The Big Five Personality Constructs Essay

Personality theories. or theoretical accounts. are metaphors for depicting something which is per se indefinable. the human personality. Presently. one of the most popular attacks among psychologists for analyzing personality theory is the Five-Factor Model ( FFM ) or Large Five dimensions of personality. This essay will research the ‘Big Five’ personality concepts and seek to explicate how utile they are to understanding how people are likely to execute in a work state of affairs. In decision. this essay will besides discourse some of the statements against the relevancy and truth of personality proving within the employment context.

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The Five-Factor Model originated in an effort to roll up trait-related footings as research workers were dissatisfied with the trait like differences in adaptational manners. Alternatively they focused on situational based attacks that offered greater flexibleness in explicating specific person-environment minutess ( Goodstein & A ; Lanyon. 1999 ) . including those within the employment and the workplace.

Recruitment is the first portion of the procedure of make fulling a vacancy. It includes the scrutiny of the vacancy. the consideration of beginnings of suited campaigners. doing contact with those campaigners and pulling applications from them. It is aimed at happening a pool of appliers with the abilities and personality desired by the administration. Factoring personality into the employment procedure can ensue in lower turnover if appliers are selected for traits that are extremely correlated with employees who have high length of service within a peculiar business or administration.

Personality steps are used by many administrations in choosing employees and therefore it is of import to decently specify how personality fits in with employment and the workplace and how by using these factors or dimensions of personality. a little relationship between some of the factors and public presentation success can be found ( Barrick and Mount. 1991 ) .

McCrae & A ; Costa ( 1996 ) . who originally identified the five concepts of personality. maintain that personality can be described adequately within five high-order traits ; extroversion. neurosis. openness to see. amenity and conscientiousness which can easy be remembered utilizing the acronym OCEAN. Personality traits are the temperament to act in a peculiar manner. in a assortment of state of affairss and are indexs to consistent forms in the manner that persons behave. think and feel ( Weiten 2004 ) . The large five personality theoretical account is appreciated most by psychologists and organizational practicians likewise because in contrast to other modern-day theoretical accounts. the Big Five theoretical account is chiefly a descriptive theoretical account.

The large five personality trial is a self-answered questionnaire based on the large five theoretical account of personality and is an illustration of an nonsubjective personality type appraisal. It is said to be nonsubjective because the content is structured. the marking is indifferent and the reading of tonss is standardised. The Big Five trial can uncover more information about applicant’s abilities and involvements and can besides place interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain occupations. It is used merely to place the general personality of an employee by measuring their comparative strength in each of the five major traits.

The five-factor theoretical account is really employer-oriented. with greater cogency in measuring the employability and employment position of appliers than other theoretical accounts. The stronger the trait in the individual. the more likely that individual is to demo trait-related behaviours and therefore the more likely we are to detect that trait ( Goodstein & A ; Lanyon. 1999 ) . Described below are some of the personality traits or features that are uncovered utilizing the trial which may depict a current or possible employee’s single traits ; Neuroticism – Neuroticism refers to the inclination to see negative feelings. Employees who score high on Neuroticism may see one specific negative feeling such as anxiousness. choler. or depression ( Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) but are more than probably to see several of these emotions as Neuroticism exposes really sensitive persons. This may in bend create negativeness in the workplace.

Openness to Experience – Openness describes a dimension of cognitive manner that can separate inventive. originative employees from down-to-earth. conventional employees. Employees who score high with Open are intellectually funny. appreciative of art. and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be. compared to closed people. more cognizant of their feelings ( Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) . These employees tend to believe and move in individualistic and nonconformist ways and mind is likely best regarded as one facet of openness to see.

Agreeableness – Agreeableness reflects single differences in concern with cooperation and societal harmoniousness. Agreeable employees value acquiring along with others in the workplace and are hence considerate. friendly. generous. helpful ( Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) and willing to compromise their involvements with others. Agreeable employees besides have an optimistic position of human nature and believe others are fundamentally honorable. decent. and trusty.

Extraversion- Extraversion is marked by marked battle with the external universe. McCrae & A ; Costa ( 1997 ) believe there is a good trade of fluctuation in what makes up this factor. Extroverts enjoy being with people. are full of energy. and frequently experience positive emotions. Extraverted employees tend to be enthusiastic and action-oriented ( Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) . like to speak in groups and assert and draw attending to themselves. However Watson et Al ( 1992 ) province that Extroverts can besides be dominant. which isn’t ever strongly represented in this factorConscientiousness – Conscientiousness concerns the manner in which we control. regulate. and direct our urges.

