineering and substructure and the remainder is exported. Of the entire day-to-day gas production, about 17 % is re-injected, 33 % used commercially and the staying 50 % is flared as presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Natural gas production and ingestion in Nigeria

Appellation

Quantity ( million M3 )

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Net production ( one-year )

Associated gas

20,002

19,341

21,961

24,053

23,429

Non-associated gas

11,747

11,359

12,898

14,127

13,760

Disposition ( one-year )

Re-injection

4200

4000

4000

4000

4253

Domestic market

5900

1000

6510

6780

6220

Exported ( LNG )

5950

5950

8900

8900

Shrinking

750

900

1200

1700

2000

Flaring

20,900

18,850

17,200

16,800

15,607

Beginning: NLNG ( 2003 ) , OPEC ( 2002 ) , and NEPA ( 2003 )

Since the gas produced is of both associated and non-associated, the 50 % flared translated to about 75 % of entire AG produced. At this rate operation in the gas commercialisation and flame uping the state is losing appreciable amounts of money running into 1000000s of dollars and besides non burying the clime alteration hazard being posed by the uninterrupted gas flaring activities ; this flaring activity has earned the state a 2nd place among states with the highest volume of gas flared ( Sonibare and Akeredolu, 2004 ) .Currently standing at following to Russia as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Gas Flaring 2008 ( Beginning: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration )

Gas flame uping gives emanation of assorted nursery gases and besides particulates ; these are parts of the major concerns for the current clime alteration and planetary heating. Useful energy which could hold been used in the country of power coevals is being wasted and other C intensive procedures used and this represents given up to the environment emanations ( from two major beginnings ) which could hold been handily being from one beginning and this being by the usage of natural gas as the major power coevals fuel and so an efficient distribution procedure to all power and energy users.

1.4 Existing Natural gas undertakings ( NLNG )

The Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas ( NLNG ) Ltd is the largest natural gas use undertaking in Nigeria. It is located in Bonny Island in the oil-rich southern portion of the state. It is jointly owned by Agip ( 10.4 % ) , Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation ( NNPC ) ( 49 % ) , Shell ( 25.6 % ) , and TotaFinaElf ( 15 % ) . There are a sum of 5 trains with trains 1 and 2 get downing operations in September 1999, the bulk providing the Europe and US markets and by the terminal of 2005, 3 more trains came on board which shoot up production to 28million three-dimensional metres per twenty-four hours, and of this entire sum merely 30 % of AG is used besides obvious is the fact that the company was non set up to function the domestic market. To farther corroborate this point was the late completed Escravos gas works enlargement in late 2009, the works is expected to increase the day-to-day processing capacity by about 300million three-dimensional pess but fundamentally for exportation ( Chevron 2010 ) .

2.0 CURRENT ENERGY AND POWER SITUATIONS IN NIGERIA

2.1 Introduction

Both the environmental and economic grounds should be the chief thrust behind the discontinuity of natural gas modus operandi flairs in Nigeria, which are yet to be to the full implemented or operational. Besides the uneffective Torahs forbiding the uninterrupted flair of natural gas has been seen as one of the grounds why the companies involved in the oil production in the state to continuously transport on with the flaring of natural gas which they are merely needed to pay a certain sum of money to go on flaring of natural gas, therefore the companies have found an easier and economic manner to travel by merely paying the levy which was every bit low as N 10.00 ( 0.46 US $ equality ) per 28 three-dimensional meters in January 1998 ( Odubela and Omoniyi 1996 in sonibare ) . Soon, the punishment that oil companies ‘ wage at the minute is $ 3.50 per 1,000 three-dimensional pess of gas flared ( Reuters, 2009 ) .

