Yunnan Yunfeng Chemical Industry Company is a big phosphatic and compound fertiliser maker. Now it owns fixed assets 1.7 billion, more than 5,000 employees ( of which more than 1,200 professional and proficient forces ) . The company is located in the southern suburbs of Xuanwei City, Yunnan Province. It covers an country of 2.5 square kilometres ; the company has its dedicated 7 kilometres railway, more than 250 vehicles, and the conveyance capacity is 1.7 million dozenss per twelvemonth ( China Chemical Fertilizer Information ) . The company links with Guiyang-Kunming railroad, every bit good as railroad web of China. The location of the company, Xuanwei City, is one of the national key coal storage metropoliss. The Xuanwei City is 100 kilometres off from Guizhou Liupanshui District, which is the base of coke production ( China Chemical Fertilizer Information ) . And the Xuanwei City is 200 kilometres off from militias of high-quality phosphate stone in Yunnan Dianchi Lake. The location of the company created an advantage for company to bring forth and sell nitrogen-bearing fertiliser, phosphate and compound fertiliser ( China Chemical Fertilizer Information ) .
The spirit of the company is unity, enterprising, realistic and civilized. The direction purpose of the company is to seek endurance by quality, seek development by repute, respect huge consumers as nutriment and pay attending to the involvements of traders and franchisee ( China Chemical Fertilizer Information ) .
Besides the chief merchandise — — Phosphorous acid ( H3PO4 ) and phosphatic and compound fertiliser, the company besides produce big sum of azotic acid. Now let us look at the procedure of doing azotic acid in item.
Part II. Get downing Materials of Making Nitric Acid
In the procedure of doing azotic acid, the natural stuffs are rather simple, merely ammonium hydroxide ( NH3 ) and O ( O2 ) .
Part III. The Manufacturing Process of Making Nitric Acid
Azotic acid industry is closely related to ammonia industry. The catalytic oxidization of ammonium hydroxide is the chief manner to acquire azotic acid in industrial production system. The method is widely used because of its low cost, high productiveness and low power ingestion. The natural stuffs for first measure are ammonia ( NH3 ) and O ( O2 ) . Normally O is obtained by sublimating the air. The equipment for the measure is oxidising furnace. The accelerator is platinum Rh ( Pt-Rh ) metal mesh and the status for reaction is high temperature of 800 & A ; deg ; C ( A Five-star ) . The chemical equation is as following:
4NH3 ( g ) +5O2 ( g ) ==== 4NO ( g ) + 6H2O ( g ) — — — – ( proceeded in oxidising furnace )
800 & A ; deg ; C
The merchandises of the reaction are nitrogen oxide ( NO ) and H2O vapour, while a big figure of heat is released.
Now allow us come to the 2nd measure. The merchandises of first measure — — nitrogen oxide ( NO ) and H2O become natural stuffs of the 2nd measure. The equipment needed is chilling capacitor. After chilling nitrogen oxide ( NO ) in the chilling capacitor, nitrogen oxide ( NO ) reacts with O in the air and produces nitrogen dioxide. What need we pay attending is that the O must be plentiful ( A Five-star ) .
2NO ( g ) + O2 ( g ) == 2NO2 ( g ) — — — – ( proceeded in chilling capacitor )
( Large sum )
In the soaking up tower, the N dioxide is absorbed by H2O and produces azotic acid. In order to do N dioxide absorbed by H2O wholly, and acquire every bit much as possible into azotic acid, we frequently add some air into the soaking up procedure ( A Five-star ) . In the procedure, N dioxide undergoes cyclic oxidization soaking up ( Baidu ) . The chemical equations are as following.
