Teachers perceptions of technology use in teaching languages

The recent growing of engineering integrating in linguistic communication categories has attracted the attending of many pedagogues. Therefore, the impact and effectivity of technology-use on instruction has been investigated by a figure of research workers in different scenes and contexts. Most of those surveies shared a common determination that is related to the effectivity of engineering integrating in acquisition and instruction and its potency for heightening learning methods and pupils ‘ cognition ( Frigaard, 2002 ; Schofield and Davidson, 2003 ; Miner, 2004 ; Timucin, 2006 ; Roblyer and Davis, 2008 ) . ‘Technology-enhanced instruction ‘ is going an progressively of import portion of higher and professional instruction ( Wernet, Olliges and Delicath, 2000 ) . Presumably, engineering non merely gives scholars the chance to command their ain acquisition procedure, but besides provides them with ready entree to a huge sum of information over which the instructor has no control over ( Lam and Lawrence, 2002 ) . Teachers are seen to be active agents in the procedure of alterations and execution of new thoughts as their beliefs and attitudes may back up or hinder the success of any educational reform such as the use of an advanced engineering plan ( Woodrow, 1991 ; Levin and Wadmany, 2006a ) . Hence, look intoing instructors ‘ perceptual experiences about engineering integrating would supply a better apprehension of the state of affairs. Technology offers all pupils chances to larn in ways non antecedently possible. Its inventions have gone hand-in-hand with the growing of English and are altering the manner in which we learn. The Internet is altering the linguistic communication partially because it gives rise to new vocabulary and more significantly because the users of this tool drive the linguistic communication in certain waies ( Crystal, 2001 ) . Technology has a possible impact on our well-established impressions of EFL and ESL curriculum design and therefore the new tendency in course of study design views engineering as playing an indispensable function in instruction ( Almekhlafi, 2006 ) . Nevertheless, engineering dramas fringy function within the context of traditional course of study development as it is non to the full integrated to help the procedure of acquisition and instruction.

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While the proficient progresss of information engineering greatly impact English linguistic communication acquisition as it seems to hike pupil ‘ motive ( Mansor, 2007 ) , instructional engineering has been hardly used in Arabic categories and small attending has been made to incorporate engineering in learning and larning Arabic. The positive results of incorporating engineering in instruction along with other informations convince a figure of states including the United Arab Emirates to ship on the usage of Internet and information engineering in the educational system in order to bring forth a work force that is educated, skilled in new engineerings and able to confront planetary challenges. This survey sought to really look into linguistic communication instructors ‘ perceptual experiences of engineering use in UAE ‘s k-12 schools. It employed both quantitative and qualitative instruments in order to capture a larger image and derive a better apprehension of the instruction and larning state of affairs. The undermentioned research inquiries were addressed:

How do instructors comprehend their competences in incorporating engineering in learning linguistic communications?

What kinds of barriers do linguistic communication instructors perceive when incorporating engineering in their instruction?

What kinds of inducements do instructors expect to have as a consequence of incorporating engineering in linguistic communication instruction?

How do instructors see their pupils ‘ usage of engineering in the schoolroom to heighten linguistic communication acquisition?

What sort of engineering do instructors prefer to utilize in learning linguistic communications?

How do instructors see the usage of engineering in heightening linguistic communication instruction and acquisition?

Literature Review

The use of engineering in K-12 schoolrooms has increased quickly since the launch of school computing machine in the 1970s ( Eugene, 2006 ; Puma, Chaplin and Pape, 2000 ; National Governor ‘s Association, 1999 ) . Teachers are found today to be really busy using engineering to ease instruction and acquisition. Teachers in fact are seen to be powerful to present new instructional thoughts in their categories such as the integrating of engineering into the course of study. A figure of surveies were conducted to look into how curriculum integrating with the usage of engineering as a tool may heighten linguistic communication acquisition in the content country or multidisciplinary scenes ( Greenfield, 2003 ; Evans, 2004 ; Wong 2004 ; Miner, 2004 ; Brodskaya and Thiele, 2004 ; Velazquez-Torres, 2006 ; Timucin 2006 ; Eugene, 2006 ; Hixon, 2008 ; Roblyer and Davis, 2008 ; Roblyer et Al. 2008 ) .

Teachers are seen to be active agents in the procedure of alterations and execution of new thoughts as their beliefs and attitudes may back up or hinder the success of any educational reform such as an advanced engineering plan and/or the integrating of engineering to back up instruction and acquisition ( Woodrow, 1991 ) . Therefore, attending has late been paid to the function of instructors in back uping reform such as the use of engineering in schoolrooms. Some research workers focused on the relationship between instructors ‘ perceptual experiences and engineering integrating. Eugene ( 2006 ) investigated how instructors ‘ attitudes and beliefs may impact the integrating of engineering in their categories. For the intent of mensurating instructors ‘ attitudes and beliefs about the integrating of engineering and what makes quality direction, the research worker used the “ Conditionss that Support Constructivist Uses of Technology Survey ” which was ab initio developed and used by Ravitze and Light ( 2000 ) . Thirty-two instructors responded to the questionnaire to mensurate their attitudes and beliefs about direction and engineering integrating. A schoolroom observation technique was besides used to happen out how instructors ‘ beliefs and attitudes may correlate with their instruction patterns and the execution of engineering. After analysing the information, the research worker found that there was a disagreement between instructors ‘ beliefs and their existent instructional patterns of incorporating engineering. The research worker indicated at the terminal that the consequences of this little graduated table survey came contrary to old larger scale surveies. What made this survey different from big graduated table survey was that it employed the observation technique which had the power of capturing cardinal elements of informations.