2.2 Natural gas in industrial usage

A really few subdivision of industries in the eastern and western parts of the state is supplied by the present gas distribution webs and this have been in topographic point as far back as the state ‘s independency merchandising gas to industries in Port Harcourt in the southern portion of the state. The bulk of this distribution webs is owned by Nigerian Gas Company ( NGC ) . Escravos to Lagos Pipeline system ( ELPS ) is about 514km in length and supplies industries in the western parts of Ikeja-Lagos and a few more in the Agbara-Ota axis which was connected in 2003. This is still an undistinguished sum sing the figure of industries which could hold been connected to the web if it was equally distributed all around the state. As a consequence of the limited domestic market for gas and the high cost associated with gas development ( coupled with the low levies ) , the oil companies runing in the state have refused to ship on a serious gas development plan which would be of a great benefit to the state and a beginning of major cut in the emanation capacity of the state which is the right manner to travel for a sustainable development to be achieved.

The nature of natural gas around which current use undertakings are centred is besides of a great concern ; though in most instances NAG supply is required as modesty for feedstock back up whenever juncture demands, some bing undertakings place small trust on AG. Hence, bing undertakings hold small range for absorbing flared gas, but with merely a small intervention, AG will merely be every bit utile as NAG and with the universe environmental concern for emanation such a small intervention if overlooked and gas flared the degree of the GHG in the ambiance additions.

2.3 Power coevals

The state ‘s major electricity manufacturer ( National Electric Power Authority, NEPA ) is another major consumer of natural gas in thermic Stationss devouring a sum of about 36million three-dimensional metres per twenty-four hours for bring forthing 3410MW of electricity at the Stationss ‘ best public presentation. Unfortunately, these Stationss are ever in a hapless province which makes this unachievable. In most instances, these Stationss are ever down and non bring forthing. A few independent power manufacturer ( IPP ) have been approved to bring forth electricity which will utilize appreciable feedstock of natural gas and when all these Stationss are to the full operational they will bring forth 5682MW but with the current insufficiencies of these Stationss and some of the sanctioned IPP yet to get down production the entire power coevals of the state staggers between 2000MW and 2500MW, this is outlined in Table 2. With the state ‘s power projection of day-to-day demand of 1000MW by 2007, there is demand for a thrust for greater investing into the usage of AG and NAG likewise in the power coevals and besides other engineerings to affect the usage of Natural gas as beginning of power, this will cut down emanation in footings of flaring and lesser emanation when burnt in power coevals unlike other fossil fuels.

Table 2: Electricity coevals Stationss in Nigeria ( May, 2003 )

Station

Year of commissioning

Class

Capacity ( MW )

Installed

Current

% of installed capacity

Ijora

1956

Thermal

60

0

0

Kainji

1968

Hydro

760

230

30.3

Afam I-IV

1963

Thermal

710

2681

37.8

Delta I-IV

1991

Thermal

600

463

77.2

Jebba

1985

Hydro

540.4

199

36.8

Egbin

1987

Thermal

1320

959

72.7

Shiroro

1990

Hydro

600

179

3.0

Sapele

1978

Thermal

1020

75.0

7.4

Entire

5610

2213

39.5

Beginning: NEPA ( 2003 )

2.4 Petroleum Refineries

Aside power coevals, another major job in the energy sector of the state is the refined crude oil merchandises ( downstream fuel ) supply, at optimal operation the 4 refineries in the state have a entire capacity of 445,000 bpd ( barrels per twenty-four hours ) of petroleum oil to bring forth, 14million liters of PMS ( Premium motor spirit ) and 24million liters of other refined merchandises ( including AGO-Automotive gas and oils and DPK-Dual purpose kerosine ) and this caters for merely about 38 % of the day-to-day demand of these merchandises. Table 3 shows the production capacities of the refineries. Using the flared natural gas to make full this energy supply spreads as identified both in this state of affairs and power coevals would be of a greater benefit towards a sustainable environment and sing the distribution of natural gas would be through grapevines ( onshore and offshore ) makes it less prone to recreation as it is in the instance of liquid fuels which ever consequences in unreal scarceness ; this of class due to the deficit of supplies and this would be eliminated with utilizing the natural gas as a complement to the energy supplies locally. Government finding to increase the local usage of natural gas should be directed towards promoting more private investors into natural gas use undertakings and will shortly be a good starting point in accomplishing this purpose.

