There were several surveies refering to learning English as foreign linguistic communication but it is non in Cambodia context and mostly on related surveies in other states. Those surveies have been conducted related to learning accomplishments and methods, linguistic communication betterment, capable affair cognition, and motive.
The paperss were searched by utilizing “ learning English linguistic communication ” , “ effectual methods of learning English ” , “ learning English linguistic communication ” and “ troubles of learning English ” as cardinal words for seeking. The chief online seeking machines were “ Google bookman ” , “ Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics ” and other databases and resources at my working topographic point. The remainder of paperss and articles were difficult transcripts from my supervisor, my M. Ed cohort 5 schoolmates and other beginnings.
2.1. Teaching Skills and Methods
A old determination stated that category patterns were categorized in two types including text-based and non-text based. For non-text based activities were normally depended on the world where pupils and instructors could interact each other every bit good as expressed their ain idea without prepared in progress, therefore, pupils could raise their local context to the category and their treatment deeper and more confident because those were with them every twenty-four hours ; and for text-based had a specific regulations and ordinance for pupils to pattern and follows every bit good as all activities had been pre-prepared and no clip to speak other subject freely. It would be utile and helpful as instructors had to explicate pupils the whole category understanding those two types and instructor had to utilize assorted in order to all pupils enable to catch up the major contents. The intent of utilizing text-based to guarantee pupils were familiar the content in progress where instructors spent short clip to explicate and pattern its exercisings. Otherwise, for non-text based, pupils had more chances to speak and discourse together freely and no any specific countries for them to subjects ( Xiao, 2011 ) .
Another article addressed the theoretical accounts of learning including ( 1 ) traditional pattern, where instructors ever followed from the text editions and conveyed contents from text editions to use with day-to-day life. This pattern was encouraged pupils to hold more confident on communicating accomplishment and more aware of the linguistic communication map of day-to-day usage every bit good as more interaction between talkers ; and ( 2 ) non-traditional was used modern engineering as tools to pattern the four accomplishments and listening accomplishments was ever developed to utilize with engineering equipment and through online for farther support learning in the schoolroom ( Chen, 2011 ) .
Figure 2.1. Computer and Classroom-Based College English Teaching Model. Adopted from “ Difference Models of English as an International Language and Their Implication of Non-English Major leagues, ” by Chen, W. , 2011, Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics ( Quarterly ) , Vol. 34, No. 2, April 2011, p. 11.
Furthermore, instructors besides needed to see other factor at learning Sessionss to be able pupils understanding rapidly and preferred their acquisition Sessionss. And familiar and local context of text were another factors to force pupil larning accomplishment more betterment and better, particularly on Reading Comprehension. Harmonizing to Rabia ( 1996 ) stated “ the pupils ‘ public presentation was significantly better when the cultural content of the text was familiar and the tonss for the illation tests that involved familiar cultural context were significantly higher, regardless of whether the text was in Hebrew or English ” ( p. 593 ) . Likewise, leting single pupil to convey their ain alone parts to a peculiar acquisition, which it would go an inclusive exercising and got benefits every bit good as empowered to all relevant people. In add-on, the person-to-person interaction under guideline and supervising was another factor to better critical thought among the pupils ( Ahn & A ; Class, 2011 ) .
Of class, Malm, Bryngfor & A ; Morner ( 2011 ) suggested that Supplemental Instruction ( SI ) was a right and first-class method to let pupils to be able to finish some hard classs. The method prosperity was covered to all types of pupils history including who in the past low, mean or high ability. It meant that those pupils performed likely better in overall after go toing SI. Based on this survey by comparing between SI attendants and non-SI attendants, there was significantly different as follows “ SI attendants are a little more motivated to analyze, SI attendants are a spot better in working in groups, a somewhat higher per centum of SI attendants come from households where a higher instruction is unusual, SI attendants are besides characterized by a better acquisition scheme in that a ) they have better attending spans and can analyze for longer period of clip ; b ) they are less dependent on “ last-minute ” attempts ; and degree Celsiuss ) they are used to helping/being helped by schoolmates in understanding hard jobs in a class ” ( p. 287 ) .
2.2. Language Improvement
Of class, learning balls and pattern instruction, through Consciousness-Raising ( C-R ) activities, improved and promoted scholars ‘ English end product related to truth, eloquence, flexibleness and usage of parlances. If pupils had known the form of a word, they were more likely to utilize the word accurately and right. Besides, Students would flexibly utilize alternate in instance of they knew many forms expressed one significance ( Nattinger & A ; DeCarrico, 1992 ; Benson, Benson & A ; Ilson, 1997 ; Huston, et al. , 1997 as cited in Jiang & A ; Shu, 2011 ) .