In a similar survey, Simonsson ( 2004 ) used a questionnaire to look into the beliefs of 103 bilingual simple school instructors toward the use of engineering when integrating cultural constituents. The findings of this survey indicated that the use of engineering is related to instructors ‘ beliefs, attitudes and the extent to which other teachers employed engineering in their instruction. A fringy consequence highlighted that many bilingual instructors believed that engineering might help them to integrate cultural issues to clear up of import points. In a survey within the Puerto Rican context, Velazquez-Torres ( 2006 ) investigated instructors ‘ perceptual experiences and preparedness to incorporate engineering in their categories. The qualitative informations emerged from a questionnaire showed that instructors were non ready to incorporate engineering with instructional stuffs. The information revealed that there is a mismatch between the in-service and pre-service preparation plans. Although pre-service preparation plans did non include any technology-component, instructors were required to utilize engineering when they started learning in public schools.

In the country of CALL ( Computer Assisted Language Learning ) research workers tried to look at the impact of engineering integrating on ESL/EFL acquisition ( Timucin, 2006 ; Al-Mekhlafi, 2006 ; Frigaard, 2002 ) . Timucin, ( 2006 ) looked closely at the procedure of implementing an EFL invention in the signifier of CALL in a Turkish State University ‘s Preparatory Program. This survey was set to look into the effectivity of the usage of multimedia along with a text edition to learn EFL pupils. The focal point of the undertaking was to advance pupils ‘ communicative competency and liberty via the execution of the aforesaid tools. The research worker used two major instruments for roll uping informations, viz. questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. One of the salient findings showed that the instructors became more involved in fixing auxiliary stuffs by working the new technological installations that the new undertaking made available for their usage. Another striking determination showed that instructors became more interested and involved in meetings and treatment with co-workers and decision makers. Frigaard ( 2002 ) besides examined the public presentation of high school pupils ‘ who participated in a computing machine lab on vocabulary, grammar, and listening comprehension in Spanish. Analysis of pupil studies indicated that the computing machine lab was a good tool, profiting some pupils more than others. Some pupils favored lab-based activities while others favored flash cards and games. Most of the pupils believed that the computing machine lab improved their hearing accomplishments and made category more interesting and they enjoyed holding on a regular basis scheduled lab Sessionss.

In the country of online larning research workers emphasize that this displacement in instruction in the information epoch can finally heighten quality instruction and acquisition. Online larning indisputably provides convenience, flexibleness and economic advantages that make it a well-liked acquisition manner in the information epoch ( Debela, 2008 ) . Miner ( 2004 ) investigated whether online instruction has the power of heightening motive and helping linguistic communication acquisition, viz. composing accomplishments. The research worker besides determined whether “ Student Moderated Discussion Boards ” were more effectual than “ teacher moderated 1s ” . The consequences showed that the “ Student Moderated Discussion Boards ” were more effectual at increasing the figure, length, and quality of the stations. At the terminal of the semester, none of the pupils in the “ Student Moderated Discussion Boards ” was found to compose less and at a lower quality than those in the “ Instructor Moderated Group ” . In footings of their comfort degree while take parting in the treatment boards, “ Student Moderated Discussion Boards ” resulted in pupils experiencing significantly more comfy.

Following the same way, Evans ‘ ( 2004 ) research was designed to place the low-retention rate of pupils in online categories and the factors that lead to lower continuity in on-line categories. The research job was investigated from the participants ‘ position, viz. the pupils of the Pasadena City College ( PCC ) . The overall consequences showed that pupils who are merely get downing an on-line class, or who have taken more than one on-line class, believed that the jobs or issues found in the online environment at PCC were non barriers to a successful acquisition experience. The usage of electronic mail in the country of ESL instruction has besides received certain sum of attending. Greenfield ( 2003 ) examined secondary ESL pupils ‘ attitude and perceptual experiences of a collaborative e-mail exchange between a Form 4 ( 10th class ) ESL category in Hong Kong and 11th grade English category in Iowa. The exchange was based on an instructional theoretical account designed by the research worker. The qualitative informations gained from the personal interviews showed a strong pupil support for the collaborative exchange theoretical account. Hong Kong participants used mostly positive adjectives to depict their experience, believing it was ‘a good larning experience ‘ , ‘helpful ‘ , ‘enjoyable ‘ , and something they would ‘like to reiterate in the hereafter ‘ . An interesting consequence was that concerted acquisition via collaborative e-mail exchange received the most positive pupil responses. However, as the undertaking progressed, pupils with strong computing machine accomplishments indicated less satisfaction than those with weak computing machine accomplishments.

