Subject matter of financial management


There has been a great flux in the capable affair of fiscal direction. About three- decennary ago, the range of fiscal was restricted to the elevation of financess whenever needed & amp ; small significance used to the fiscal determination & A ; job resolution. The modern thought in the fiscal direction gives great importance to direction determination -making policies. Today fiscal director occupies a cardinal place in top direction and plays a dynamic function in work outing complex direction job.

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

The basic intent of this undertaking is to hold a through and deep apprehension of fiscal place of the house. A figure of books had been consulted for composing theory ; informations had been collected from the balance sheet and other beginning.

I have tried to minimise the printing error and put the contents in short & amp ; chip. I welcome the critical suggestion and any error found in the undertaking.


Behind every survey there stands a myriad of people whose aid and part make it successful. Since such a list will be a prohibitively long, I may be excused for of import skips.

The counsel, aid and co-operation of my supervisor Mr.Sanjeev Srivastava Sr.Accountant Officer, Books & A ; Budget, is appreciatively acknowledged with profound gratitude.

I am besides grateful to all others in Finance Department, H.E.E.P. , BHEL, Hardwar, who provided me with all the needed information for my undertaking.

Last non the Least, my particular thanks to our


I hereby declare that the survey entitled “INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ‘ in the context of H.E.E.P. BHEL” being submitted by me in the partial fulfillment of the demand for the award of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, by G.K.V is a record of my ain work. The survey was conducted at Finance Department, H.E.E.P. BHEL.

The affair embodied in this undertaking study has non been submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of grade This undertaking is my original work and it has non been presented earlier in this mode. this information is strictly of academic involvement.



The undertaking work is done to carry through the demand of our M.B.A grade class. It is an built-in portion of the course of study of this plan.

The chief aim of this undertaking is to hold deeper penetration in to the fiscal place of the company and do analysis of points of the

Balance sheet and net income & A ; loss a/c. This will assist to cognize about the past and present tendency every bit good as predict about the hereafter. It will assist to do inter house comparing and act harmonizing to this. What scheme a company has to do and in what filed more outgo is to be made, can be analyzed with the aid of the undertaking.



A universe category technology endeavor committed to heightening stakeholder value.


To be an Indian Multinational technology endeavor supplying Entire Business Solutions through Quality Products, Systems and Services in the Fieldss of Energy, Industry, Transportation, Infrasturcture and other possible countries.


  • Ardor to Excel and Zest for Change
  • Integrity and Fairness all affairs
  • Respect for Dignity and Potential ofIndividuals
  • Rigorous Adherence to Committednesss
  • Ensure Speed of Response
  • Foster Learning, Creativity and Teamwork
  • Loyalty and Pride in the Company


BHEL is the largest fabrication endeavor in India in the energy related/infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40 old ages ago showing in the autochthonal Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India, a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized path record of public presentation. It has been gaining net incomes continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77.

BHEL manufactures over 180 merchandises under 30 major merchandise groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz. , Power Generation & A ; Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The broad web of BHEL ‘s 14 fabrication divisions, four Power Sector regional centres, over 100 undertaking sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to quickly function its clients and supply them with suited merchandises, systems and services – expeditiously and at competitory monetary values.

The quality & A ; dependability of its merchandises is due to the accent on design, technology and fabrication to international criterions by geting and accommodating some of the best engineerings from taking companies in the universe, together with engineerings developed in its ain R & A ; D centres.


BHEL was established about 40 old ages ago to go the most of import symbol of Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India and rank amongst the first few in world.It is the largest heavy technology and fabrication endeavor of its sort in India with well- recognized path record of public presentation, doing net incomes continuously since 1971-72.The company achieved a turnover of Rs.7482.2 crores and Gross border of Rs802.4 crore in 2002-03. BHEL caters to core sector of Indian economic system viz. Power Generation and Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewal Energy Defence etc. The broad web of BHEL ‘s, 14 fabrication divisions, 4 Power sector regional centres, over 150 undertaking site and service centres and 15 regional offices enable the company to be closer to its client and supply them with suited merchandises, system and services at competitory monetary values. Having attained ISO 9001,14001 enfranchisement, BHEL is now on its journey towards TQM. The company built-in potency coupled with its strong public presentation over the old ages has resulted in it being chosen as on of the Navratna PSUs which enjoy the support from the authorities their enterprises to go planetary players.with its prudent fiscal direction. BHEL occupies an all important niche as apparent by its ranking by CII amongst top eight PSUs based on fiscal public presentation. Recently in study conducted by concern India, BHEL has been rated as 7th Best Employer in India.

Business Policy

“ In-line with Company ‘s Vision, Mission and values, we dedicate ourselves to prolong growing with increasing positive Economic Value Addition and Customer focussed concern leading in the Power and Industry Sector.


Quality is infact a manner of life in BHEL Hardwar. It is a ticker work whether in coming stuff, in procedure, machining, assembly or testing.Quality confidence system quality works and field quality confidence are AIDSs to tool quality construct.

A big figure of sophisticated testing and mensurating instruments including CNC 3-D coordinate measurement machine, non destructive proving installations like X-ray, Gamma rays, Ultrasonic, magnetic atom review are being extensively used.

As a portion of its uninterrupted journey in achieving excellence in quality direction, BHEL ( HEEP ) Hardwar has besides received planetary acknowledgment with the award of ISO-9001 certification by Bureau Varities Quality International for all its merchandises and services.

The merchandises, which had received ISO-9001 acknowledgment, include steam turbine and turbo generators, hydro turbines, hydro generators, gas turbines, capacitors heat money changers, AC/DC motors and associated control panels.

Business Aim

Growth: –

To guarantee a steady growing by heightening the compititive border of BHEL defense mechanism, telecommunication and electronics in bing concern, new countries and international operations so as to carry through national outlooks from BHEL.

Profitableness: –

To supply a sensible and equal return on capital employed, chiefly through betterments in operational efficiency, capacity use, productiveness and bring forth equal internal resources to finance the company ‘s growing.


To construct a high degreee of client assurance by supplying increased value for his money through international criterions of merchandise quality, public presentation and superior services.

PEOPLE- Orientation: –

To enable each employee to accomplish his potency, better his capablenesss, percieve his function and duties and take part and lend positively to the growing and success of the company. To put in humanresources continuously and be alive to their demands.

