The Concepts In Emergency Management Environmental Sciences Essay


Hazard, exigencies, and catastrophe threaten the over the universe daily. Whether it ‘s a natural catastrophe, technological accident, or terrorist act, exigency directors must fix for every type of event ( Emergency Management in Australia, 2004 ) . As an exigency director, it is they occupation to set the right system in topographic point to forestall and cut down losingss. To make this, the directors must analyze and so react to events. This constructs will present about exigency direction and the function of the exigency director in covering with a assortment of exigency menaces.

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Emergency direction is “ using scientific discipline, engineering, planning and direction to cover with utmost events that can wound or kill big Numberss of people, do extended harm to belongings, and interrupt community life ” ( Lindel et al, 2007 ) . The exigency director ‘s function is to forestall or cut down losingss that occur due to jeopardies, catastrophes, and exigencies ( England & A ; Evans, 1988 ) . This is large duty, and it requires go oning instruction.

Emergency direction is about placing hazards, measuring failings, and inventing schemes for cut downing hazards ( Bumgarner, 2008 ) . Emergency direction has traditionally been seen as the exclusive duty of authorities. This is altering, with families and concerns playing a more active function. Emergency direction is now best conceived as trusting on confederations among all degrees of authorities and the private sector ( Kibble, 1998 ) .

Four factors have led to the increased importance of exigency direction:

Public consciousness of jeopardy, exigencies, and catastrophe has increased as the cost of catastrophe has increased dramatically in recent old ages.

Businesss understand that catastrophe can interrupt their operations and even do bankruptcy.

Rapid population growing in the most risky geographical countries of the state has created increased exposure to catastrophe impacts.

Emergency directors have undergone more and more specialised preparation, taking to the development of exigency direction as a profession.

( Smith, 1996 ) .


The term catastrophe is reserved for events that produce more losingss than a community can manage. A community struck by catastrophe can get by merely with aid from other communities, province authorities, or the federal authorities. Disasters cause many casualties, much belongings harm, or important environmental harm. There are many types and causes of catastrophe such as Natural jeopardy, Technological Catastrophes and Terrorists Disaster.


A natural jeopardy is the effect of the combination of a natural catastrophe, a physical event such as volcanic eruption, temblor, landslide, deluging and etc, and human activities ( Lindell, 2007 ) . Human exposure, caused by the deficiency of appropriate exigency direction, leads to fiscal, structural, and human losingss. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to back up or defy the catastrophe, their resiliency. A natural jeopardy will hence ne’er consequence in a natural catastrophe in countries without exposure, e.g. strong temblors in uninhabited countries ( Mushkatel & A ; Weschler, 1985 ) . The grade of possible loss can besides depend on the nature of the jeopardy itself, runing from wildfires, which threaten single edifices, to impact events, which have the potency to stop civilisation ( Are You Ready? An in deepness usher to Citizen Preparedness, 2009 ) .

The 1995 temblor in Kobe, Japan, killed more than 6000 people and injured 30,000. The 1994 temblor in Northridge, California, resulted in $ 33 billion in amendss. Between 1989 and 1999, the United Stages lost $ 1 billion each hebdomad due to natural catastrophes. The victims absorb most of the costs as merely about 17 % of losingss are insured. These events such as an illustration of the natural catastrophe in around the universe ( Lindell, 2007 ) .


A engineering catastrophe is the dislocation of a technological system due to human action which could ensue in injury to people and all creative activity. The response to a engineering catastrophe includes bar, extenuation, readying, response and recovery. A engineering catastrophe can be from the usage of energy engineerings such as atomic power workss and liquefied natural gas installations, presenting hazards for both employees and those who live nearby ( Schneid, 2001 ) . The usage of asbestos is an illustration. The affected elements can be air, dirt H2O, and animate being in the human nutrient concatenation and the human organic structure ( Kipp, 1996 ) .


