The Criminal Justice System And The Accused Criminology Essay

When an accused is brought before the condemnable justness system, accused, tried and convicted of a offense or many offenses, over a period of clip or possibly merely one really ill-famed title, there is ever a question from the populace and even the individuals within the condemnable justness system. The chief question is normally with regard to their background ; what type of childhood did they hold? Were they abused, neglected or mistreated? What type of parents did they hold? and how did they behave at school? . If the offense committed is peculiarly flagitious, so psychological and psychiatric analysis and observations are conducted to bring out all and any relevant information on their yesteryear and feelings. Most times the person ‘s yesteryear is being examined for grounds of aberrant behavior, strained household relationships, mental instability or upsets and unstable household construction. In most instances it is born out that there were some major job factors in these individual ‘s childhood which has led them to a life of offense. The worse the offense or methods used to transport out the offense the worse the narratives of their childhood and so it seems to bespeak that someplace buried in the roots of our childhood are the causes of the grownup condemnable behavior. Harmonizing to Husemann, Eron and Dubow ( 2002 ) aggressive behavior in the childhood old ages is a good index of aggressive, anti-social and condemnable grownup behavior. However, some of these factors which produce the jobs of big criminalism can perchance be present in kids and may travel unnoticed because the kid is able to conceal the job, this feature would be seeable in those big felons who were deemed to “ ne’er have done a bad thing all their life ” but all of a sudden exhibits condemnable behavior.

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There are many lending factors which may take from childhood behavior jobs to adult criminalism nevertheless they can be categorized into two chief groups of hazard factors which are one. ) person or familial ( nature ) features and two ) household or environmental ( raising ) features ( Farrington 1989, 1991 ; Hawkings et Al 1991, 1998 ; Lipsey and Derzon 1998 ; Reiss and Roth 1993 ; McCoord 1994 ; Tremblay and Carig 1995 ; Rotter et al 1998 ; Tremblay 2000 cited in Hee-Soon 2006 ) . It has been held that kids who learn force in their places, where a parent is abused or is opprobrious towards the kid or in their societal environment, hapless vicinities where packs are a world and where endurance of the fittest is a day-to-day modus operandi, carry that rhythm of force with them through their life and it is normally manifested as aggression, similar violent or anti-social behavior or perchance internalized hatred or choler. Both males and females who experience childhood hazard factors have the potency to go big felons ; nevertheless the per centum of females who really become big felons from these predisposing childhood factors is much lower than their male opposite numbers ( Panko 2005 ; Hee-Soon, Doherty and Ensminger 2006 ) , because females have the ability to impart some of these factors into other psychological issues which are dealt with in a different mode and which express themselves in less condemnable manners ( Panko 2005 ) . In the undermentioned paragraphs some of these factors will be examined to demo how they can be the causal agents of grownup condemnable behavior.

Literature has no record of any peculiar cistron, like the cistrons which determines tallness or hair coloring materials, that determine if the person will be a condemnable or non and that like any other cistron can be manipulated ( turned off or on ) once it is isolated. Therefore it can be safely said that there is no existent cistron which make an person a felon, nevertheless cistrons do play a really of import function. Joseph ( 2001 p.182 cited in Jones 2005 ) stated that in the late nineteenth to early 20th century genetic sciences was held accountable for offenses which were committed and there was even a sterilisation attempt to guarantee the disappearing of “ felons, imbeciles, idiots and rapers ” from society. Genes are responsible for human behavior and besides for most psychological unwellnesss, such as, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) , Conduct Disorder ( Cadmium ) and Oppositional Defiance Disorder ( ODD ) in which the features which manifest themselves in the childhood old ages have carried through to the grownup old ages ( Holmes, Slaughter and Kashani, 2001cited in Jones 2005 ) . While these are non the lone familial based personality upsets which may predispose a kid to adult criminalism the encompass many of the lesser personality upsets which are besides observed as being grounds for this job.

ODD involves behaviours, such as non-compliance and resistance ( Emond 2007, Holmes, Slaughter and Kashani 2001 cited in Jones 2005 ) , which is preponderantly directed against authorization figures ( Emond et al. 2007 ) , while ADHD kids are hyper-active both physically and mentally and are unable to maintain their concentration trained on one idea, occupation or activity for any drawn-out period. Children with CD behave in a similar mode to those with ODD, where they are seen to be moving against regulations, ordinances and social guidelines/norms. These personality upsets are formed as a consequence of a alteration in the 5-hydroxytryptamine degrees in the blood ( Caron 1999 ) and are the primary nexus in the instability of the kids confronted with these issues. Most kids tend to hold all three behavioural jobs which is so classified under the header of Antisocial Personality Disorder ( ASPD ) , this continues to decline as the kid moves into grownup old ages and manifest itself in condemnable actions. ASPD decreases the kid ‘s ability to respond in a disciplined and regulated or “ normal ” mode when faced with taxing state of affairss, they become unprompted and travel to a high energy province where all actions and significances are intensified and they are non to the full in control of the actions they are taking, in state of affairss such as these anything can and will go on, which may non be the entire duty of the kid. Harmonizing to Holmes, Slaughter and Kashani ( 2001 cited in Jones 2005 ) as the kid with a societal disease becomes an grownup the behavior more frequently than non intensifies and other more aberrant features such as stealing, hooliganism and substance maltreatment are added to an already unstable and imbalanced personality. To this terminal hence no 1 childhood factor or unwellness is responsible for big criminalism ( English, Widom and Brandford 2002 ) .