The field of ESL instruction has besides witnessed some advanced alterations in the signifier of technology-applications which were introduced to help the procedure of instruction and acquisition ( Wong, 2004 ; Prapinwong and Puthikanon, 2008 ) . In their survey, Prapinwong and Puthikanon ( 2008 ) tried to research the utility of WebQuests in EFL contexts and to look into whether these tools are truly applicable for EFL scholars. Basically, they explored features of WebQuests and created a working rubric to critically measure WebQuests based on five factors: “ degree of vocabulary and grammar, content/prior cognition, interestingness, assistance/scaffolding and task demand ” . Based on the rubric, they assessed 15 of the most popular WebQuests and found a 100 % inter-rater understanding. The consequences indicated that merely 26 % of the selected WebQuests could easy be adopted for EFL direction while most of them needed to be modified. A figure of WebQuests were found to be culturally or socially irrelevant to EFL scholars.

In an interesting authorship survey, Wong ( 2004 ) investigated whether the utilizing of engineering would better student-writing public presentation in a low-advanced authorship category. A “ Calibrated Peer Review ” and “ ProBoards ” , which are Internet-based instructional package tools, were used to assist pupils to larn about authorship by composing on of import subjects. The pupils reported that they found both tools to be meaningful and effectual when larning to compose academic texts. Approximately 80 % of ESL pupils who used these tools reported greater comfort with engineering and greater apprehension of cardinal composing accomplishments. However, the scholars found that “ ProBoards ” was more user-friendly and it allowed them more room for creativeness when composing their paragraphs. With the “ Calibrated Peer Review ” , the scholars felt that they had less room to be original in their authorship though they were offered better feedback.

However, in the context of the United Arab Emirates, surveies affecting engineering integrating in linguistic communication instruction and acquisition are minimum. Al-Mekhlafi ( 2004 ) investigated the consequence of Interactive Multimedia ( IMM ) CD-ROM on the accomplishment of 6th grade pupils in relation to their acquisition manners. Consequences showed no important difference between the two groups in the overall accomplishment. However, consequences showed that field-independent scholars scored significantly higher than field-dependent. One of the recommendations stated in the survey was that IMM should be investigated as an individualised acquisition tool.

Hence, in a subsequent survey, Al-Mekhlafi ( 2006 ) investigated the effectivity of Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) on larning English as a foreign linguistic communication ( EFL ) by simple school pupils in the United Arab Emirates. Eighty-three pupils in a Model-Prep School in the UAE were selected and divided into experimental and control groups ( 43 and 40 participants severally ) . Consequences of Analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) showed a important difference between CALL users and non-users in favour of the experimental group ( p. & lt ; .05 ) . In add-on, a questionnaire was administered to Name users to look into their attitude, perceptual experiences and purpose to utilize CALL in the hereafter. Students in the experimental group had a positive attitude toward CALL, perceived its public-service corporation for assisting them learn EFL, and had a strong purpose to utilize it in the hereafter. Although the consequences obtained from the quantitative informations have provided grounds of the consequence of CALL on larning English as a foreign linguistic communication, the research worker pointed out at the terminal that there is a critical demand for the usage of a qualitative attack in order to make a thorough apprehension of the state of affairs.

The above reappraisal of the literature reveals that the issue of incorporating engineering into English linguistic communication categories has been exhaustively investigated in different contexts and at different degrees. However, surveies in the country of incorporating engineering in L1 categories ( Arabic linguistic communication ) are to some extent limited and rare. Merely few surveies were conducted in certain contexts. An Example of these surveies is Abdelrahman ‘s ( 2001 ) research about the usage of computing machines in measure uping Arabic instructors in the colleges of instruction in Egypt. The research worker attempted to demo the importance of utilizing computing machine in measure uping Arabic linguistic communication instructors. Besides, he attempted to place some of the outstanding facets of the relationship between Arabic linguistic communication and computing machine. The research worker ‘s decision was that instructors of Arabic linguistic communication did non utilize computing machine because they were non offered any chance to come into contact with such a tool during their preparation in instruction colleges in Egypt. They merely came into contact with computing machines after graduating and going instructors.

In the country of Arabic as a foreign linguistic communication ( AFL ) , Salem ( 1993 ) Investigated the effects of “ computing machine mediated support ” on the reading comprehension and reading behaviour of get downing American readers of AFL during independent reading of comparatively short expository and narrative texts. Twenty-four first twelvemonth pupils of AFL at a college degree participated in this survey. The topics of the survey were offered computer-assisted reading at four degrees of intervention: control ( usage of text merely ) , entree to glossary, entree to junction of selected verbs in the text, and entree to play down information. ‘Immediate Recall Protocol ‘ was used as an assessment tool to mensurate reading comprehension. The analysis of informations revealed important differences between the control status and the three intervention conditions. Readers with entree to a ‘computer mediated reading support ‘ scored higher on the callback protocol step. The overall findings suggested that vocabulary cognition was the primary subscriber to reading comprehension while background information played an undistinguished function in heightening comprehension. Verb junction was found to be an irrelevant factor in advancing comprehension.

Methodology

A combination of quantitative and qualitative attacks was used in order to capture a larger image and derive a better apprehension of the state of affairs.

Participants

The population of this survey included all instructors of Arabic and English in K-12 schools in the UAE. U? A graded sample from the full population of the survey were selected. A figure of instructors ( 621 ) from 67 schools in different emirates ( Abu-Dhabi: 25, Sharjah: 15, Fujairah: 12, RAK: 10 and Ajman: 5 ) filled in the questionnaire. More than half ( 58 % ) of the take parting instructors were females and the remainder of them were males. In relation to their capable countries, there were 342 Arabic instructors, 242 English instructors and 37 anon. . About 68 % of both groups have more than 5 old ages of learning experience, while the remainder of them have less than 5 old ages. The focus-group interviews included 28 instructors ( 15 Arabic and 13 English ) .

