The Comparison And Contrast Of Prison Criminology Essay

The United States justness system has two foremost aims in the managing of convicted felons: imprisonment and rehabilitation. The captivity of felons serves as a agency of protection to society from the potentially unsafe felons. Most significantly, the prison system is approximately 10 times larger today than it was 30 old ages ago. The effects of holding such a big system present jobs for America ‘s current and future correctional aims. Overcrowding is one of the chief concerns impacting the prison system today. As overcrowding additions, our system looks for other options, such as probation. There is a great trade of contention environing which penalty is the best method. The best reply can merely be determined after careful rating of captivity and probation.

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The Comparison and Contrast of Prison and Probation

Frequently, we may hear of felony wrongdoers sentenced to prison or possibly probation. Many wrongdoers and communities bear a great trade of positive and negative facets of each judgement. The United States justness system has two foremost aims in the managing of convicted felons: imprisonment and rehabilitation. Designed to work jointly, these two techniques have been a portion of the U.S. justness system from the start. Probation and prison sentences are for convicted criminals that have committed the most flagitious of offenses to the lesser white-collar offenses. The research conducted on both finding of facts outputs us with provocative grounds to research. From a rational position it is of import to separate the grounds for puting wrongdoers in prison or on parole and finding a intent, we strive to carry through. This paper will seek to measure and contrast prison and probation. Upon completion of this paper, the more outstanding penalty will be determined.

Incarceration Objectives V. World

The captivity of felons serves as a agency of protection to society from the potentially unsafe felons. In add-on, inmates can have rehabilitation chances from calling instruction to therapy. However, surveies continue to describe that a twelvemonth after release, an amazing 60 per centum of former inmates stay unemployed. The Federal Bureau of Justice Statistics reported two tierces of probationers return to prison within three old ages of their release. Correctional sections blame the budgetary restraints, lessening of available counsellors, lacking infinite, few sum of voluntaries, and limited inmate consciousness as the chief grounds prison functionary ‘s quotation mark for non offering some of the rehabilitative services ( Thompson, 2001, P. 93 ) . Almost everyone who goes to prison goes to prison comes out of prison. “ In fact, except for the 5 per centum who are sentenced to life without word, executed, or dice of natural causes, 95 per centum of all prison admittances are released, and 80 per centum are released to parole or some sort of after-prison supervising ” ( Jacobson, 2005, p. 131 ) .

Conditionss and Effectss of Prisons

Over the past 40 old ages, America succeeded in constructing one of the universe ‘s largest prison systems. The prison system is approximately 10 times larger today than it was 30 old ages ago. Ultimately, there are some effects of holding such a large system. Overpopulation becomes one of the major issues faced with the prisons today. Drug jurisprudence related offenses account for a astonishing 55 per centum of all federal captives. “ About 70 per centum of province captives and over half of federal captives suffer with jobs associating to drug dependence or alcohol addiction ” ( Thompson, 2008, p. 92 ) . Unwittingly, overcrowding negatively affects the inmate ‘s wellness, behavior, and mental province. There are often reported histories of inmates digesting feelings of depression and desperation in-overpopulated prisons. Researchers Travis, Solomon, and Waul ( 2001 ) concluded that about 15 per centum of all persons infected with HIV and about 40 per centum of all persons infected with hepatitis C transmitted through correctional establishments.

Why and Who Gets Probation?

Around the clip of the Industrial Revolution, an increasing sum of immigrants who had barely any accomplishments, limited instruction, and little cognition of the English linguistic communication began flocking to the United States. Crime became a agency of endurance for many immigrants. By 1878, Massachusetts became the first province to let Judgess to take probation as an option to a prison sentence. Reformers saw a demand to better the life conditions, particularly among the immigrants, opposed to directing them to prison. By the late 20th century, America ‘s prisons witnessed the effects of overcrowding. Consequently, minor discourtesies faced alternate sentences to captivity ( Hall, 2004, p. 551 ) . However, non until the 1980 ‘s did all provinces and the federal authorities provide for grownup probation ( Hall, 2004, p. 552 ) .

Soon, the condemning procedure starts with an arraignment. During this clip, the accused appear before a justice and the alleged offenses are stated. A probation officer may register a request with the tribunal if an option to captivity is practical. The determination for probation depends upon the earnestness of the offenses, the likeliness of transmutation, and the life conditions to which the accused will be returning. Probation entitlement by and large depends upon felony instances, non in misdemeanor instances. If the determination consequences in probation, it is ever conditional. Assigned probation officers will supervise felons. If they violate the conditions of probation, they face prison sentencing ( Hall. 2004, pp. 551-553 ) .

Probation ‘s Goals and Downfall

Probation started as an option to captivity. It was a method of intervention to salvage many nonviolent persons from the panics and force in prison life. Since prisons lacked the ability to reform inmates and ever seemed excessively overcrowded, Judgess would hold a pick to directing people to the prison. Although probation seemed like a solution to overcrowding, as with anything it has its negatives.

The end of probation aimed to diminish offense by allowing wrongdoers an chance to exhibit their suitableness for society. Vital to probation is the thought that individuals found to be “ good hazards ” will profit probation ; they will non perpetrate more offenses if supervising and reding follow. However, this calculated hazard has its border for mistake. The doctrine of probation is that convicted persons can develop into a observant citizen once more. The key was to suggest intervention plans, employment, and other services. The focal point is non on the injury done by the condemnable but on the future decrease of condemnable behaviour, achieved through proper intervention and supervising. If in fact, the person fails to follow with the guidelines set, the wrongdoer will probably confront gaol clip ( Hall, 2004, p. 553 ) .

The Better Choice

Does probation or captivity make a important impact? Of class, issues such as costs and justness are imperative in public policy picks. On the other manus, the grade to which offense diminutions is ever of import. Additionally, it is the primary ground for corrections. Analyzing plans in New Jersey and Georgia, surveies concluded probation with strict tribunal ordered monitoring significantly reduced opportunities for reincarceration ( in Georgia, see Erwin, 1986 ) and rearrests ( in New Jersey, see Pearson, 1987 ) . Size uping the restrictions of the anterior research, Petersilia and Turner ( 1993 ) used an experimental design to reassess recidivism utilizing both apprehensions and proficient misdemeanors. The consequences showed there were no important differences in apprehensions. However, there appeared to be a important difference with the proficient misdemeanors. In drumhead, no grounds supported that the monitored surveillance discouraged wrongdoers from perpetrating offenses ; it appeared that this control increased the chance for sensing of proficient misdemeanors ( Bernfeld, 2001, pp. 59-61 ) .

As with anything, there are positive and negative facets. It is my personal sentiment that probation serves as a better solution for non-violent wrongdoers. An appointive officer proctors probation and compulsory drug testing and random visits to an wrongdoer ‘s place are typical. The supervised wrongdoers become accountable for their actions. I believe we should seek to rehabilitate the felons because we want to cut down offense. It is already a proved fact that overcrowding the prisons does nil except promote ill will among inmates and necessitate more staff to run the day-to-day prison operations. A better environment is imperative for an person to go receptive to larning. Therefore, probation provides us with the best solution.


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