3NO2 ( g ) + H2O ( cubic decimeter ) == 2HNO3 ( aq ) + NO ( g ) — — — ( proceeded in the soaking up tower )
— — — Cyclic oxidization soaking up of N dioxide
4NO2 ( g ) + O2 ( g ) + 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) == 4HNO3 ( aq ) — — — ( proceeded in soaking up tower )
4NO ( g ) + 3O2 ( g ) + 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) == 4HNO3 ( aq ) — — — ( proceeded in soaking up tower )
There are a little sum of N oxide ( NO ) and nitrogen dioxide in the fumes. Emiting them into the ambiance will do pollution, so the generated NO should be recycled. We frequently use alkali spirits to absorb nitrogen oxide ( NO ) and nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 ) .
NO + NO2 + 2NaOH == 2NaNO2 + H2O — — — ( proceeded in alkali spirits soaking up tower )
2NO2 + 2NaOH == NaNO3 + NaNO2 + H2O — — — ( proceeded in alkali spirits soaking up tower )
In the whole procedure, we know that nitrogen oxide ( NO ) is recycled. So in theory, 1 mol NH3 ~ 1 mol HNO3. That means we could utilize 1 mol NH3 to bring forth 1 mol HNO3 ( High-School Students Online ) .
The azotic acid outflow from the underside of the tower is merely 50 % consistence and it can non be straight used in military, dye and other industry. The dilute azotic acid must be made into more than 98 % concentrated azotic acid. The chief attack of concentration is to blend dilute azotic acid with concentrated sulphuric acid ( H2SO4 ) or magnesium nitrate Mg ( NO3 ) 2, so purify at low temperature and obtain concentrated azotic acid ( Sina ) .
Part IV. The Merchandise
From the whole procedure, we know that the concluding merchandise is azotic acid ( HNO3 ) .
A Suggestion Part — — Physical and Chemical Properties of Substances in the Whole Procedure
Ammonia ( NH3 ) :
Ammonia is extremely soluble in H2O, colorless toxic gas with acrid olfactory property. Its runing point is -77.7 & A ; deg ; C and boiling point is -33.5 & A ; deg ; C. Ammonia is comparatively stable, and it is frequently used as a refrigerant and doing ammonium salt and nitrogen-bearing fertiliser. When ammonium hydroxide is absorbed in H2O, the ammonium hydroxide molecules and H2O molecules bond together through H bonding to organize a ammonium hydroxide monohydrate ( NH3 • H2O ) . Small portion of ammonium hydroxide monohydratea can be ionized into ammonium ions ( NH4+ ) and hydroxide ions ( OH — ) , so ammonia H2O is weak alkaline, and it can do phenolphthalein solution bend ruddy ( Baidu ) .
Oxygen ( O2 ) aˆˆ
Oxygen, colorless and tasteless, is non easy to fade out in H2O. Under the force per unit area of 101kPa, O will turn to blue liquid when the temperature is -183 & A ; deg ; C and it will turn to light bluish snow-like solidin when the temperature is -218 & A ; deg ; C. The chemical belongings of O is comparatively active. In add-on to inert gas, less active metal elements, such as gold, Pt, Ag, Pd, most of the elements can respond with O, and the reaction is called oxidization ; the generated compounds of reaction are called oxides. In add-on, about all organic compounds can be intensely burned in O and bring forth C dioxide and H2O ( Baidu ) .
Nitrogen Oxide ( NO ) :
Nitrogen oxide is colourless gas. Its runing point is -163.6 & A ; deg ; C and boiling point is -151 & A ; deg ; C. It is somewhat soluble in H2O and des non respond with H2O. Main applications of N oxide are doing azotic acid, unreal silk bleach, propene and stabilizers of dimethyl quintessence. Under normal temperature, nitrogen oxide is easy oxidized to nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 ) . Nitrogen oxide is unstable and rapidly turned into N dioxide ( NO2 ) in the air and produces stimulation. Nitrogen oxide amendss to respiratory piece of land. High concentrations of nitrogen oxide can do methemoglobinemia. Nitrogen oxide has hazard to the environment, and causes pollution on H2O, dirt and air. Nitrogen oxide is combustion-supporting, toxic and irritant ( Baidu ) .