Instruments

Both a questionnaire and a focal point group interview were developed and used to roll up the relevant information. The questionnaire included six chief subjects relevant to instructional engineering that Arabic and English instructors employed. It was refereed by a panel of university professors and supervisors of both Arabic and English linguistic communications in order to set up its cogency. The questionnaire used a five-point Likert graduated tables widening from 5 ( really high or strongly hold ) to 1 ( really low or strongly disagree ) . Cronbach Alpha Formula was used to calculate the dependability of the questionnaire and the value was found to be 0.93. The focal point group interview technique was utilised to roll up informations from selected Arabic and English instructors about the integrating of engineering in learning linguistic communications. The inquiries of the interview were reviewed and refereed by a figure of module members in the UAE University to look into if they matched the subjects of the questionnaire and they could bring forth supportive informations. During the focal point group interviews more attending was paid to certain cardinal issues such as the barriers impeding engineering integrating in linguistic communication categories and the solutions for get the better ofing such jobs.

Data Collection processs

A systematic process was used for roll uping and administrating the information. First, a figure of research helpers helped in administering the questionnaire in 67 K-12 schools after they had attended a preparation workshop. All Arabic and English instructors who were available during the research workers and/or research helpers ‘ visit were requested to finish the study. During the first semester of the academic twelvemonth 2008-2009, a big figure of the questionnaire ( 850 ) was distributed in different schools in five emirates. About 73 % of the questionnaires were returned ( 621 ) . Then, the research workers and the research helpers conducted focal point group interviews with selected Arabic and English instructors from different schools and Emirates. Finally, a twosome of research helpers helped in inputting informations onto computing machine.

Datas Analysis

The SPSS plan was used to obtain different types of descriptive and t-test from the quantitative informations collected via the questionnaire. A model was created to categorise instructors ‘ responses to the focal point group interview inquiries into subjects in order to ease the analysis procedure ( Holliday, 2002 ) . Teachers ‘ responses were so cumulatively analyzed for commonalties ( Levin and Wadmany, 2006b ) . Similarities and differences between the two groups were highlighted where appropriate. Findingss from qualitative informations analyses were materialized and incorporated into the consequences treatment of the research inquiries. Following Creswell ( 2003 ) the reading of the quantitative five graduated table Likert questionnaire information was supported by the qualitative informations obtained via the focal point group interview.

Consequences and Discussion

The survey consequences will be organized and discussed in conformity with the research inquiries. To reply inquiry figure 1 “ How do instructors comprehend their competences in incorporating engineering in learning linguistic communications? “ , consequences indicated that instructors had high perceptual experiences of their engineering integrating competences ( see Table 1 ) . The average tonss of participants ranged from 3.7 to 4.5 on a 5-point graduated table runing from strongly hold “ 5 ” to strongly differ “ 1 ” . This means that instructors regarded themselves as holding the capablenesss and accomplishments to utilize different types of engineerings in their instruction such as utilizing different computing machine plans, bring forthing technology-based undertakings, making multimedia presentations, and incorporating linguistic communication labs to heighten instruction and acquisition. This thought was supported by both Arabic and English instructors during the focal point group interviews. The analysis and reading of the interviews ‘ consequences revealed that both Arabic and English instructors about possess the same accomplishments in utilizing engineering in their categories for the intent of easing pupils ‘ acquisition. Teachers indicated that their grasp and consciousness of the importance and utility of engineering had convinced them to incorporate it to back up instruction and acquisition. Harmonizing to their positions, competence in utilizing engineering was acquired as a consequence of the handiness of computing machines and other machines in their schools and categories. In the literature there is some grounds which is in harmoniousness with this determination. Teachers normally integrate more engineering in their categories when they possess higher grades of engineering self-efficacy ( Zhang and Espinoza, 1998 ; Lam, 2000 ) . A similar determination was reported by a survey conducted by ChanLin, Hong, Horng, Chang and Chu ( 2006 ) . They stated that all instructors participated in their survey showed cognition and competence in utilizing computing machine for instructional intents.

When differences between English and Arabic linguistic communication instructors are investigated, t-tests showed really few differences between the two groups. Sometimes, English linguistic communication instructors had higher perceptual experience mean tonss than Arabic instructors such as ‘using nomenclature related to computing machines ‘ , ‘using computing machine peripherals ‘ , and ‘using engineering for distance instruction ‘ ( see table # 1 ) . In other instances, the Arabic instructors had higher mean tonss than English linguistic communication instructors as in ‘using engineering for informations presentation ‘ , and ‘creating multimedia presentations ‘ . A possible reading could be attributed to the nature of the linguistic communication whether it was being a native or non-native linguistic communication. A similar determination was reported by Simonsson ( 2004 ) about bilingual instructors who indicated certain grades for utilizing a peculiar technology-application. Teachers pointed out that they selected their technology-application in conformity with their declared aims. The descriptive findings indicated that bilingual instructors used different technology- applications to fit their demands, involvements, beliefs and competences. ChanLin, Hong, Horng, Chang and Chu ( 2006 ) found that the fluctuations in the instructors ‘ integrating of engineering were related to the differences in their instruction spheres. In the UAE context, both Arabic and English instructors have entree to engineering in about every category in public schools. However, the small difference in competence in favour of the English instructors might be attributed to their bid of English which is considered as an indispensable component for a successful integrating of engineering.