Technology: –

Achieve technological excellence in operations by development of autochthonal engineerings and efficient soaking up and versions of imported engineerings to suit concern demand and precedences and supply the compititive advantage to the company.

Image: –

To carry through the outlooks which stakeholders like authorities as proprietor, employees, clients and the state at big have from BHEL





  4. Chennai
  7. Jabalpur
  10. Lucknow
  11. Mumbai
  13. PATNA
  14. RAIPUR
  15. RANCHI


  1. Bangalore
  5. Hyderabad


  4. NOIDA
  5. PATNA


  3. AC & A ; DC MOTORS


1975 Job Redesign construct launched for FIRST clip in India.

1978 Well documented Suggestion Scheme launched.

1982 Launched Productivity Movement & A ; Quality Circle. Concept

1993 Accreditation of ISO 9001 quality System.

1995 Adopted EFQM theoretical account of TQM for accomplishing Business


1997 BHEL one of the 9PSE ‘s declared “ Navratna ” by Govt. of India.

1997 National Productivity Award for HEEP by the President of India.

1998 Certificate of Merit by National Productivity Council for outstanding public presentation for 2nd back-to-back twelvemonth.

1998 Accreditation of U cast.

1999 Accreditation of R Stamp from national Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspector, USA.

1999 AD-Merkblatt HPO Rectification by RWTUV for Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers

1999 INSAAN Award for Excellence in Suggestion for 9th back-to-back twelvemonth

1999 Launching of 5s construct

1999 PCRI recognized as Environmental Lab by Haryana State Board for Prevention and Control of Pollution

1999 Accreditation of ISO 14001-Enviornment direction system

2000 CII Site Visit for CII-EXIM Business Excellence Award-2000

2001 Top Management TQM Workshop at Rishikesh and HRDC

2001 INSAAN Award for excellence in Suggestion for 11th back-to-back twelvemonth

2001 Launching of QTM & A ; RCA at HEEP Hardwar by CMD

2002 Launching of bringing Index, Turnover Index and Manufacturing Index

2002 Accreditation of ISO 9000-2k

2002 JBE Workshop of Apex TQM Group at Tehri to germinate Business policy and CSF


Power Sector Giant of the World viz. Siemens Germany, ABB, General electric of USA etc. are the major rivals of HEEP. All these are the MNC ‘s and bask immense fiscal and R & A ; D backup.


  1. ANASALDO – Italy
  3. ABB – Switzerland
  4. BEEHTEL – United states
  5. BLOCK & A ; NEATCH – United states
  6. GENERAL ELECTRIC – United states
  7. RAYTHEON – United states
  8. WESTINGHOUSE – United states
  9. CNMI & A ; EC – China
  11. COSTAIN – United kingdom
  12. GEC-ALSTHOM – United kingdom
  13. NEI – United kingdom
  14. ELECTRIM – Poland
  15. FRANCO TOSI – France
  16. FUJI – Japan
  17. HITECHI – Japan
  18. MITSUBISHI – Japan
  19. MITSUI – Japan
  20. TOSHIBA – Japan
  21. ROLLS ROYCE – Germany
  22. SIEMENS – Germany

Major Clients INDUSTRY

  • National Aluminium Co. , Hindustan Aluminium Corp. Steel Authority of India Ltd. Tata Iron & A ; Steel Co. Hindustan Copper Ltd. Tinplate Co. of India Ltd. , Hindustan Zinc Ltd.
  • Cement Corp. of India, Associated cement co. Rajshree cement.
  • Hindustan organic chemical Ltd. , Hindustan Lever Ltd. , J.K. Synthetics Ltd. , Gujarat Hydro Carbons Ltd.
  • Hindustan Fertilizers & A ; Chemical Ltd. , Indian Farmers & A ; Fertilizers Co. , Fertilizers Corporation of Indian Rashtriya Chemicals & A ; Fertilizers Gujarat State FertilizerCorp, Chemical Fertilizer & A ; Chemicals Ltd.
  • Singareni Colleries Co.Ltd. , Central Coalfields Ltd. Bharat Cooking & A ; Coal Ltd.
  • Hindustan Paper Co. Ltd. , Bhadrachalam Paper Board, Century Pulp Paper, Grasim industries.
  • Hindustan Sugar. Mysore Sugar.
  • Indian Oil Corporation, Indian Petro Chemicals Ltd. , Madras Refineries Ltd, Hindustan Petro Chemicals Ltd.
  • Dunlop, CEAT, Modi Rubber Ltd
  • Defence Ministry


  • State Electricity Boards ( SEB ‘ s )
  • National Thermal Power Corp. ( NTPC )
  • National Hydro – Electric Power Corp.
  • Nuclear Power Corp
  • Damodar Valley Crop.
  • Ahmedabad Electricity Corp.
  • Tata Power Company
  • Neyveli Lignite Corp.
  • Durgapur Undertakings Limited
  • Kolkata Electric Supply Corp.
  • Bhakra Management / Beas Construction Board
  • Gujrat Industrial Power Corp.
  • Power and Development Department ( J & A ; K )
  • Maruti Udyog Limited
  • North Eastern Electric Power Corp.
  • Mumbai Suburban Electric Supply Corp.


SEB ‘s West Bengal Power Development Corp. Ltd. , Tenughat vidyut Nigam Ltd. , NTPC, Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd ( VSP ) , Indian Organic and Chemicals Ltd, National Fertilizers Ltd

Transportation system

Indian Railways, Kolkata Tramways co. Indian Iron & A ; Steel Co. Madras / Mumbai / Vizag Port Trust Delhi Administration.


Oil & A ; Natural Gas Comission, Oil India Ltd. Gas Authority of India Ltd / Mazaron Docks Ltd.


  • Increase Orders of Spares/Services to 230 Cr.
  • Decrease Capital employed by Rs. 120 Cr.
  • Salvaging in Material Cost by 16 Cr. i.e. 5 % – Rs. 4 Cr.
  • Decrease in indirect stuff +miscellaneous disbursals by 5 % -Rs. 4 Cr.
  • Effective execution of QTM/RCA/CTQ
  • Strengthening Internal client construct
  • Development of an Incentive Scheme
  • Reward Scheme including EXCEL Awards
  • Effective execution of PMS
  • Effective Contract Management
  • Technology Upgradation

“ Excellence trigon ‘ for each Critical Success Factor is now being drawn consisting betterment undertakings. These undertakings will be Centrally registered under On-line Central Registration system to be developed for it. While CSF Champion will take the entire stock of place in the betterment undertakings undertaken in his several CSF, advancement of single undertakings will be reviewed by Area TQ Council ( ATQC ) and Functional TQ Council ( FTQC ) .