In add-on, C-R activities helped raise pupils ‘ consciousness of typical balls and forms, develop their analytical and inductive ability, promote the building, proving and modify hypotheses about linguistic communication. It inspired pupils to believe, analyse linguistic communication and pull their ain decisions instead than accepting and memorising what they learned, enabled pupils to recognize the close relationship between form and significance, and promoted pupils ‘ involvement and assurance in linguistic communication acquisition, every bit good ( Jiang & A ; Shu, 2011 ) . Furthermore, pupils expressed that utilizing difference of stuffs and activities were specifically good as it was a portion to advance pupils more active in larning and battle ( Santangelo & A ; Tomlinson, 2009 ) .
Another determination addressed related to advantages and benefits of equal reappraisal preparation to lend to larning English linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Min ( 2006 ) indicated that trained peer reappraisal had reinforce leaners ‘ capacity to more concentration and effectual communicating with other people. Harmonizing to the same determination addressed that there were two of import factors, which perchance shed visible radiation on the success of equal reappraisal preparation including single teacher – referee conferences ; and teacher ‘s rating equal reappraisal remarks. However, another direction technique including grade assignment to peer reappraisal remarks was another factor to heighten the consequence of the equal reappraisal preparation. The teacher ‘s rating probably served as a strong inducement to put clip and attempt in following the four-step process to offer feedback.
A new progressive acquisition theoretical account, Partnership For Learning Model ( PFLM ) , designed with pedagogues, pupils and employers in head. This theoretical account seeks to bridge academic experience with existent life experience, thereby doing formal instruction more meaningful and portable. The PFLM is a learning attack that combines theory with direct experience. As consequence from this determination addressed that over 97 per cent of pupils who completed PFLM classs wished to take another PFLM class. They besides feedback overpoweringly rates the mentorship and life accomplishments aspects every bit extremely as the community based undertaking work ; pupils find the procedure activating, rewarding and even fascinating. Furthermore, 87 per cent stated that PFLM experience was more meaningful than their internship experience as their internship was limited in range and importance, while their PFLM experiences were perceived as important parts to the community, a feedback ( Hugg & A ; Wurdinger, 2007 ) .
Figure 2.2 Learning and Performance in PFLM. Adopted from “ A Practical and progressive Pedagogy for Project Based Service Learning, ” by Hugg, R. & A ; Wurdinger, S. , 2007, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ , Volume 19, Number 2, p. 197.
2.3. Capable Knowledge Matter
Some other articles was on the practicum and indicated that practicum was recognized as one most of import tool and portion for learning capacity development and edifice, where pre-service instructors had chances to interpret their acquisition from the categories into pattern ( Richards & A ; Crookes, 1988 as cited in Farrell, 2007 ) . And other determination stated that old experiences could take more influence on how information on instruction was conveyed into schoolroom pattern in period of their practicum than other influence, but pre-services instructors might non cognize of this influence as pupils on their instruction for their practicum, therefore, they would be encouraged to utilize their ain experience into practicum ( Bailey, et al. , 1996 ; Johnson, 1994 as cited in Farrell, 2007 ) .
An article by O’Neal, et Al. ( 2008 ) happening besides stated that instructors unlikely considered themselves well-prepared to learn the big figure of pupils in their schoolroom. Teachers besides faced schoolrooms where the bulk of pupils were high and confident on their English capacity and who attended regular English linguistic communication private tutoring with qualified coachs within their community. Teacher readying plans did non well-prepared for pupil population after graduated from establishments to officially pattern their accomplishments and methods. Contrary, instructors ‘ capacity and cognition were at exceeding factors – efficaciously learning including those who were outstanding pupils.
However, relation between instructors and pupils were another factor to impact to direction and pupils larning every bit good. A determination demonstrated that cognition and capable affair competency was largest class to better if there was regular contact and good relation between instructors and their pupils than other classs ( Inozu, 2011 ) . The same determination found that “ the bulk of larning outcomes attributed to student-faculty contact concerned the cognition and subject-matter competency: developing my lingual competency ( 32.78 % ) , following inventions in the field of survey ( 32.78 % ) , theoretical about field of survey ( 22.95 % ) , and cognition of linguistic communication instruction ( 21.31 % ) ” ( Inozu, 2011, p. 296 ) .
Finding on the relationship between motive types and place alterations demonstrated that ( 1 ) instructors needed attending beyond instruction of linguistic communication accomplishments ; ( 2 ) productive bilingualism besides served as an educational aim, instructors could force positive attitudes and beliefs associated with the mark linguistic communication and civilization on the one manus, and the native linguistic communication and civilization on the other ; ( 3 ) person development motive influenced assurance for scholars, instructors could construct up pupils ‘ assurance in acquisition by assisting pupils set up their ends in English survey and integrate them into their long-run calling development ; and ( 4 ) scholars ‘ immediate, short-run involvements such as acquiring high trial tonss should carefully supervise and impart to their long-run ends so as to avoid possible negative consequence on scholars ‘ identify alteration ” ( Gao, et al. , 2007 ) .