Table # 1

Teachers ‘ perceptual experiences of their engineering integrating competences

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-Test

Using computing machine plans related to linguistic communication instruction and acquisition.

4.4

4.4

4.4

-0.008

Producing technology-based stuffs such as booklets and booklets

4.3

4.2

4.3

1.029

Using engineering to acquire and measure information retrieved from different resources

4.5

4.5

4.6

1.748

Using engineering for informations presentation and analysis.

4.1

4.0

4.2

2.365*

Discussion of safety and wellness issues related to engineering usage

4.0

3.9

4.1

1.630

Operating a computing machine utilizing a assortment of package bundles.

4.4

4.5

4.4

-1.382

Using nomenclature related to computing machines and Using appropriate engineering for written and unwritten communications.

4.2

4.3

4.2

-2.713*

Using devices such as scanners, digital cameras, and/or picture cameras with computing machines and package.

4.2

4.3

4.1

-3.118*

Using word processing applications.

4.1

4.4

4.0

-4.408*

Using computing machines for making databases

3.8

3.9

3.8

-1.462

Using spreadsheet applications such as MS Excel. .

4.2

4.3

4.2

-0.772

Making multimedia presentations such as PowerPoint presentations.

4.5

4.5

4.6

2.840*

Using computing machines for online communicating ( e.g. , electronic mails ) .

4.4

4.4

4.3

-0.773

Employing adaptative & A ; assistive devices for pupils with particular demands.

3.7

3.7

3.7

-0.199

Planing web sites

3.3

3.4

3.3

-1.129

Using distance acquisition hardware and package.

3.7

3.8

3.6

-2.266*

Using computing machines to help pupils with particular demands.

3.7

3.8

3.6

-1.475

Using computing machines to assess pupils larning.

4.2

4.3

4.1

-0.895*

Integrating linguistic communication labs to heighten pupils ‘ acquisition

4.2

4.3

4.1

-3.245*

Integrating engineering to heighten pupils ‘ acquisition

4.4

4.5

4.3

-3.227*

Using computing machine plans that enhance pupils ‘ reading ability

4.4

4.4

4.3

-1.257

Note. *p & lt ; 0.05

To reply inquiry figure 2 “ What kinds of barriers do linguistic communication instructors perceive when incorporating engineering in their instruction? “ , consequences showed that both English and Arabic linguistic communication instructors about perceived the same barriers that hindered their integrating of engineering in learning. Consequences from Table # 2 showed that instructors were slightly moderate in their perceptual experiences of the barriers that they encountered when using engineering in instruction. The overall average tonss ranged between 2.3 and 3.9. The most of import barrier acknowledged by instructors was “ deficiency of clip needed for readying and execution of engineering ” . During the focal point group interviews many instructors indicated that they can use engineering more expeditiously if clip is taken into history when scheduling their instruction tonss. In their survey about factors influence on engineering integrating, ChanLin et Al. ( 2006 ) reported that instructors stated that the integrating of engineering in their categories required much more clip and attempt than making regular learning without engineering. The least of import barrier realized by instructors was “ lack of cognition and accomplishments in engineering integrating ” . Teachers ‘ statement during the focal point group interviews demonstrated clearly that engineering competence is non an issue for them but there are other significant factors such as clip handiness and efficient equipment care. This indicated that instructors viewed themselves as holding the accomplishments to incorporate engineering in learning linguistic communications, but they needed the right aid to get the better of obstructions like the 1s stated above. Though the analysis of the questionnaire showed that instructors possess the necessary competences to incorporate engineering in their categories, they admitted during the interview-conferences that they still need more workshops and preparation in utilizing certain sophisticated plans which proved to hold the power of helping instruction and acquisition linguistic communications.