One of the major strengths of HEEP Hardwar is its free, unfastened and consistent work civilization for doing uninterrupted betterment clearly apparent from the engagement of employees in Suggestions and Quality Circles. To acknowledge their attempts assorted productiveness thrusts and competition are organized through out the twelvemonth and Executive manager awards the victors in the particular Award Distribution Functions. National Award for Excellence in Suggestion Scheme for 11th back-to-back twelvemonth by INSSAN, National Award for excellence in Energy Conservation as an ” Energy Efficient unit ” by CII, CMD ‘s Rolling Trophy for 3rd back-to-back twelvemonth, ‘Well known Forge Shop “ by Central Boiler Board etc. are some Vir Award 2001 ” and 12 employees honoured with “ Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puraskar ” during 2001-02.

The journey to excellence is unending. It is a uninterrupted hunt with committedness and belongingness. Sky so is non the bound for flawlessness. The passage has strongly experienced a soundless internalisation with a blend of committedness of the bing human resource for making benchmarks for excellence. The outgrowth of function theoretical accounts and distinct drive force at the top provide an anvil to unleash the potency, which remain undiscovered in hunt of “ Attitude to execute ” . The rush has started and is acquiring communicated down the. BHEL today through TQM is on March towards excellenc

Business Sector

BHEL ‘s operations are organised around three concern sectors, chiefly power, industry and international operations. This enables BHEL to hold a strong clients orientations, to be sensitive to his demands and respond rapidly to the alterations in the market.

Power Sector: –

Power is the nucleus sector of BHEL and comprises of thermal, atomic gas, Diesel and hydro concern. Today BHEL supplied sets, histories for about 66 % of the sum installed capacity in the state as against nothing boulder clay 1969-70.

BHEL manufactures boilers auxillaries, TG sets and associate controls, shrieking and station C & A ; I upto 500 MW evaluation with engineering and capcbility to travel upto 1000 MW scope. The auxillary merchandises high value capital equipment like bowl and tubing Millss, pumps and warmers, electrostatic precipitators, hydrometric feeders, fans, valves etc.

BHEL has contracted so far around 240 thermic sets of assorted evaluations which includes 14 power workss set up on bend cardinal footing. About 85 % of universe bank stamps for thermic sets floated in India have been won by the company against international competition.

BHEL has adopted the engineering to the demands of the state and local conditions. This has led to the development of several engineerings in house. The fluidised bed boiler that uses low graded high-ash scratchy Indian coal is an result of such an attempt. With big scale handiness of natural gas and the sudden addition in demand, BHEL began to fabricate gas turbines and now possesses two watercourse of gas turbine engineering.

It has the capableness to fabricate gas turbines upto 200 MW evaluation and usage built combined rhythm power workss. Nuclear steams generators, turbine generators, sets and related equipment of 235 MW evaluation have been supplied to most of the atomic power workss in India. Production of 500 MW atomic sets, for which orders have been received.

BHEL has developed expertised in redevelopment and care of power works equipment besides specialised cognize how of residuary life appraisal, wellness diagnostic and life extensions of workss. The four power sectors regional Centres at New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata and Nagpur will play a major function in giving a push to this concern and concentrate BHEL ‘s attempts in this country.

Industry Sector: –

BHEL is a major manufacturer of big size thyristor devices. The merchandises include centrifugal compressors, high velocity industrial thrust turbines, industrial boilers and auxillaries, waste heat recovery boilers, gas turbines, electric motors, thrusts, and control equipments, high electromotive force transformers, exchange cogwheels and heavy castings and forgings.

Company in India with the capableness to do simulators for power workss, defense mechanism industrial procedure workss and other applications. An entry has been made in air power industry for which BHEL has set up installations and is now bring forthing two seater aircraft.

Transmission: –

A broad scope of transmittal merchandises and systems are produced by BHEL to run into the demands of power transmittal and distribution sector. These include:

  • Dry Type Transformers
  • SF6 Switch Gears
  • 400 KW Transmission Equipment
  • High Voltage Direct Current System
  • Seriess and Shunt Compensation Systems

In expectancy of the demand for improved substations, a 33 KV gas insulated sub station with micro processors base control and protection system has been done.

Transportation system: –

65 % of trains in Indian Railways are equiped with BHEL ‘s grip and grip control equipment. These include:

  • Broad Gauge 3900 HP AC / DC engines
  • Diesel Shunting Locomotives upto 2600 HP
  • 5000 HP AC Loco with thyristor control
  • Battery Powered Road Vehicles and Locomotives


BHEL has a corporate R & A ; D centre supported by R & A ; D groups at each of the fabrication divisions. The dedicated attempt of BHEL ‘s R & A ; D applied scientists have produced several new merchandises like machine-controlled storage retrieval system automated guide vehicles for material transit etc. Constitution of Asia ‘s largest fuel rating trial installation at Tiruchy was high visible radiation of the twelvemonth. This installation will enable rating of burning, heat transportation and pollution parametric quantities in boilers.

Major R & A ; D accomplishment include:

  • Design industry and supply of states foremost 17.2 MW industrial steam turbines.
  • Development of 4700 HP AC / DC loco for Indian Railways.
  • Development of largest capacitance electromotive force transformers of 8800 PF 400 KV evaluation.
  • Development and application low cost ROBOTS for occupation loading/unloading.

Harmonizing to ex- CMD Mr. R.K.D. Shah, “BHEL is passing Rs. 60 Crores on Research and Development. Gaining from merchandise which has been commercialised has gone up 26 % to Rs. 760 Crores.”



Shri H W Bhatnagar
Director ( IS & A ; P ) & A ; Chairman – Committee Of Directors

Shri C. Srinivasan
Director ( Finance )

Shri Ramji Rai
Director ( ER & A ; D )

Shri S K Jain
Director ( HR )

Shri A K Puri
Director ( Power )


Shri A C Wadhawan

Dr Anand Patkar

Shri GP Gupta

Shri Sharad Upasani

Shri A H Jung

Shri Sudhir Sridhar Supe

Shri Ranjan Pant

Shri Vineet Nayyar



  • Low cost Producer of quality equipment due to cheap labor and to the full depriciated workss.
  • Flexible fabrication set up.
  • Large entry barrier due to high replacing cost of its fabrication installations.
  • Comprehensive bend cardinal experience from merchandise design to commissioning.