Investing in the development of natural gas-fired thermic Stationss to bring forth electricity should be encouraged. This coupled with other utilizations of such as usage for domestic cookery and industrial utilizations ( which will be discussed subsequently ) will be a good manner to increase the domestic market development of natural gas, this will in bend cut down flame uping and subsequent obliteration as advancement is being made in engineering and increased demand in local supply.

Table 3: Nigeria ‘s refinery production capacity

Refinery

Year of commissioning

Capacity ( bpd )

Installed

Average production

Port Harcourt 1

1964

60,000

30,660

Warri

1978

125,000

76,100

Kaduna

1988

110,000

40,100

Port Harcourt 2

1991

150,000

94,500

Entire

445,000

241,360

Beginning: NNPC ( 2002 )

3.0 USING NATURAL GAS TO FILL THE GAPS

3.1 Use of CNG in autos

Nigeria should fall in in the increasing usage of autos that run on tight natural gas ( CNG ) . There have been an increasing figure of autos that run on natural gas alternatively of gasolene. There are about 130000 of such autos in the United States of America and about 2million worldwide ( PGE, 2003 ) . The natural gas used in this instance is compressed into particular high force per unit area cylinders to acquire more of the gas into a smaller volume. This is called tight natural gas. Some other types of autos run on Liquefied Natural gas ( LNG ) which is made by refrigerating natural gas to distill it into liquid. This liquid is denser and hence has more sum of energy stored per unit of infinite, this implies that more energy can be obtained by utilizing the same sum of infinite. This is an of import consideration for the efficient and economic usage of energy.

The abundant gas resources in Nigeria can be used as a agency to augment the supply insufficiencies of the liquid crude oil sector and besides be a agency of cut downing the environmental impact of gas flaring. Cars fuelled by natural gas tally cleaner than other vehicles. When compared with other autos that run on Diesel or gasolene, they produce much less sums of pollutants and costs less to keep. Natural gas is besides a comparatively inexpensive fuel bing less than gasolene and Diesel ( PGE, 2003 ) .

Though the sum of natural gas that will be required at the initial phase of this may be really little thereby holding a really little consequence on gas flaring activities. If this civilization is maintained and more autos dependant on natural gas are brought on watercourse, this will decidedly cut down badly the wastes associated with gas flaring.

3.2 Natural gas for cooking

Natural gas can be used as the chief beginning of cooking in Nigeria, with the current method is Liquefied Petroleum gas ( LPG ) being made available in bottles and the monetary value is normally non stable due to the inefficient statute law and execution by the regulative organic structure established by the Petroleum Equalization fund act of 1975 and besides due to the non-compliance of major distributers ( Thisday, 2011 ) . Making natural gas available to places through a good dispersed grapevine distribution web will convey about an addition in the current figure of consumers of Natural gas for cooking. This can be started either with a pilot undertaking get downing from either the province capitals merely, with metropoliss with populations of over 40,000 or from the bing 11 territories in the NEPA distribution web. The geographical location of the state does non do infinite warming required in any portion of the state throughout the twelvemonth so the chief supply of natural gas to places will be fundamentally for cooking.

Air pollution in the state is going dismaying with the increasing usage of wood waste as a agency of fuel for cookery ( Dionco-Adetayo, 2001 ; Tabuti et al. , 2003 ) owing to the attendant scarceness of kerosine and this has led to a uninterrupted addition in deforestation ( Dzioubinski and Chipman, 1999 ) , since wood ( wood wastes ) has now become the available fuel ( Adeoti et al. 2001 ) . The act of deforestation is decidedly damaging to the environment as the wood is a sink for C via the biological procedure of photosynthesis ; CO2 is taken off from the ambiance. With this in head, there is a demand to stop this procedure if clime alteration and its issue of toxicant emanations are to be abated in the state. Increased usage of natural gas would be an available manner out of this current province of unsustainability. Focus on the enlargement of the natural gas grapevine web in the state will be a good start towards a sustainable development and this will excite the addition in the usage of natural gas as a agency of cooking in places.