Table # 2

Technology integrating barriers

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-test

Lack of clip needed for readying and execution of engineering

3.9

3.9

4.0

0.583

Dearth of engineering resources at schools

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.117

Insufficient lab-equipment

3.4

3.4

3.3

-0.483

Scarcity of labs ‘ qualified staff

3.1

3.0

3.0

-0.227

Curricula barriers

3.2

3.3

3.2

-1.096

Insufficient encouragement

2.9

2.8

3.0

1.656

Lack of cognition and accomplishments in engineering integrating

2.3

2.3

2.3

-0.314

Lack of instructor preparation workshops

3.3

3.3

3.2

-0.716

Dearth of engineerings needed for learning linguistic communications

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.131

Deficit of equipment and engineering care

3.1

3.2

3.0

-1.272

Lack of pupils ‘ desire for engineering integrating

2.8

2.8

2.8

0.189

To reply inquiry figure 3 “ What kinds of inducements do instructors expect to have as a consequence of incorporating engineering in linguistic communication instruction? “ , consequences showed that both English and Arabic linguistic communication instructors extremely regarded the importance of inducements for successful engineering integrating ( see Table 3 ) . The average tonss for all points were 4.4 and above on a 5-point graduated table. This indicated that instructors regarded holding an inducement such as ‘free or discounted computing machines ‘ , ‘positive ratings ‘ , ‘release clip ‘ , or ‘salary increase ‘ as really critical for successful engineering integrating in learning. Solid support for this point was raised during some of the focus-group Sessionss when a considerable figure of Arabic and English instructors expressed their concerns about the handiness of clip for utilizing engineering. For those instructors, utilizing engineering required them to pass a batch of clip in fixing and puting up equipment. For this ground, they thought that giving release clip to those instructors who used engineering was a sensible inducement. A similar determination about instructors ‘ concerns of clip restraints was highlighted in a survey carried out by ChanLin et Al. ( 2006 ) about factors act uponing the use of engineering. They stated that instructors felt that the integrating of engineering in schoolroom direction needed more clip and attempt. Sing differences between English and Arabic instructors, t-test showed two important differences in favour of Arabic instructors. Arabic instructors mean tonss on ‘participation in particular workshops ‘ , and ‘having school or educational zone acknowledgment ‘ were significantly higher than the average tonss of English instructors. In their survey Yang and Huang ( 2008 ) argued that although instructors believed that pupils might profit from the use of engineering in direction, they faced barriers that made integrating hard to implement. Teachers highlighted barriers such as deficiency of appropriate preparation workshop, deficiency of personal counsel and consultancy, deficiency of suited instructional package and hardware and clip restraints. The barriers ( deficiency of clip, deficiency of preparation workshops, deficiency of encouragement and support ) indicated in the present survey were found to be similar to those found in old research ( Beckwith, 2001 ; Guha, 2001 ; Smith, 2001 ; Butler and Sellbom, 2002 ; Yang and Huang, 2008 ; Al-Senaidi et Al. 2009 ) .

Table # 3

Teachers ‘ Percepts of inducements that they should acquire to incorporate engineering in learning linguistic communications

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-test

Free or discounted personal computing machines

4.5

4.4

4.5

1.279

Participating in particular workshops

4.5

4.4

4.5

2.827*

Extra resources for their schoolroom

4.4

4.4

4.5

0.901

Positive ratings

4.4

4.4

4.5

0.548

School or educational zone acknowledgment

4.5

4.4

4.6

2.676*

Free package.

4.4

4.4

4.4

0.214

Release clip

4.6

4.5

4.6

1.729

Salary increase

4.5

4.5

4.6

1.109

Mentor teacher appellation ( or similar appellation (

4.6

4.6

4.6

0.025

To reply inquiry figure 4 “ How do instructors see their pupils ‘ usage of engineering in the schoolroom to heighten linguistic communication acquisition? “ , consequences showed different grades of perceptual experiences runing from moderate to high regardless of the linguistic communication ( English versus Arabic ) . The consequences did non demo any important differences between the two groups of instructors. The overall mean tonss for pupils ‘ engineering usage in the schoolroom and at computing machine and/or linguistic communication labs were 4.1 and 4.0 ( see Table 4 ) . In a old survey, Bungum ( 2006 ) reported that instructors showed a high grasp for the high merchandises made by the pupils when they use engineering. However, the research worker expressed concerns about the overreliance of instructors on a to a great extent engineering instructional method which was clip consuming and neglecting salient elements specified in the formal course of study. In Bungum ‘s ( 2006 ) survey, instructors decided to let pupils to pass the necessary clip to do quality merchandises.

Similarly, the average tonss on the consequence of engineering on pupils ‘ interaction, independency, and engagement were severally high ( 4.2, 4.0, and 4.1 ) . There are indicants in the literature showing that pupils are continuously increasing their motive, fulfilling their wonder, larning better and carry throughing assorted larning results when engineering was integrated into the course of study ( ; Hinson, 2005 ; ChanLin et Al. 2006 ) . This consequence coincided with Schofield and Davidson ‘s ( 2003 ) happening which indicated that pupils became more autonomous scholars and gained more control over content when engineering was used. On the other manus, the instructors ‘ mean tonss on other points related to engineering usage and consequence on larning were moderate and sometimes nearing impersonal such as ‘using engineering to take part in distance acquisition activities ‘ , and ‘using engineering to develop linguistic communication accomplishments. A possible reading could be that linguistic communication instructors needed their pupils ‘ to utilize computing machines and engineering in general in a hand-on manner such as utilizing linguistic communication labs. Besides, during focal point group interview sessions some instructors expressed their concerns about the drawbacks of engineering. Both groups of Arabic and English instructors believed that engineering had the power to divert the attending of both instructors and pupils from what was ab initio planned in the course of study.

Table # 4

Teachers ‘ perceptual experiences of their pupils ‘ use of engineering in schoolrooms

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-test

Students ‘ usage of engineering at computing machine and/or linguistic communication labs.

4.0

4.0

4.0

-0.335

In-class usage of engineering by pupils to larn different linguistic communication accomplishments.

4.1

4.1

4.1

0.679

Using engineering to take part in distance acquisition activities with fellow pupils from other schools.

3.4

3.4

3.4

-0.071

Using computing machine to develop their linguistic communication accomplishments.

3.8

3.8

3.8

-0.419

Increasing different degree of pupils ‘ interaction as a consequence of utilizing engineering.