  • High woking capital demand due to its exposure to hard currency starved SEBs.
  • Inablity to supply undertaking funding.


  • High expected growing in power sector ( 7000 MW per annum demands to be added ) .
  • High Growth prognosis in India ‘s index of industrial production would increase demand for industrial equipment such as motors & A ; compressors.


  • Technology providers are going rivals with the opening up of the Indian economic system.
  • Fall in Global power equipment monetary values can impact profitableness.


BHEL has over the old ages, established its mentions in over 50 states of the universe, runing from United States in the West to New Zealand in the far east. these mentions encompass about the full merchandise scope of BHEL, covering turnkey power undertakings of thermal, hydro and gas based types, substation undertakings, rehabilitation undertakings, besides a broad assortment of merchandises like switch cogwheel, transformers, heat money changers, dielectrics, castings and forgings.

Some of the major successes achieved by the company have been in Oman, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iraq etc. Execution of abroad undertakings has besides provided BHEL the experience of working with world-renowned consulting organisations and review bureaus.

The company has been successful in run intoing demanding demands of both domestic and international markets, in footings of complexness of the plants every bit good as the technological, quality and demands viz. funding bundle, extended warrantees, associated operations and care etc. The success in the country of rehabilitation and life extension of power undertakings has established BHEL as a comparable option to the original equipment industries ( OEM ‘s ) for such power workss.

Overview OF



At Hardwar the picturesque background of Shivalik hills, 2 of import

Manufacturing units of BHEL are located. The busyness of the building

Machinery woke up the Shivalik hills during early 60s ‘ and sowed the seeds of one of the greatest symbol of Indo-Soviet collaboration-Heavy Electrical Equipment works ( HEEP ) of BHEL, located on the northern side. The works went into production in 1967 and is engaged in the industry of power coevals and utilisation equipment. Located instantly to the South of HEEP is the Central Foundry Forge Plant ( CFFP ) , set up with Gallic collabration for the production of metal steel castings and forgings required to finish the production profile of BHEL.

A Pollution Control Research Institute has besides been set up within the BHEL campus at Ranipur to supply services to authorities and supply agenciesto control industrial pollution with regard to air, H2O, noise, and solid waste.


Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant, Hardwar of this Multi-unit corporation with its 7467 strong extremely skilled technicians, applied scientists, specializers and professional experts is the symbol of Indo Soviet and Indo German Collaboration. It is one of the four major fabricating units of the BHEL.With turnover of 1088 crores and PBT of Rs.68 crores, HEEP added 3000 MW of power to the National grid during 2001-02. HEEP is engaged in the industry of Thermal and Nuclear Sets up to 1000MW, Hydro Sets up to HT Runner dia 6300mm, associated Apparatus Control gears, AC & A ; DC Electrical machines and big size Gas Turbine of 60-200 MW. HEEP Hardwar contributes about 44 % of India ‘s entire installed capacity for power coevals with entire capacity of Thermal, Nuclear & A ; Hydro Sets of over 45000MW presently working at a Plant Load Factor of 76 % and Operational Availability of 86 % . Inspite of acute recession in economic system, BHEL Hardwar bagged recent orders deserving 1500 Crores including repetition orders for Suratgarh-5, Kota-6, Raichur-7, Rihand-3 & A ; 4 and Ramagundam-7 Unit. Additionally, Mejia-4, Panipat-7 & A ; 8, Maithon and Bhatinda are in grapevine.


The building of heavy electrical equipment Plant commenced in Oct. ” 1963 ” after indo-soviet proficient co-operation understanding in Sept. ” 1959 ” The first merchandise to turn over out from the works was an electric motor in January 1967.This was followed by first 100 MW Steam Turbine in Dec.1969and foremost 100MW Turbo Generator in August 1971.The works ‘s “ interrupt even ” was achieved in March 1974.BHEL went in for proficient coaction with M/s Siemens, Germany to set about design and industry to big size thermic sets upto a unit evaluation of 1000 MW in the twelvemonth 1976.First 200 MWTG set was commissioned at Obra in 1977.The continum of technological promotion later saw the commissioning of 500 MW TG Set in 1984. The proficient cooperation of Gas Turbine industry was besides signed with M/s Siemens Germany.First 150 MW ISO evaluation gas Turbine was exported to Germany in Feb ” 1995 ” .Our 250 MW thermal set up at Dahanu Plant of BSES made a history by uninterrupted operation for over 150 yearss and notching up a record works burden factor greater than 100 % .

HEEP Product profile

  • Thermal and Nuclear sets – ( Turbines, generators, capacitors and Aides of unit capacity upto 1000 MW )
  • Hydro sets including Spherical and Disc Valves
  • Electrical Machines – ( for assorted industrial applications, pump thrusts and power station aides, unit capacity up to 20000 KW AC/DC )
  • Control Panels – ( for thermal/ hydro sets and industrial thrusts )
  • Large size Gas turbines ( unit evaluation ; 60-200MW )
  • Defense mechanism merchandises ( SRGMs )


The Central Foundary Forge Plant was set up at Hardwar with Gallic coaction. The building started in 1974 and production was commenced in 1976. This works has in-built high grade of edification usually associated with much larger workss and has successfully developed assorted intricate castings and forgings which were imported earlier.

CFFP has successfully manufactured assorted types of steels, e.g. weirdo immune steels, heat immune steels, chromium steel steels, armour steels etc. As per Indian and international criterions. CFFP has been providing sophisticated castings used in power sector e.g. steam turbine castings, turbo generators, imperativeness rings, hydro turbine

Kaplan blades and Francis smugglers, compressors castings etc. the castings have besides been manufactured fordefence, atomic, chemical and steel sectors. critical forgings manufactured by CFFP include-HP, IP and LP rotors and phonograph record etc. from steam turbines, shafts, pole and home bases, rotor shrub, thrust neckbands. Most of the castings and forgings produced by CFFP are to import permutation nature.CFFP has besides exported motor frame and steam turbines castings and forgings to CIS and Germany.