Harmonizing to the CIA World fact Book 2003, Nigeria has a sum of 193,200km of route web both paved and unpaved, about 3000km and 2042km of grapevines for crude oil and rough oil severally and 3505km of railroad lines. Current gas grapevine web is merely approximately 1100km and there is demand for a purpose goaded docket to hold more places connected to the gas grapevine webs. A pilot stage could be a good manner to get down out the undertaking. Gas grapevines are normally buried deep down into the Earth to cut down the hazards of detonation and this besides reduces the chance of it being diverted to do unreal scarceness as it is the instance for liquid fuels which are normally transported in oilers.

3.3 Natural gas for electricity power coevals

The majority of the gas flared in the state is produced in the geographic expedition of rough oil ( associated gas ) . Rather than flame uping this gas, it can be used in the coevals of electricity. During the 1970 ‘s and 80 ‘s, big electricity bring forthing workss were powered by coal or atomic beginnings but a displacement in engineering, environmental and economic policies has made natural gas the new coveted fuel. Natural gas can be used as a chief beginning of electricity coevals to supplement the current unsteady power state of affairs in the state. About half of the state ‘s electric power generating workss are hydro powered and with the geographical location of the state, these workss ever have terrible beads in power generated during the dry ( harmattan ) season. Existing power Stationss need to be revamped and new Independent power undertakings ( IPP ) brought on board. These inspection and repairs and delivery of new workss on board should guarantee that the workss are designed to work with associated gas. This will likely be the highest consumer of gas. When this is successfully implemented, the state is non merely salvaged from the usual power cuts but besides cut downing the environmental effects of gas flaring. In order for this undertaking to be successful, the grapevine web in the state needs to be increased to let for the gas fired power bring forthing installations to be decentralised and let for less loss in the transmittal of electricity over long distances. Each province of the federation can come up with a gas fired works in order to run into its local demands and appreciable sum of gas flared will travel into this and about extinguish flaring of associated gas if non wholly.

4.0 Discussion

The basic consideration of utilizing natural gas for cooking in Nigeria can be predicated on the figure of family and the sum of cooking done daily. Sonibare and Akeredolu analysed in 2006, the usage of natural gas for cooking in places was based on three scenarios and each instance being a theoretical account for a pilot phase on which enlargements and larger graduated tables can be considered.

The first instance considered the usage of gas in all places for cooking in the province capitals. Each place was estimated to hold 6 members and with a demand of 263kg of coal equivalent per twelvemonth, this is about 0.5m3 per twenty-four hours for each family ( utilizing thermic equality ) . About 2 million families are calculated to be in these capital metropoliss. This will devour about 1 million M3s per twenty-four hours of natural gas.

The 2nd instance was based on linking all metropoliss with a population of above 40000 to the gas web, with the same statistics of individuals per family and demand. This increased the figure of metropoliss to 103 with 4.8 million families expected to utilize about 1.4 million M3s per twenty-four hours of natural gas. The last scenario considered was that, as proposed earlier sing the usage of natural gas in all the NEPA territories. This addition furthers the figure of families that will be connected to the web and an estimated 1.7 million M3s per twenty-four hours of natural gas will be consumed instead than flared.

Table 4 lineations the usage of natural gas for these 3 scenarios and from this tabular array it can be seen that as more families are served by the gas web for cooking intents more of the natural gas otherwise flared will be put to utilize as a beginning of energy. This will in bend lessening the GHG emanations to the ambiance.

Table 4: Scenarios for domestic natural gas ingestion via cookery.

Scenario

Number of Households

Potential Daily ingestion ( M3 )

State Capitals

2,026,247

1,092,922

Cities with population greater than 40,000

2,677,707

1,444,307

NEPA Districts

3,175,502

1,712,810

Table 4 summarises a inside informations informations presented in the appendix as Tables 5, 6 and 7, which is a dislocation of the populations, families and the possible volume of gas that will be used under each circumstance as examined. The sum of gas that will be consumed in this practise depends on the figure of families that were able to be served by the grapevine web. For case, Lagos shows a really drastic addition in the volume of gas consumed as more families were served. This is a representation of the fact that there is demand to hold the gas grapevine web making more countries of the state and more families served to hold a decrease in the volume of gas flared and therefore reduced environmental debasement.