Terrorist catastrophes are late recognized add-ons to the types of menace we must face. Unlike natural catastrophe and technological accidents, terrorist onslaughts involve deliberate human causality ( Hock, 2000 ) . Terrorists use some of the same stuffs as are involved in technological catastrophes. However, unlike terrorist ‘s activities such as political blackwashs and snatchs, terrorist ‘s catastrophes are intended to do many casualties and impact major harm. Emergency directors respond to terrorist onslaughts utilizing the same basic attack that is used in other catastrophe. They must quickly observe and measure the state of affairs, mobilise relevant organisations and installations, take action to restrict casualties and harm, and organize the organisations reacting to the incident ( Moore, 1951 ) .

The illustrations of terrorist catastrophe are “ England ‘s 9/11 ” . On July 7, 2005, terrorist unleashed three bombs on the London resistance and one on bus coach during first-come-first-serve our. Fifthly-six people were killed in the onslaughts, and 700 were injured. The terrorists were besides killed in the detonation. The medical dubbed this onslaught “ England ‘s 9/11 ” , as it was the deadliest onslaught on British dirt since the Pan Am bombing in 1988, which killed 270 people. It was besides the deadliest bombardment in London since World War II ( Lindell, 2007 ) . This incident should be an of import lesson for exigency director.


The nature of direction depends on local economic and societal conditions. Some catastrophe alleviation experts such as Fred Cuny have noted that in a sense the lone existent catastrophe are economic. Expert, such as Cuny, have long noted that the rhythm of exigency direction must include long term work on substructure, public consciousness, and even human justness issues. This is non of import in developing states ( Emergency Management Plan, 2009 ) . The procedure of exigency direction involves four stages: extenuation, readiness, response, and recovery.

Figure 1: Phases of Emergency Management








Hazard extenuation addresses the causes of a catastrophe, cut downing the likeliness it will happen or restricting its impact ( Perry et al, 1981 ) . The focal point is to halt catastrophe before their happen. Changing either the natural event or human behaviour or both reduces the impact of a natural event such as a inundation, hurricane, or temblor. In the instance of inundations, for illustration, altering the natural events system by utilizing dikes or levees that confine floodwater reduces the loss of unrecorded and belongings. Changing the human usage system, such as non leting building on a flood plain, can besides cut down losingss ( Lucus, 2007 ) .

The execution of extenuation schemes can be considered a portion of the recovery procedure if applied after a catastrophe occurs. Mitigation steps can be structural or non-structural ;

Structural steps use technological solutions, like inundation levees.

Non-structural steps include statute law, land-use planning ( e.g. the appellation of incidental land like Parkss to be used as inundation zones ) and insurance.

( Doyle, 1996 ) .

Extenuation is the most cost-effective method for cut downing the impact of jeopardies ; nevertheless it is non ever suited. Some of illustrations about extenuation are a typhoon devastated Guam Memorial Hospital in 1997. The infirmary is critical of import because it is one of the few infirmary that can offer O and dialysis on the island. Through a grant from Federation of Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA ) , Guam functionary took stairss to cut down typhoon harm to the infirmary. In 2002, when another typhoon hit Guam, the infirmary sustained harm and dialysis to patients ( Morris, 2009 ) .

4.2 Readiness

Catastrophe readiness protects lives and belongings and facilitates rapid recovery. Preparedness consists of programs, processs, and recourses that must be developed in progress ( Ku Ruhana & A ; Norita, 2001 ) . These are designed non merely to back up a timely and effectual exigency response to the menace of at hand impact, but besides guide the procedure of catastrophe recovery. Common preparedness steps include:

Communication programs with easy apprehensible nomenclature and methods.

Proper care and preparation of exigency services, including mass human resources such as community exigency response squad.

Stocking, stock list, and maintain catastrophe supplies and equipment.

Develop organisations of trained voluntaries among of civilian populations. Government bureau in Malaysia such as RELA and Civil Defense are ready beginnings of trained voluntaries.