CFFP has besides won the National award for import has been recognized as a well-known steel marker-foundary and forge maestro by Indian boiler board. The American agency of transportation has besides approved CFFP for the industry of castings and forgings for ship bulding industry.


This national institute of pollution control has been set up at BHEL -Hardwar with aid from United Nations Development programe ( UNDP ) . Its aims are to germinate engineerings and supply services with regard to air, H2O, noise and solid waste.

The institute is equipped with most modern monitoring and analytical instruments and powered by a squad of extremely qualified engineers/scientists.

Services OFFERED

  1. Enviornmental impact assessment surveies.
  2. Regional pollution surveies.
  3. Enviornmental audit in industries.
  4. Hazard analysis and readying of catastrophe direction program.
  5. Consultancy services related to industrial pollution control.
  6. Monitoring and analysis of pollution degrees in air, H2O, solid waste samples.
  7. Monitoring of noise degrees in industrial equipment, work topographic point and community.
  8. Software development for pollution surveies.
  9. Training and development of professionals.

Fully operational since 1990, the institute has already provided services to over 65 organisations in the state.

Corporate Citizen:

HEEP Hardwars Strategic plans and its policy & A ; scheme are commensurate with BHEL Corporate / strategic Plan. As first PSU to follow Corporate Planning as a procedure. Board meetings for long -range develipment, BHEL has ever guided other PSU ‘s in their Corporate planning procedure. Board meeting, monthly Management Committee meetings, Annual Revenue Budget exercising, Mid term reappraisals, Apex TQ council reappraisals, Personnel Heads Meet, Quality Heads Meet, Technology Meets, Product committees meetings, Inter-Unit Quality Circle Meets etc. are the some of crore strengths of BHEL Corporation ‘s huge web.


Role of finance function-

Finance map is the anchor of any organisation. The finance map plays a really critical function in the maximization of stockholders who provide the financess to the company. Thisobjective is being achieved by the finance section, which provides the carious information on the fiscal parametric quantities such as hard currency flows, profitableness, cost and border, assets, working capital and stockholder value for the intent of efficient use of resources ensuing in better profitableness of the company. The importance of the finance maps can non be undetermined in any organisation as many companies have perished non due to bad production direction but due to hapless fiscal direction.

Finance map Acts of the Apostless like radio detection and ranging of the ship, which guides the way of the ship and saves it from the hazards of the sea. In the same manner finance section provides seasonably and relevant information to assorted degrees of direction for the intent of determination devising.

The assorted activities undertaken by the finance section achieve the aforesaid aims, may be summarized as follows-

  • Care of history books, cost records.
  • Preparation of salary measures and other related payment to employees: PP, fillip, TA, departmental progresss of PF histories etc.
  • Preparation of Profit & A ; Loss a/c and Balance Sheet.
  • Coevals of assorted MIRs for direction usage: MIRs associating to turnover, profitableness, hard currency demands, stock list.
  • Coordination with company hearers, Govt. hearers, cost hearers and revenue enhancement hearers.
  • Decisions associating to buy and gross revenues.
  • Investing determinations: capital investing determinations and working capital direction determinations.
  • Financing determinations: determinations associating to financing-mix or capital construction or purchase.
  • Dividend policy determinations.

Cost Section

Cost- subdivision of the company is divided into following two subdivisions viz,

PRODUCT COST & A ; CENTRAL COST and these trades with the undermentioned maps: –

  1. Determination of periodic net incomes including stock list rating.
  2. Determination of pricing policy of the company.
  3. Work related to capital outgos of the company.
  4. Developing discrepancy Management Information study for different parts of direction for intent of cost control and decrease.
  5. Evaluation of work in advancement and finished goods.
  6. Interaction with direction of top direction nexus for accomplishing cost control and cost decrease and thereby bettering bottom line of the company.
  7. Preparation of cost sheet of different merchandise and their analysis for future planning.

Gross saless Section

Gross saless histories subdivision will cover chiefly with the undermentioned points: –

  1. Scrutiny and vetting of estimations / citation for sale of merchandises / services, wherever fiscal concurrency is required.
  2. Scrutiny and vetting of understandings for gross revenues of merchandises and services
  3. Invoicing for sale / progress or progressive payment / hard-on income and other.
  4. Care of subordinate records like gross revenues diaries / gross revenues twenty-four hours book, assorted debitors legers, progresss from client leger etc.
  5. Payments, recovery and accounting of gross revenues revenue enhancement, strike responsibility.
  6. Accounting of claims on carriers/ insurance companies for losing points / amendss on outward cargos.
  7. Scrutiny, payments and accounting of measures of bearers and insurance companies and other assorted claims associating to the outwards cargos.
  8. Calculation and examination of informations for payments of royalties to the confederates.
  9. Review and rapprochement every bit good as follow up of recovery of outstanding dues from the clients in coordination with the commercial section.


For the convenience of public presentation of assorted map it is divided in to farther three subdivisions which are as follows: –

  1. Shops measures.
  2. Shops review.
  3. Foreign payment.

They deal chiefly with the undermentioned points of plants:

  1. Payment of providers measures including measures for progresss -indigenous and foreign.
  2. Pricing of shops receipt verifiers including fixed assets verifiers and fixed assets receipt verifiers.
  3. Maintenace of histories of progresss to providers, claims recoverable, claims for short providers, rejections and rectifications of stuffs and assorted creditors.
  4. Opening of missive of recognition and set uping payments to foreign providers under foreign recognition / deffered payment understandings.
  5. Payment of measures for ocean cargo, port trust dues, usage responsibility, local agents committee and uncluttering agents measures, theodolite insurance measures, measures of contractors for conveyance /handling etc. and accounting of such payments are made at regional offices.
  6. Care of histories of stuff issued on loan and stuffs issued to subcontractors.
  7. Keeping history of sincere money and security sedimentations received from stamp and providers.
  8. Adjustment of shops in theodolite to be made at the stopping point of the twelvemonth.


This subdivision deals chiefly with the followers: –

  • Preparation of operating budget for the company as a whole.
  • Co-ordination with assorted maps of administration with respect to coevals and entry of of import MIR ‘s to corporate office.
  • Preparation of one-year histories of the company.
  • Coordination with company hearers with respect to company histories.
  • Care and accounting of fixed assets histories.
  • Preparation of long term net income programs based on wide aims of the company.