Water ( H2O )
Pure H2O is colourless, tasteless, odourless and crystalline liquid. The pH value of H2O is really near to 7.0. Water merely begins to break up above 2000 & A ; deg ; C. When H2O reacts with active metal or C, it performs oxidbillity and H is reduced to hydrogen gas. The most active non-metal fluorum can oxidise negative divalent O in H2O into O gas. Under the circumstance, H2O performs reducibility. Under the effects of currents, H2O can be decomposed into H gas and O gas. Industry frequently uses this manner to bring forth pure O and pure H ( Baidu ) .
Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2 )
Nitrogen dioxide is brown liquid or gas, which has a acrid olfactory property. Its runing point is -9.3 & A ; deg ; C and boiling point is 22.4 & A ; deg ; C. It is soluble in H2O. It is chiefly used for doing azotic acid, nitrating agent, oxidizer, and accelerator and so on. Nitrogen oxides harm to respiratory piece of land. Its chronic effects chiefly show in neurasthenia and chronic respiratory tract redness. Nitrogen dioxide has hazard to the environment, and causes pollution on H2O, dirt and air. Nitrogen dioxide is combustion-supporting, toxic and irritant. Nitrogen dioxide may do people to conk ( Baidu ) .
Azotic Acid ( HNO3 ) aˆˆ
Pure azotic acid is a colourless liquid. Concentrated azotic acid and fuming azotic acid was brown due to fade out nitrogen dioxide. Nitric acid is strong oxidizing and strong corrosive. Nitric acid is unstable and it is easy to break up when it exposed to visible radiation, so azotic acid should be put in dark brown bottles and maintain in the shadows. Nitric acid is besides out to reach with cut downing agent. The catalytic oxidization of ammonium hydroxide is the chief manner to acquire azotic acid in industrial production system. And azotic acid is used to do fertiliser, explosives, and nitrate. In organic chemical science, the mixture solution of concentrated azotic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid is an of import nitration reagent ( Baidu ) .
7. Sodium Hydroxide ( NaOH )
Sodium hydrated oxide is easy soluble in H2O and releases a batch of heat. Its runing point is 318.4 & A ; deg ; C and boiling point is 1390 & A ; deg ; C. Its lethal dosage is 40mg/kg. Sodium hydrated oxide is strong caustic, and it is frequently used as a drying agent. However, it ca n’t dry S dioxide ( SO2 ) , C dioxide ( CO2 ) , nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 ) and hydrogen chloride ( HCl ) and other acid gases. In add-on to H2O, Na hydrated oxide is besides soluble in ethyl alcohol and glycerin ; but it is indissoluble in quintessence, propanone and liquid ammonium hydroxide ( Baidu ) .
Sodium Nitrate ( NaNO3 )
Sodium nitrate is colourless or white spot xanthous diamond crystal. It tastes a small bitter and it is easy becomes deliquescence. It is easy soluble in H2O and liquid ammonium hydroxide, somewhat soluble in ethyl alcohol, glycerin. Sodium nitrate is irritant to the tegument and mucose membrane. If a individual inhales a big sum of Na nitrateoral, the patient will undergoes terrible abdominal hurting, purging, bloody stool, daze, paroxysms, coma and even decease. Sodium nitrate is combustion-supporting, toxic and irritant. Sodium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent ( Baidu ) .
Sodium nitrite ( NaNO2 )
Sodium nitrite is thin white or light xanthous crystalline, which is odourless, somewhat salty and easy becomes deliquescence. It is easy soluble in H2O and liquid ammonium hydroxide, somewhat soluble in methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and ethyl ether. Its runing point is 271 & A ; deg ; C and it will break up at 320 & A ; deg ; C. It can absorb O from the air, organizing Na nitrate. Sodium nitrite has both reducibility and oxidability. It is chiefly used for the fabrication of dye and medical specialty, every bit good as organic synthesis ( Baidu ) .