To farther stress this, Figure 5 below shows the degree of ingestion of gas in proportion to the figure of families take parting in each of the scenarios.

Figure 5: Domestic natural gas ingestion via cookery

In add-on to natural gas usage in places for cookery, it can besides be used in the coevals of electricity and this is a justified means to halt the environmental threat of flaring every bit good as give a stable beginning of power to the state. This can be achieved from the enlargement of the grapevine web in the state. The province authoritiess can be involved in the coevals of electricity by get downing up mini-plants of each about 120MW, with the 36 provinces in the federation this will bring forth a sum of 4320MW of electricity utilizing up 45 million M3 of natural gas per twenty-four hours. Traveling a measure farther in this is the acquisition of power workss by each of the 6 geo-political zones in the state. If each of these 6 workss produces 360MW, there is more 4320MW of electricity utilizing up another 45 million M3 of natural gas per twenty-four hours. Though this will necessitate some more gas than that being flared but NAG can be used to augment this shortage and the power coevals capacity of the state lifting to 8640MW.

The usage of natural gas as a vehicle fuel is non expected to hold every bit much impact on the sum of gas being flared but environmentally this is non a bootless attempt. This is based on the fact of natural gas being a much less fouling fuel than other fossil fuels. A measure in the right way will be the creative activity of gas refill service points to function the transposing populace.

4.1 Economic and Environmental loss

Nigeria benefits from considerable oil investing grosss but this does non interpret into economic prosperity and energy security for its citizens. Energy poorness is still as issue of great concern in the state with the oil and gas companies non undertaking these issues head on, they do non work the available chances of the natural gas militias in the state every bit good as the renewables.

Gas flaring has gone on for decennaries in Nigeria ; this is with several unsuccessful efforts to stop the pattern by Government and its bureaus. The paltry amounts paid as mulcts by companies has been seen as one of the grounds why the act of gas flaring is traveling on still in Nigeria which has already been established to hold negative impacts on both human wellness and the environment. There have been calls to do companies that continue in this act to pay mulcts equal to the volume of gas flared harmonizing to the predominating international gas market monetary value. Calls like this and several others as made in the recommendations for the amendment of the Bill on Associated gas re-injection ( act No 99 of 1979 and crest A25 Torahs of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004 ) has non been pursued to a logical decision and this has continually made the companies to go on to neglect on the deadlines to halt flaring of natural gas ( 234Next intelligence, 2010 ) . Flaring of associated gas has gone on from the beginning of oil production in the southern portion of the state. A sum of 2.5 billion three-dimensional pess ( over 70 million M3 ) of gas is flared per twenty-four hours ( Reuters, 2007 ) and this represents 40 % of the one-year gas production and 12.5 % of the gas flared globally ( EIA ) . This has earned the state the 2nd place with the highest gas flaring in the universe after Russia. An estimated sum of 2.5 billion dollars is lost yearly due to gas flaring, this could hold been gross channelled to the proviso of societal substructure for the public. In add-on to this economic loss, about 70 million metric tons of CO2 is let into the ambiance due to gas flaring and these calls for an environmental concern owing to the impacts of clime alteration ( FOE, 2004 and Shaad & A ; Wilson, 2009 ) .

The flaring of gas in Nigeria has been recorded to lend more nursery gases to the ambiance than other beginnings in sub-Saharan Africa all together. Rather than this being used as a beginning of fuel it is burnt away and nobody benefits form the energy contained in the fuel instead representing environmental debasement, this was described by Friend of the Environment ( FOE ) in 2004 as an unneeded subscriber to climate alteration. Visibly being felt in the part now is the impact of clime alteration such as nutrient insecurity, increasing hazards of diseases and intense conditions harm.