This subdivision deals chiefly with the undermentioned maps:

  1. Preparation of monthly pay measures.
  2. All history work related to personal payments and unwrap net income and loss history of the company.
  3. Covering with income revenue enhancement authorization with respect to personal revenue enhancement of employee.
  4. Covering with other statutory authorization such as P.F. Commissioner, ESI ( employee province insurance ) .
  5. To guarantee right payment of salary and rewards and other benefits to employees in, telephone and assorted payments.
  6. Preparation of monthly pay measures.
  7. All history work related to personal payments and unwrap net income and loss history of the company.
  8. Covering with income revenue enhancement authorization with respect to personal revenue enhancement of employee.
  9. Covering with other statutory authorization such as P.F. Commissioner, ESI ( employee province insurance ) .


Works subdivision of the company is covering with the undermentioned maps:

  1. Payments of contractors measures including measures for progress.
  2. Care of histories of contractors with respect to security sedimentations, earnest money, progressive payments.
  3. 215 care of histories of stuffs issued on loans to contractors.
  4. All accounting work related to capital outgo in advancement on hard-on of works & A ; machinery and edifice.
  5. All other assorted work associating to engaging of assorted installations.
  6. Payments and accounting of all outgo related to gross peculiarly with respect to expenditure incurred on fix and care of works and machinery, edifice and roads.


  • Changes in organisational construction.
  • Integration / amalgamations / acquisitions.
  • Strategic direction.
  • Technological up step of merchandises / processes./li & gt ;
  • Stricter internal controls & A ; hazard direction.
  • Higher efficiency / productiveness of operations.
  • Cost direction / cost decrease.
  • High liquidness.
  • Astute direction of foreign Exchange.
  • Sound investing policies / project direction.
  • Profitability product-portfolio direction.
  • Effective usage of information engineering.
  • Acquaintance with international trade Torahs & A ; patterns.
  • Speedy response to client concerns
  • Adaptability to alter.



Inventories constitute the most important portion of current assets of a big bulk of companies in India. To keep a big size of stock list, a considerable sum of fund is required to be committed to them. It is, hence, perfectly imperative to pull off stock lists expeditiously and efficaciously in order to avoid unneeded investing. A house pretermiting the direction of stock lists will be endangering its long-term profitableness and may neglect finally. It is possible for a company to cut down its degrees of stock lists to a considerable grade, e.g.10 % to 20 % , without any inauspicious consequence on production and gross revenues, by utilizing stock list planning and control techniques. The decrease in ‘excessive ‘ stock lists carries a favourable impact on a company ‘s profitableness.

WHAT IS Inventory

A company ‘s ware, natural stuffs, and finished and unfinished merchandises which have non yet been sold is called Inventory.


Inventories are stock of the merchandise a company is fabricating for sale and constituents that make up the merchandise.


  1. Natural stuffs: Natural stuffs are those basic inputs that are converted into finished merchandise through the fabrication procedure. Natural stuffs stock lists are those units which have been purchased and stored for future productions.
  2. Work-in-process: Work-in-process stock lists are semi-manufactured merchandises. They represent merchandises that need more work before they become finished merchandises for sale.
  3. Finished goods: Finished goods stock lists are those wholly manufactured merchandises which are ready for sale.

Stockss of natural stuffs and work-in-process facilitate production, while stock of finished goods is required for smooth selling operations.

Aim OF Inventory: –

Inventories represent investing of a house ‘s financess. The aim of the stock list direction should be the maximization of the value of the house. The house should therefore consider:

  1. costs,
  2. return, and
  3. Hazard factors in set uping its stock list policy.

Two types of costs are involved in the stock list care:

  1. Ordering costs: – Requisition, placing of order, transit, and staff services. Ordering costs are fixed per order size additions.
  2. Transporting costs: – Repositing, managing, clerical and staff services, insurance and revenue enhancements. Transporting cost additions.

The house should minimise the entire cost ( telling cost + transporting cost ) . The economic order measure ( EOQ ) of stock list will happen at a point where the entire cost is minimal. The undermentioned expression can be used to find EOQ:

EOQ= ( 2AO/C ) ^1/2


A=Annual demand.

O=per order cost.

C=per unit transporting cost.


The stock list degree at which the house places order to refill stock list is called reorder point. It depends on ( a ) the lead clip and ( B ) the usage rate.

Under perfect certainty about the use rate, the instantaneous bringing ( i.e. zero lead time0, the reorder point will be equal to:

Lead-time *Usage rate +Safety stock.

The house should strike a tradeoff between the fringy rate of return and fringy cost of financess to find the degree of safety stock.

A house, which carries a figure of points in stock list, which differ in value, can follow a selective control system. A selective control system, such as the A-B-C analysis, classifies stock lists in to three classs harmonizing to the value of point:

A-Category consists of highest value points,

B- Category consists of high value points,

C-Category consists of lowest value points.

More classs of stock lists can besides be created. Tight control may be applied for high-value points and comparatively loose control for low-value points.

Why concern houses hold stock lists?

There are at least three motivations for keeping stock lists:

  1. To facilitates smooth production and gross revenues operation ( dealing motivation ) .
  2. To guards against the hazard of unpredictable alterations in usage rate and bringing clip ( precautional motivation ) .
  3. To do advantage of monetary value fluctuations ( bad motivation ) .

Elementss OF Inventory

There are three basic signifiers of stock list:

1. Stores stock list: This mainly comprises

  • Direct stuffs such as natural stuff in signifier of ferric, not -ferrous, insulating stuffs, casting-forgings and constituents
  • Indirect stuffs: These arealso known as “ general shops ” ,

“ Care and operating supplies ” and the similar it includes all the non merchandise points on a regular basis stocked by the company and either consumed in operation of the works or office or needed to keep its edifice and equipment.

2. Shops In Theodolite: These are point which have been shipped or dispatched from seller but non yet reached their finish in shops and non yet accounted for in the priced leger.

3. Production Inventory:

  • Work In Progress Inventory: This includes all merchandise stuffs on which the company has performed some fabrication, processing or change overing operation but which are non yet in finished signifier ready for sale.
  • Finished goods stock list: these include completed the points of faculties that are ready for sale. These may be located at a company works or shop for a subdivision for a commercial warehouse.