Urges are non inherently bad ; on occasion clip restraints require a snap determination. and moving on our first urge can be an effectual response so in certain businesss this is seen as an advantageous personality trait. Conscientious employees besides act spontaneously and impetuously which can be fun in the workplace. As employees. Conscientious persons can be seen by others as colorful. fun-to-be-with and bizarre ( Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) . Conscientiousness besides emerges as one of the most consistent forecasters of occupation success among the five factors ( Goodstein & A ; Lanyon. 1999 ) .

It is of import to observe that none of the personality factors are in themselves good or bad. simply differences which make some personalities more suited for certain occupations or activities than others. All of the five factors are dimensions. non types. so people vary continuously within them ( McCrae & A ; Costa. 1997 ) with most people falling in between the extremes. The Big Five trial can besides supply a helpful penetration for an employee to cognize their ain arrangement within the five factors ( Costa & A ; McCrae. 1992 ) and is a utile tool for personal betterment and can be a good forecaster for future calling picks. An administration will get down to endure if hapless choice of new employees recurrent. nevertheless. it can be even more expensive if an incompetent or unhappy worker remains.

There is considerable argument as to how many trait dimensions are necessary to accurately depict personality ( Goodstein & A ; Lanyon. 1999 ) and some theoreticians are critical of the large five theoretical account. They argue that the five-factor theoretical account can be seen to concentrate on stableness of personality. but it does non discourse alterations in personality. Theorists are besides concerned about whether the five personality forms cover the whole personality sphere ( Lievens et al. 2001 ) .

There is besides a deficiency of grounds to back up cogency of usage of personality trials within the employment context ( Goodstein & A ; Lanyon. 1999 ) . For illustration. an applicant’s preparation and experience may hold greater impact on occupation public presentation than an applicant’s personality. There is besides a deficiency of diverseness in the choice procedure if all campaigners present with the same personality traits.

As the Big Five theoretical account has merely late been implemented it is unsure how utile the five factors will be in separating among the different types of personalities that will be successful in many businesss. There is besides agnosticism over people’s ability to describe accurately when giving a self-evaluation. Pervin. 1994 ( cited in Carver & A ; Scheier. 2000 ) suggests that many trait theoreticians would believe that there is more to personality than the Big Five. for illustration. people’s self-concepts. their individualities. their cognitive manners. and the unconscious.

In decision. this essay highlights the benefits of utilizing the 5-factor theoretical account of personality to roll up and pass on findings in the employment scene. Within the pattern of personality psychological science. you do non merely label every individual in society within the Big Five theoretical accounts domain’s. the five factor theoretical account is an debut to the much wider kingdom of understanding personality. Just as no two sets of fingerprints are indistinguishable. neither are two personalities merely likewise.

Using the right individual has the possible to. in the long tally. salvage an administration many 1000s of dollars. Clearly the right initial pick will salvage money by cut downing turnover but there are many other costs involved. some less quantifiable than others. This highlights the importance of enlisting and choice of people based on personality. It is in this context that the five factor theoretical account has become the dominant theory in personality psychological science and seems to offer a systematic. valid attack to the appraisal and apprehension of workplace behavior.

REFERENCE LIST

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Lievens. F. . Fruyt. F. . & A ; Van Dam. K. ( 2001 ) . Assessor’s usage of personality traits in descriptions of appraisal Centre campaigners: A five-factor theoretical account position.

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 74. 623-635.

McCrae. R. R. . & A ; Costa. P. T. . Jr. ( 1996 ) . Toward a new coevals of personality theories: Theoretical contexts for the five-factor theoretical account. cited in Wiggins. J. S. ( ed. ) . The five-factor theoretical account of personality: Theoretical positions. Guilford Publishing. New York.

McCrae. R. R. . & A ; Costa. P. T. . Jr. ( 1997 ) . Personality trait construction as a human universal. American Psychologist. 52. 509-516.

McCrae. R. R. . & A ; John. O. P. ( 1992 ) . An debut to the five-factor theoretical account and its deductions. Journal of Personality. 60. 175-215.

Pervin. L. A. ( 2003 ) . The Science of Personality. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Oxford University Press. New York.

Saucier. G. . & A ; Goldberg. L. R. ( 1998 ) . What is beyond the Big Five? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 66. 495-524.

Watson. D. . Clark. L. A. . McIntyre. C. W. . & A ; Hamaker. S. ( 1992 ) . Affect. personality and societal activity. Diaries of Personality and Social Psychology. 63. 1101-1025.

Weiten. W. ( 2004 ) . Psychology: Subjects and fluctuations ( 6th Ed ) . Stamford. Connecticut: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

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