4.2

4.2

4.3

0.938

Becoming more independent as a consequence of utilizing different lexicons.

4.0

4.0

4.0

0.096

More engagement in different activities outside the school a consequence of utilizing engineering.

3.8

3.8

3.9

0.994

Becoming more involved a consequence of utilizing engineering.

4.1

4.1

4.2

0.585

To reply inquiry figure 5 “ What sort of engineering do instructors prefer to utilize in learning linguistic communications? “ , consequences showed that the sort of engineering preferred by instructors depends on its application to learning linguistic communications. The overall mean tonss for all instructors ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 on a 5-point graduated table. Consequences besides showed some important differences between English and Arabic linguistic communication instructors. This could be easy explained by the fact that Arabic is a native linguistic communication while English is taught as an EFL linguistic communication. Looking at Table 5, we see that the mean mark for utilizing videotapes in instruction is significantly higher for Arabic instructors than for English ( 4.0 versus 3.8 ) . This may be due to the efficaciousness and viability of learning first and 2nd linguistic communications. Basically, this perceptual experience was supported by the consequences of the focal point group interviews. During the focus-group interviews both Arabic and English instructors specified that they video-tape their pupils while they are in action during different undertakings such as take parting in a duologue or describing a group ‘s reply. In their positions, the intent of such activity is to supply pupils with valuable chance to see themselves in action and reflect on their ain public presentation. This consequence was supported by Ma, Andersson and Streith ( 2005 ) who reported in their survey that instructors ‘ perceived utility of engineering contributed to their enthusiasm to utilize computing machine for schoolroom instructional intents.

Perversely, consequences showed important differences in favour of English instructors in utilizing electronic mail, lexicons and encyclopaedias, linguistic communication labs, and electronic forums. The agency tonss for those variables were 3.9, 4.0, 3.8, and 3.6 severally as opposed to 3.4, 3.8, 3.4, and 3.5 for Arabic instructors. This indicates that English linguistic communication instructors need to supply their pupils with more chances to pattern and utilize the linguistic communication since English is an EFL linguistic communication for about all pupils. However, the uninterrupted overexploitation of engineering might ensue in developing a negative attitude toward it. In their survey, McKinnon, Nolan, and Sinclair ( 2000 ) reported that pupils ‘ motive and attitudes toward engineering decreased one time the usage of computing machine became portion of the day-to-day schoolroom instructional modus operandi.

Table # 5

Teachers ‘ perceptual experiences of their use of engineering tools in the schoolrooms

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-test

Language instruction plans

4.1

4.1

4.2

0.670

Video tapes

3.9

3.8

4.0

2.084*

Over Head and Opaque Projectors

4.4

4.3

4.4

0.283

Television

3.8

3.7

3.8

0.977

Electronic mail

3.6

3.9

3.4

-4.641*

World Wide Web

4.2

4.3

4.2

-1.574

Distance -training Sessionss

3.7

3.7

3.6

-0.181

Resources from local environment

4.2

4.2

4.1

-0.750

Smart and synergistic boards

3.7

3.7

3.7

-0.125

Chat suites and treatment boards

3.4

3.3

3.4

1.059

Newsgroups

3.6

3.6

3.6

0.049

Audio tapes

4.2

4.3

4.2

-1.547

Dictionaries, encyclopaedias

3.9

4.0

3.8

-2.028*

Language labs

3.6

3.8

3.4

-4.162*

Electronic forums

3.6

3.6

3.5

-1.219*

To reply inquiry figure 6 “ How do instructors see the usage of engineering in heightening linguistic communication instruction and acquisition? “ , the consequences demonstrated that both Arabic and English instructors appreciated the function of engineering in advancing instruction and acquisition. The overall mean tonss for both linguistic communications ranged from 4.1 to 4.5 on a 5 point graduated table. This gave a intimation that many instructors viewed engineering as an indispensable demand for their categories. A similar consequence was reported by Wong et Al. ( 2006 ) about instructors ‘ positive perceptual experiences about the usage of computing machine in back uping the face-to-face instruction and acquisition in ‘project work ‘ schoolroom. In respect to differences between consequences, table # 6 showed five chief important agencies in favour of English instructors ( 4.4, 4.5, 4.4, 4,4 & A ; 4.3 ) as opposed to those of Arabic instructors ‘ low agencies ( 4.3, 4.3, 4.2, 4.2 & A ; 4.1 ) . This could explicate the fact that English instructors appreciated a figure of technological installations more than Arabic instructors as they needed their pupils to hold uninterrupted contact with the foreign linguistic communication by utilizing different agencies. English instructors, for illustration, revealed that engineering assisted in abandoning the traditional attacks and developing more synergistic ways in larning linguistic communications ( see table # 6 ) . During the focal point group interview Sessionss many instructors asserted that engineering has become indispensable in their day-to-day instruction activities. Teachers normally teach in the same manner they were taught but engineering provides them with valuable opportunity to reexamine their instruction. Teachers ‘ positions over the last two decennaries have changed as a consequence of altering the methods of carry oning teacher-training plans ( Abate, 2000 ; Wang, 2002 ) .