The demand for stock list control in a fabrication concern can barely be overemphasized, since in varies constitute the largest constituent of working capital in most of the organisations, its needs the greatest sum of attention and attending for proper control. Its surplus or insufficiency, both has inauspicious effects on liquidness and profitableness of a house. Insufficient and inefficient processs may take to imbalanced stock lists e.g. some points out of slipperiness and some over slipperiness, ensuing in inordinate investing. All these inadequacies will finally hold an inauspicious consequence on net incomes. Control techniques, such techniques are applied for cut downing the investing in stock lists, out adversely impacting the smooth running of production and gross revenues operation. Material Management is an incorporate map of the assorted subdivisions of an administration covering with the supply of stuffs and allied activities in order to accomplish maximal coordination and optimal outgo on stuffs.

Inventory TECHNIQUES: –

Wholly the company deals with stock of 1000s of points raising a serious job of how one can maintain control of path of all these points besides, where it necessary to hold some extent of control on each and every point. Different types of analysis each holding its ain specific advantages and aim aid in conveying a practical solution to the control of stock list. The most of import of all such analysis is the ABC analysis. The others one.

VED – analysis

SDE – analysis

HML – analysis

FSN – analysis


21s a formal manner of sorting stock list so that the of import 1s will be given the most attending. Through this analysis the professional stock list director will concentrate his attempts on were they will give the greatest wagess. The ABC of ABC analysis refers to the categories, A, B and C into which the stock list is divided.

A is high value points whose rupee volume typically account for 75-80 % of the value of the entire stock list while stand foring merely 10-15 % of the stock list points, the B category is lesser value point whose rupee volume histories for 15-20 % the value of the stock list, while stand foring 15-20 % of the stock list points. The C category is low Value point whose volume histories for 10-15 % of the stock list value but 75-80 % of the stock list points.

The same grade of control is non justified for all the three categories of points. The category of points requires the greatest attending and the category of points the least attending. Class C points need no particular computations since of they represent a low stock list investing. The order measure might be a annual supply a periodic reappraisal once twelvemonth category B points could hold CODs developed into a semi-annual reappraisal of the variables. Class of points could hold EOQs developed a reappraisal of the variables each clip an order is placed. The major concern of an ABC categorization in to direct attending to there inventory points their represent the largest sum outgo. If stock list degrees can be reduced for claim of points it result in a important decrease in stock list investing.


This analysis specially pertains to the categorization of care spares denoting the essentialness of barricading spares.

V – bases for critical – points when out of stick or when non readily available, wholly conveying the production a hault.

E – Is for indispensable points without which impermanent losingss of production or disruption of production hebdomad occurs.

D – Denotes desirable points – all other points, which are necessary but do non do any immediate.


Effectss on production.

For developing states and particularly where certain points are in scarce supply. This analysis is really utile.

S – Refers to scarce points, particularly imported points and those which are really much in short supply.

D – Are hard points which are available in market but no easy available.

E – Items are those which are easy available, most local points.


The cost per point is considered for this analysis.

H – High cost

M – Medium cost

L – Low cost


Materials are classified as: –

F- Fast traveling

S – Slow moving

N – Non traveling

Ordering Systems-

The chief job in any ordination system is when to order and how much to order consequently. Main methods used for get the better ofing these jobs are: –

  1. Reorder degree system ( ROL method )
    In this method, at foremost a recording equipment degree is found out taking into consideration the lead-time and besides the rate of ingestion. To take attention of any fluctuation either in the lead-time or in the ratio of ingestion of measure known as a buffer stock or safety slipperiness is provided.
  2. Periodic telling method: – The stocks received at fixed intervals of clip and orders are placed either for a fixed measure or a variable measure.


The safety stock become necessary in order to avoid ‘stock outs” if the rate of ingestion increased and/or the lead clip gets extended from the values considered for the refilling systems, Thus, a simple manner of set uping the safety stock would be to happen out the above two fluctuations that could systematise such a large sum of information. What is required so I a upgrading on the category of information processing engineering. In other words the direction are as follows.

  1. It enables to set up a chiseled ordination policy.
  2. It helps on accurate programme planning.
  3. It helps in sensing of cosmopolitan ingestion on tendencies by ingestion analysis.
  4. It produces derailed machine processed shops legers.
  5. It picks up of import points from a broad stock lists require direction attending.
  6. It produces ABC analysis for effectual control of issue and procurance.
  7. It highlights pending orders and pinpoints disparity between the last purchase rate and the current purchase. Before and stock list can be put on the computing machine a big manual attempts is required for assignment of single codifications after the cryptography construction is selected from either of the systems indicated below. In big stock list of over 100 1000s of points, this attempt may take a twelvemonth pr even longer specially if significance codifications are to be assigned. Is the coding attempt can be really expensive and hence attempt can be really expensive and, hence attempt should be made to understate it by depending the cryptography construction every bit simple as possible. So in this present epoch of computing machine, computerisation of stuff direction has become a necessity.

The safety stock would be to happen out the above two fluctuations that could usually happen over a period of clip in footings of extra measure of stock to be maintained.

Determination of telling cost-

Ordering cost is the cost which will be incurred by concern because of initializing or puting order for the supply of stuffs.

To happen out the telling cost, at first the undermentioned cost are determined for a peculiar twelvemonth.

  1. Suitable place of administrative staff lost who have been engaged in buying activities.
  2. Clerical cost.
  3. Depreciation on edifice furniture, and on office equipments.
  4. Post telegraphic cost and stationary outgo.
  5. Travel and electricity outgo.

After happening out the entire outgo of all the points, divide that peculiar sum by the entire figure of orders placed in that peculiar twelvemonth, which will give the order cost in Rs.

Determination of stock list transporting cost.

Inventory transporting cost is the entire outgo incurred by the material direction map for transporting the stock list in stock. So happen the stock list transporting cost at first the undermentioned outgo for the peculiar twelvemonth is fount out.

  1. Suitable place of the administrative staff cost.
  2. Suitable place of the security cost & A ; electrical cost.
  3. Care and depreciation outgo on edifice and furniture.
  4. Stationary, station, telegraph and electricity disbursals.
  5. Obsolescence, Insurance and handling charges.