Other surveies such as acceptance and twin surveies were carried out to find the function of genetic sciences in the grownup criminalism ( Simonoff et al. 2004, Jones 2005 ) . From these surveies it was realized that genetic sciences did play an of import function in grownup criminalism, the paternal twin trials showed some distinguishable differences which could hold been attributed to environmental force per unit areas or associations at the clip. Adoption surveies were able to confirm the fact that genetic sciences played an of import function as kids whose parents were seasoned hard-boiled felons had a higher rate of pervert and condemnable behavior. Surveies among African-Americans, Caucasians and Native American have besides shown that abused and ignored Afro-american males were five times more likely to be arrested as a juvenile ( 32 % versus 6 % ) , and about two times more likely to be arrested as an grownup ( 59.5 % versus 31.6 % ) , severally ( English, Widom and Stanford 2002 ) .

In most of these instances the survey brought out other factors which could be responsible for grownup criminalism, these are environmental factors, such things as victimization, parental construction, parental control, poorness and society. Children unlike grownups are unable to do certain determinations because they are under the legal age to talk for themselves and so they have to seek to last in the vicinity and in the schools where they are assigned by parents or defenders. In some instances kids learn force from the societal groups around their places and by holding to support themselves from equal force per unit areas. Surveies have shown that anti-social kids who have reached maturity are farther complicated with jobs such as divorce, low Numberss of friends, hapless lodging and unstable occupations ( Bor, McGee, Hayatbakhsh and Najman 2004 ) . In most instances kids ( 0 old ages – 12 old ages ) look to the grownup for counsel and advice, if the grownup in the state of affairs is non giving structured counsel and seasonably, legal advice so the kids will make merely harmonizing to what has been instructed to them.

Children besides develop attitudes and imposts ( idiosyncrasies ) by watching and so retroflexing the actions of their parents, siblings and equals. Continuous exposure and reproduction of these attitudes, imposts and actions by the kid will take to reinforcement, where the kid ‘s reaction to certain fortunes becomes natural through being a learned response. This is the footing of the societal acquisition theory by Albert Bandura, who developed upon work begun by Miller and Dollard ( Isom 1998 ) . This is one of the most common methods of larning as kids learn about everything they say, do and mode in which they think by acute observation of individuals and consideration of experiences in their environment ( Jones 2005 ) . It is so expected that kids who live in high offense environment or who have parents who abuse each other or other individuals known to the kids or even violent siblings will exhibit these same violent traits. If the kid is populating in a violent, pack infested country but they have a structured place with parents who do non exhibit violent inclinations and are non felons themselves, the kid most likely will non demo marks of condemnable or violent inclination, as they have a positive function model/ support at place, that is uninterrupted and dogged ( Bartollas, 1990 pp.145 cited in Isom 1998 ) . This is particularly so with male childs who look to their male parent ‘s as their function theoretical account and copy their ways and unluckily if the male parent is a condemnable so the opportunities are high that the boy will go a condemnable as good ( Panko 2005 ) .

Another mode in which kids can be predisposed to factors which can take them to adult criminalism is through media. This was besides proposed by Bandura ( Isom 1998 ) , this is even more true in the present epoch than earlier as telecasting shows and films have become even more violent in order to maintain them “ interesting and action packed ” , there is besides a wealth of fake world games which can be played that are based entirely on force. These facts coupled with the high handiness of telecasting, computing machines and now smart phones that can hive away games and pictures, kids are ever bombarded with some type of force about all twenty-four hours. In some instances the lines between world and fiction become blurred particularly where there is no counsel for kids, from older individuals, or for those kids who are anti-social or societal misfits because they are predisposed to certain diseases and they act out the functions of the individuals in these violent games and films who they relate to the most.

Childs who are bullied or victimized tend to go angry and learn force ab initio to protect themselves from the bully or the individuals who victimize them. However some kids become angry at being bullied and victimized and internalise this choler or are unable to distinguish societal nagging and badgering from victimization and intimidation and will run into about every state of affairs with force and choler, this can go on into maturity and manifest itself through violent offense.

It is my position that both genetic sciences ( nature ) and the societal environment ( raising ) play an of import portion in determining the lives of kids in their early old ages which they so carry into maturity. At any point either of the two features can be more dominant than the other.

( 1907 words to this point )

Are these conformable to alter?

I believe that most of the societal features are conformable to alter, as these are the 1s we have greatest control over. We can travel from the country, observe good societal manners and etiquette, and better yourself every bit frequently as possible with instruction.

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