( Ibrahim, 2002 ) .

Catastrophe readiness plans needs to reply four inquiries:

Which bureaus will take part? Managers must cognize what the demands will be and which bureaus can react to these demands.

What exigency response and catastrophe recovery actions are executable for each community? Directors must analyze the programs the community has adopted. For illustration, if an emptying is needed, are the emptying routes good planned?

How will the response and recovery organisations map and what resources do they necessitate? An exigency operation program & A ; recovery operation program should be written. These define the function of each bureau.

How will disaster readiness be established and maintained? The program should specify the method and agenda for program care, developing drills, and exercising. Important section like constabulary, span fire, and medical services must be trained foremost.

( Quarantelli, 1998 ) .


Emergency response begins when the event occurs. In some instances, hazard-monitoring system watchful governments of an at hand catastrophe. Warning, such as conditions prognosiss, can supply clip to active the exigency response organisation before impact. A rapid appraisal of the impact country can rapidly direct resources to the most damaged countries. Emergency response activities include, ( I ) procuring the impact country, ( two ) Evacuating threatened countries, ( three ) carry oning hunt and deliverance for the injured, ( four ) supplying exigency medical attention and ( V ) sheltering evacuees and other victims ( Alcantra, 2000 ) .

Secondary impacts are “ catastrophes caused by the catastrophe ” and include such events as risky stuffs releases initiated by temblors ( Assoc. Prof. Ernest Yeoh, 2000 ) . A secondary impact is regardful from the perennial impact of the jeopardy agent, as occurs in connexion with aftershocks from temblors and repeated volcanic eruptions. Operationss mounted to counter secondary menaces include ; ( I ) contending urban fires after catastrophe, ( two ) identifying contaminated H2O supplies following implosion therapy, ( three ) identifying contaminated wildlife or fish in connexion with a toxic chemical spill and ( four ) preparing for deluging following a glacier thaw during a volcanic eruption ( Petak, 1985 ) .

During the response phase, exigency directors besides must invariably measure harm. They must besides organize the reaching of equipment and supplies, so they can be sent to those countries with the greatest demand. Local Emergency respondents dominate the response period, which is characterized by uncertainness and urgency ( Quarantelli, 1998 ) . Minutess of hold can do of lose of life and belongings. Finally, exigency response actions need to expect the recovery stage. For illustration, exigency directors must execute harm appraisals to back up their petition for presidential catastrophe declarations ( Siegal, 1985 ) .

4.4 Recovery

Recovery begins as the catastrophe is stoping and continues until the community is back to normal. In some instances, the recovery period may be a long clip. The immediate end is to reconstruct the substructure of the community. The basic substructure consists of system for presenting H2O, electric power, fuel, telecommunication and transit. The ultimate end is return to the community ‘s quality of life to the same degree it was before the catastrophe ( Maiwald & A ; Sieglein, 2002 ) .

Recovery steps are both short-run and long term. Short-run recovery activities include return critical life-support system to minimum operating criterions for illustration such as killing, impermanent lodging, and entree to nutrient and H2O. Then, for the long-run recovery activities may continues for a figure of old ages after a catastrophe. The intent of long-run recovery activities is to return life to normal or improved degrees, for illustration like renovation loans, legal aid, and community planning. Leaderships may utilize Reconstruction to do alterations they wanted before the catastrophe. After the eruption of Mt. Usu in Japan, local leaders convinced the authorities to better towns to pull tourers ( Hock, 2000 ) .

5.0 Decision

The construct of exigency direction system is based on the belief that the attempts of many subjects are necessary if we are to cut down the effects of natural and semisynthetic catastrophe. Leaderships or director may better the community beyond its pre-disaster province by regenerating dilapidated residential and commercial countries. Most of the resources used during the readiness and recovery come from outside the community. Some resources come from private organisations and province authorities. However, the bulk of resources in a major catastrophe come from the federal authorities ( Mohd Husain, 2000 ) .


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