  1. Fiscal: end is to maintain investing in stock lists within the bounds of budget available so that composing of working capital is non thrown out of balance.
  2. Operating:
    a ) To obtain the best overall balance between production and stock list transporting cost on the one manus and client service at the other.
    B ) To minimise losingss ensuing from stock list impairment & A ; obsolesce
  3. Property protection:
    a ) To safeguard an of import plus against larceny preventable waste all unauthorised usage.
    B ) To do certain that within sensible tolerances the value of this plus is right stated in company ‘s books

To run into aims BHEL Hardwar Inventory Control Department has outlined following major aims:

  1. To keep the investing in Inventories at the lowest point consistent with operating gross revenues turnover & A ; fiscal demands of the endeavor as per budget.
  2. To guarantee an equal supply of required sort of natural stuffs parts supplies and other points to keep the most efficient degree of operations to run into the demands of clients.
  3. To describe and neutralize slow moving, non-moving defective or disused points.
  4. To guarantee the existent being of physical measures and values shown in the records.
  5. To forestall loss through waste, harm or pilferage.
  6. To signal over under-stocked conditions in relation to current and jutting demand.

Aim: –

Inventories represent investing of a house ‘s financess. The aim of the stock list direction should be the maximization of the value of the house. The house should therefore consider:

  1. costs,
  2. return, and
  3. Hazard factors in set uping its stock list policy.

Two types of costs are involved in the stock list care:

  1. Ordering costs: – Requisition, placing of order, transit, and staff services. Ordering costs are fixed per order size additions.
  2. Transporting costs: – Repositing, managing, clerical and staff services, insurance and revenue enhancements. Transporting cost additions.

The house should minimise the entire cost ( telling cost + transporting cost ) . The economic order measure ( EOQ ) of stock list will happen at a point where the entire cost is minimal. The undermentioned expression can be used to find EOQ:

EOQ= ( 2AO/C ) ^1/2


A=Annual demand.

O=per order cost.

C=per unit transporting cost.


The stock list degree at which the house places order to refill stock list is called reorder point. It depends on ( a ) the lead clip and ( B ) the usage rate.

Under perfect certainty about the use rate, the instantaneous bringing ( i.e. zero lead time0, the reorder point will be equal to:

Lead-time *Usage rate +Safety stock.

The house should strike a tradeoff between the fringy rate of return and fringy cost of financess to find the degree of safety stock.

A house, which carries a figure of points in stock list, which differ in value, can follow a selective control system. A selective control system, such as the A-B-C analysis, classifies stock lists in to three classs harmonizing to the value of point:

A-Category consists of highest value points,

B- Category consists of high value points,

C-Category consists of lowest value points.

More classs of stock lists can besides be created. Tight control may be applied for high-value points and comparatively loose control for low-value points.


Functions to be performed in the field of Inventory Control are:

  1. Puting up norms for transporting Inventory.
  2. Determining what points to be stocked.
  3. Puting regulations for Inventory refillings.
  4. Receiving, hive awaying and publishing stock list points as needed.
  5. Keeping records of stock list measures and values.
  6. Identifying and force outing of slow-moving, non-moving, disused or harm stock lists.
  7. Supplying drumhead information on stock list place for control intents.

Locations of place responsible for executing each of these maps in administration construction greatly vary from company to company.

In BHEL Hardwar finding of merchandise stuff or direct work order stuff ( what? ) to be carried in Inventory is more or less automatic consequence of merchandise design preparation and is given in stuff prognosis for a work order.Indirect stuffs consumed in fabricating procedure such as electrodes, brazing metals, tooling etc. are normally given by procedure technology or at times by design sections.

Balance great majority of indirect stuffs is made up of fix parts and general supplies. Duty for specific ( what? ) points to be carried in stock list remainders with Works Engineering.

With regard to raw stuffs and purchased parts, duty for finding ( when? ) and how much to purchase is a mark to relevant merchandise fabrication i.e. production planning and stuff planning groups.However a rigorous budgetary control and allotment to specific work order control on high value points is exercised by Inventory control section organized individually under Material Management.Purchase deparment attached to fabricating deparment determines ( where? ) to purchase.

Determination of indirect stuff ( when? ) and how much to purchase and ( where? ) , is done by cardinal group under Material Management by consolidating demands of all subdivisions and while looking at ingestion tendencies over a No.of old ages.

Again a rigorous budgetary control and control on high value points for their allotment is exercised by Inventory control group.

Receiving and storing is done by Central Stores CSX under Material Management Department.

Publishing Inventory is done by CSX on demand from fabrication and is controlled by Material Planning.Again some on

Line cheques are proposed to be introduced at raising of Store Issue voucher stage itself, for high value points so that initiation is controlled purely as per demand of production agenda based on lead clip for industry to maintain WIP stock list under control.

Records of Inventory are maintained on a chief frame computing machine centrally arranged holding shared entree from all maps for their specific usage.

Inventory Record Keeping And Related Procedures

How good Inventory records are maintained has a major bearing on the effectivity of Inventory control program.Mostly information recorded in B.H.E.L. system is:

Name of the portion or stuff

  • Short description
  • Identifying No called Material codification
  • Unit of measurement of measuring
  • Location in shop ( detention )
  • Bin no.
  • Opening, received, issue, shuting measure and value.

These records are maintained in an online system on chief frame computing machine user sections have shared entree for posting and retrieval of information.

There is a system for reserving specific points as client particular which is done by labeling on the point.

Posting of backdowns or issue from stock list is done on specific mandate by a papers called Store Issue voucher.


  • BHEL produces long production rhythm points against the steadfast orders from clients. Because of this every bit good as ample imported natural stuffs and compulsory bulk purchase of points like steel and Cu in line with handiness from SAIL and MMTC, the company has to transport high degree of stock lists.


If we see from the above tabular array that the yearss of stock list keeping in the twelvemonth 2001-02 has come down to 149 yearss from 211days in the old twelvemonth. Inspite of addition in turnover i.e. 108811 in 2001-02 from 71799 in the twelvemonth 2000-01the yearss of stock list keeping lessenings. This indicates that the company is utilizing effectual scheme to convey down its stock list degree. This makes really less investing in stock list.

It is in the involvement of every organisation to minimise its stock list degree. Following is the procedure through which the company can accomplish the optimal stock list degree.


  • Stiff competition, globalisation of trade and liberalisation.
  • Achieving, increasing and positive EVA.
  • Cost decrease.
  • Ener

I'm Heather

Would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out