4.2 Ethical Considerations

Ethically talking the high flammability and hazard factors of the Natural gas may do it an unacceptable path in its use as a major signifier of energy supply in places and other public-service corporations but if good managed and with proper precautional steps in topographic point, natural gas will be a really convenient and good start in the journey towards a sustainable hereafter for the state.

Harmonizing to Frynas ( 2009 ) , companies are expected to assist more in the resolution of the many pressing jobs of the universe, a major one being climate alteration. The corporate societal duties ( CSR ) of companies are seen as a manner of turn toing the impacts of its societal and environmental activities. There has been an increased sabotage in the southern portion of the state, this is due to the fact that the occupants and dwellers of this rough oil bearing part claim to hold nil in return. There is a broad proclaimed fact that if the companies put in some more attempt into its CSR in these parts, sabotage will be eliminated. Reports show that local communities and small towns populating around this part still rely on wood for fuel and taper sticks for visible radiation ( FOE, 2004 ) .

The flaring of natural gas releases toxic substances to the ambiance such as benzine and particulates, this is in add-on to the potent nursery gas methane. Benzene and particulates have been said to destruct the human immune system and besides increases the hazard of acerb rain. Children in this part have been reported with instances of respiratory unwellnesss, asthma and malignant neoplastic disease because of the activities of the gas flaring and oil geographic expedition ( BBC, 2009 ) . Families that live on fishing and agribusiness as a agency of support have been rendered helpless besides because of the negative impacts of these activities on fishes and flora ( Shaad and Wilson, 2009 ) . Among these is the rise in temperature of H2O organic structures which is destructive to the aquatic flora. There are besides instances of spillage from gas Fieldss which contaminates the H2O organic structures.

The laying of the belowground grapevines is another country in which there will be a possible difference. Taking for case the adversity that people will hold to travel through and all other incommodiousnesss but this is surely a necessary hurting to hold to bask the good dividends that natural gas usage will convey to the energy state of affairs of the state. An illustration was in the instance of the laying of the dedicated Bus Rapid Transit ( BRT ) lane in Lagos province but the strivings and incommodiousnesss were shortly forgotten when the strategy started and it really did ease a batch on traffic on the main road with people choosing to travel more with the public BRT coachs.

Another major ethical issue of great concern is the peculiar involvement of the oil houses in the state concentrating on the exportation of LNG. The current energy state of affairs in the state does non do the exportation of energy resources a sensible path to provide. With the ongoing energy crises, citizens are coping to hold stable beginnings of energy. There is demand to hold in topographic point an efficient and proper statute law to hold energy resources exported merely when the demands of the domestic market is met.

Decision

Achieving ethical, energy and environmental sustainability in Nigeria for future demands of energy is decidedly an issue that is meant to be pushed to the head of the state ‘s development docket. This is as a affair of fact one of the stepping rocks to speed uping the development of the state as it concerns its industrial development and domestic satisfaction of its citizens in footings of energy supply and environmental quality.

Natural gas being a readily available beginning of energy and a comparatively less polluting dodo fuel is expected to be a great start for the state in order to fulfill its energy demands. It is besides of import to stress here that a ample sum of the environmental debasement of the state will be reduced if the natural gas that is otherwise being flared Idaho put to a wise usage to better the energy state of affairs in the state.

Attempts to decide the “ uneconomical ” flaring of the natural gas in Nigeria failed due to inefficient statute law. The paltry mulcts being paid by the companies involved in this act coupled with the inaccessibility of substructure depending on associated gas ( which is most of what is being flared ) has been some of the grounds for the uninterrupted flaring of natural gas in the state. Domestic ingestion ( industrial and electricity coevals ) , export as LNG and re-injection are some of the current use of natural gas in Nigeria but largely depend on non-associated gas and has non been of any major aid to hold gas flaring which is an environmental threat.

The usage of natural gas for cookery is obviously non a immense consumer of the fuel but the decreased environmental jobs in the state will do this a worthwhile venture. Its usage for electricity coevals is expected to hold a immense impact on the energy state of affairs every bit good as the betterment of the environmental quality but the requirement to this will be the enlargement of the grapevine web to the assorted parts of the state.