However, a important figure of English instructors argued that they were encouraged by the handiness of engineering in English plans to use engineering for different intents. The average mark for utilizing pronunciation lexicons ( 4.4 ) was higher for the English instructors than that of the Arabic instructors ( 4.2 ) . More English instructors thought that engineering provides pupils with concrete tools to utilize off-line every bit good as on-line pronunciation lexicons to look into and larn the right vocalizations of new words. This important consequence in favour of English instructors might be attributed to the fact that Arabic is the first linguistic communication of the scholars and they seldom encounter a pronunciation job that may necessitate to be resolved in that manner. This may besides be attributed to the fact that Arabic pronunciation lexicons are barely found either off-line or online. It is obvious here that the usage of engineering by Arabic instructors for significant acquisition and instruction activities was really modest. They chiefly used computing machine to assist them fix for their direction. A similar decision was made by Yang and Huang ( 2008 ) who found that instructors used engineering chiefly to fix their instruction activities and did non pay much attending to the use of engineering in advancing important instructional activities. ChanLin, et Al. ( 2006 ) , nevertheless, argued that instructors used engineering to fix trial, activities and press releases because they wanted their instruction to be diverse and originative. They besides argued that computing machine might be employed as a self-monitoring instrument to promote pupils to do more originative attempts.

Table # 6

Role of engineering in heightening linguistic communication instruction and acquisition

Variables

Overall Mean

English

Mean

Arabic

Mean

T-test

Using engineering helps pupils get linguistic communications.

4.4

4.4

4.4

0.116

Technology assists pupils in bettering their academic accomplishment and classs.

4.3

4.2

4.3

1.301

Students ‘ linguistic communication proficiency degree improves as a consequence of utilizing engineering.

4.2

4.3

4.1

-1.812

Technology aids in doing linguistic communication larning interesting and gratifying.

4.4

4.4

4.4

0.997

Students ‘ motive additions as a consequence of utilizing engineering in instruction.

4.4

4.5

4.4

-1.102

Technology aids in triping larning during linguistic communication categories.

4.4

4.4

4.3

-2.215*

Technology helps pupils better their linguistic communication accomplishments and cognition.

4.4

4.4

4.4

-0.232

Technology provides chances for utilizing different schemes in larning linguistic communications.

4.3

4.4

4.3

-1.090

Technology helps in incorporating different linguistic communication activities.

4.3

4.3

4.3

-0.935

Technology aids in larning the linguistic communication content in the schoolroom.

4.2

4.2

4.2

-0.326

Technology helps in advancing concerted activities during linguistic communication acquisition.

4.2

4.2

4.2

1.358

Technology aids in back uping undertaking activities and problem-solving.

4.1

4.1

4.1

-0.012

Technology helps in measuring schoolroom activities and salvaging different files.

4.4

4.4

4.4

-1.138

Technology helps pupils run into their different linguistic communication demands in the schoolroom.

4.3

4.3

4.3

0.038

Technology aids in abandoning the traditional attacks and developing more synergistic ways in instruction and acquisition linguistic communications

4.4

4.5

4.3

-2.390*

Technology plays a great function in larning the different linguistic communication accomplishments.

4.3

4.4

4.2

-2.647*

Technology provides pupils with tools for utilizing electronic pronunciation lexicons.

4.3

4.4

4.2

-3.205*

Technology offers electronic exercisings that promote independent acquisition.

4.3

4.3

4.3

-1.037

Technology aids in developing electronic tests and taging them in the same manner.

4.2

4.3

4.1

-2.101*

Decision

This survey had examined instructors ‘ perceptual experiences about incorporating instructional engineering in both Arabic and English categories in K-12 schools in the UAE. The analysis of both quantitative and qualitative informations revealed a figure of important consequences about instructors ‘ perceptual experiences toward the integrating of instructional engineering in their categories. The overall findings emphasized the critical function of engineering in first and 2nd linguistic communication instruction and acquisition. One of the outstanding consequences is that instructors asserted the ineluctable impact of engineering on their ain patterns and on that of their pupils. Technology is seen to help in abandoning the traditional methods of instruction and acquisition and encompassing those ways which have proved to hike pupils ‘ motive and promote the sum and quality of their instruction. Another critical consequence was that instructors showed willingness to speed up the integrating of engineering in their categories to better linguistic communication instruction and acquisition. However, clip and inducement variables were seen by instructors as stipulations for more engineering integrating. In decision, although this survey has made some part, the subject needs to be examined farther to look into the impact of engineering integrating on linguistic communication instruction in general and pupils ‘ linguistic communication proficiency in peculiar. Consequently, future surveies in the same line will unimpeachably lend to supply concrete understanding into the function of engineering integrating in ESL/EFL and first linguistic communication instruction and acquisition.

Recommendations

1. Conducting developing workshops for both Arabic and English instructors to better their engineering integrating accomplishments.

2. Honoring all instructors who integrate engineering in their categories.

3. Proving all schools with engineering substructure such as linguistic communication labs, information projectors, software-programs, entree to Internet installations, etc.

4. Supplying efficient care for engineering equipment.

5. Allocating adequate budgets for engineering care.

Suggestions for Future Surveies

1. Researching the impact of engineering integrating on pupils ‘ accomplishment.

2. Investigating the use of engineering integrating by male and female instructors

3. Analyzing engineering integrating inside and/or outside schoolrooms.

4. Investigating pupils ‘ perceptual experiences about engineering integrating.

5. Researching engineering integrating in public schools versus private schools.

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