Besides, motive to larn a 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) was really different from the motive learn any other school topic, this was because an L2 was non merely a communicating codification, but besides a representative of the L2 civilization where it was spoken. Learning L2 therefore normally entailed larning a L2 civilization to some grade ( Schmitt, 2002 ) . The most of import motive to larn L2 were value and attitude ( Schmitt, 2002 ) .
Gardner ‘s ( 1985 as cited in Schmitt, 2002, p. 173 ) stated that there were three constructs in peculiar had become well-known as follows ( 1 ) ‘integrative orientation ‘ , which reflects a positive temperament toward the L2 group and the desire to interact with and even go similar to valued members of that community ; ( 2 ) ‘instrumental orientation ‘ , where linguistic communication acquisition is chiefly associated with the possible matter-of-fact additions of L2 proficiency, such as acquiring a better occupation or a higher wage ; and ( 3 ) the ‘integrative motivation ‘ , which is a complex concept made up of three chief remark: ( a ) integrativeness ( subsuming integrative orientation, involvement in foreign linguistic communications, and attitudes toward the L2 community ) ; ( B ) attitudes toward the acquisition state of affairs ( consisting attitudes toward the instructor and the class ) ; and ( degree Celsius ) motive ( made up of motivational strength, desire and attitudes toward larning the linguistic communication ) .
In add-on, Dornyei ( n/a every bit cited in Schmitt, 2002, p. 176 ) besides identified four chief facets of motivational instruction pattern including ( 1 ) ‘creating the basic motivational conditions ‘ ( set uping resonance with the pupils ; furthering a pleasant and supportive schoolroom atmosphere ; developing a cohesive scholar group with appropriate group norms ) ; ( 2 ) ‘generating initial pupil motive ‘ ( heightening the scholars ‘ L2-related values and attitudes ; increasing the scholars ‘ anticipation of success ; increasing the scholars ‘ goal-orientedness ; doing learning stuffs relevant to the scholars ; making realistic scholar beliefs ) ; ( 3 ) ‘maintaining and protecting motive ‘ ( doing larning stimulating ; puting specific scholar ends ; showing undertakings in a motivative manner ; protecting the scholars ‘ self-pride and increasing their assurance ; leting scholars to keep a positive societal image ; making scholar liberty ; advancing co-operation among the scholars ; advancing self-motivating schemes ) ; and ( 4 ) ‘encouraging positive retrospective self-evaluation ‘ ( supplying motivational feedback ; advancing motivational ascriptions ; increasing learner satisfaction ; offering wagess and classs in a motivative mode ) .
To guarantee pupils swimmingly progressed in acquisition and academic excellence, particularly at schoolroom, instructors had to promote pupils sing their public presentation because it linked the progressing and displaying of accomplishments and abilities in period of direction class. If so, pupils would be competency and accomplishment. Teachers besides instructed pupils on equal mentoring to let pupils learn and larn from each other both in and out categories activities ( Miller, 2009 ) . Besides, instructors had to be exemplary function and exhibited the type of behavior expected from pupils and this was a important portion of encouraging pupils adopted ( Singham, 2005 as cited in Miller, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, Jones ( 2009 ) introduced a theoretical account of actuating pupils to prosecute acquisition called “ The MUSIC Model ” by covering five constituents of the direction including authorization, usefulness, success, involvement, and caring. The theoretical account besides guided instructors to plan classs, foremost, which delegated the control of larning to pupils and degree of pupils controlled depending on the trouble of the content and it was probably otherwise from one pupil to another one, but pupils had to believe that had some control facet of their acquisition. Second, instructors needed to explicate the intents of lessons and clear on its relevance and of import for pupils and society every bit good, but degree of understanding for pupil would be vary from one lesson to another 1 and some classs would make little but others might make more, and it besides depended on its needfully and advantages for pupils and their communities. Third, class facets could be successful if pupils had the cognition and accomplishments. The class design had to be feasibleness and succeeded but it was non average that the class had to be easy because pupils could be bored and unmotivated if the class was excessively easy. Besides, instructors could plan class to be challenged, provided feedback related to pupils ‘ accomplishments and cognition every bit good as provide auxiliary stuffs every bit good to guarantee pupil could be manageable to win the class. Fourthly, activities or subjects were really interested and attractive and instructors had to recognize favorite things for pupils. Hidi and Renninger ( 2006 as cited in Jones, 2009 ) stated “ The potency for involvement is in the individual but the content and the environment specify the way of involvement and contribute to its development ” ( p. 277 ) . However, teacher had to be more concentration on sustainable involvement instead than short term interested and tried to research local context into direction facets to further pupils more abiding involvement in the class content. Finally, the classs should be demonstrated by caring whether pupils were successfully meet the class aims and intents. The most of import facet of caring pupils ‘ acquisition was that instructors cared about the pupils ‘ wellbeing in period of direction Sessionss.