Mentions

234Next News. 2010. Ending gas flaring may destroy economic system, says bureau. Nigeria Daily News [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //ndn.nigeriadailynews.com/templates/ ? a=28031 [ assessed 03/12/2010 ]

.Adenikinju A.F, 2003, Electric substructure failures in Nigeria: a survey-based analysis of the costs and accommodations responses, Energy Policy 31 ( 2003 ) , pp. 1519-1530

Adeoti O. , Idowu D.O.O. and Falegan T.. 2001. Could fuel wood usage contribute to household poorness in Nigeria? Biomass and Bioenergy 21 ( 2001 ) , pp. 205-210.

Andrew Walker, 2009. Nigeria ‘s gas net incomes “ up in fume ” . BBC News, Nigeria. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7820384.stm [ assessed 01/12/2010 ]

BP Statistical reappraisal of World Energy 2010

Chevron Nigeria Factsheet 2010

CIA, 2010. The World Fact Book 2010. Cardinal Intelligence Agency, USA. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html [ Assessed 13/10/2010 ]

Dionco-Adetayo E.A.. 2001, Utilization of wood wastes in Nigeria: a feasibleness overview, Technovation 21 ( 2001 ) , pp. 55-60.

Dzioubinski, O. and Chipman, R. , 1999. Tendencies in ingestion and production: family energy ingestion. DESA. Discussion Paper ST/ESA/1999/DP.6, United Nations, 21pp

Friends of the Earth ( FOE ) , 2004. Gas flaring in Nigeria. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.foe.co.uk/resource/media_briefing/gasflaringinnigeria.pdf [ Assessed 01/12/2010 ]

Frynas J.G. 2009. Corporate societal duty in the oil and gas sector. Journal of World Energy, Law and Business Volume 2, No 3. pp 178-192

Kojima, 2001, Breathing clean: sing the switch to natural gas coachs. World Bank Technical Report. No. 516, The World Bank, Washington, DC ( 2001 ) p. 64.

Lom W.L. and Williams A.F. 1976. Substitute natural gas: industry and belongingss. London: Applied Science Publishers.

Natural Gas Supply Association, 2004. Electric Generation utilizing Natural Gas, [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.naturalgas.org/overview/uses_eletrical.asp [ Assessed 13/10/2010 ]

Nigeria LNG [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nlng.com/NLNGnew/default [ Assessed 21/11/10 ]

Pacific gas and electric company ( PGE, 2003 ) Natural Gas vehicles. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pge.com/microsite/safety_esw_ngsw/ngsw/more/vehicles.html [ Assessed 19/10/2010 ]

Reuters, 2007. Oil houses resist Nigerian mulcts for gas flaring. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/idUSL0486900120071204? pageNumber=2 [ assessed 01/12/2010 ]

Reuters, 2009. Nigeria Senate passes tougher jurisprudence to stop gas flaring. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //in.reuters.com/article/idINL234198520090702 [ assessed 28/12/10 ]

Shaad, B. and E. Wilson ( 2009 ) ‘Access to Sustainable Energy: What Role for International Oil and Gas Companies? Focus on Nigeria ‘ , IIED, London.

Sonibare J.A. , and Akeredolu F.A.. 2004. Natural gas domestic market development for entire riddance of everyday flairs in Nigeria ‘s upstream crude oil operations Journal: Energy Policy Volume 34, Issue 6, April 2006, Pages 743-753

Thisday, 2011. Nigeria: Supplication to Domesticate Cooking Gas Pricing. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //allafrica.com/stories/201101050624.html [ Assessed 05/01/2011 ]

US Energy Information Administration ( EIA ) [ on-line ] Available at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Nigeria/NaturalGas.html [ Assessed 14/11/2010 ]

Uses of Natural gas, API 2009 [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.api.org/aboutoilgas/natgas/uses.cfm [ Assessed 13/10/2010 ]

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