The field of scientific discipline instruction started to alter after biotechnology surveies appeared in the scientific country. There is no uncertainty that biotechnology is the most scientific and technological developments of the twenty-first century. [ 7 ] As known, biotechnology includes broader usage of biological procedures, beings or systems to fabricate merchandises intended to better the quality of human life. [ 17 ] Modern usage of the biotechnology term refers to familial technology every bit good as cell- and tissue civilization engineerings.
Recently, biotechnology has emerged as an of import growing country in pharmaceuticals. There is an increasing rate of biotechnology-derived merchandises, jointly termed biopharmaceuticals come ining pharmaceutical market place. [ 6 ] Many pharmaceutical companies have made increasing usage of biotechnology in detecting and fabricating new medical specialties. The designation and intervention of diseases at the molecular degree is now going possible due to development of recombinant DNA engineering, hybridoma engineering and root cells engineering. [ 11,15 ]
As the usage of biotechnology is going more of import in pharmaceutical field, there is a demand for pharmaceutics instruction to do important alteration on its course of study. The demand of paradigm displacement in pharmaceutics instruction is necessary to cut down or better the presently learning programmes which have been outmoded. [ 2,6,15 ] Pharmacy pupils need to go knowing and ever alarm in the current development of biotechnology. It is important for them to be prepared and realized their function in pharmaceutical biotechnology in old ages in front because the demand for biotechnology-derived merchandise is continually increasing.
Since 1990, many schools of pharmaceutics have taking a proactive measure in integrating biotechnology-related stuff into their course of study. For illustration, the University of Mississippi has been incorporating biotechnology into its basic pharmaceutical scientific disciplines and being delivered in a multidisciplinary mode. In add-on, the University of Florida College of Pharmacy recognized the demand to increase the accent on biotechnology in pharmaceutics course of study. Therefore, a stand- alone biotechnology class was developed for the entry degree PharmD course of study with the end of supplying pharmaceutics pupils with an apprehension of the clinical economic impact of biotechnology on pharmaceutics pattern. [ 1,2,6 ]
In School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM ) , pharmaceutical biotechnology classs has been offered as an elected topic during the first semester of 2nd twelvemonth pupils enrolled in the unmarried man of pharmaceutics ( BPharm ) degree plan. Due to recent progresss in the field of biotechnology that facilitates the use of such engineering for the production of biopharmaceutical merchandises, this class is design to present to the pupils the basicss of biotechnology and their application in assorted types of biopharmaceutical merchandises. This in return would farther heighten the pupils ‘ ability to understand the importance of biotechnology within the pharmaceutical sector and their function in lending to further development of biopharmaceuticals industry. This research is conducted to analyze pupils ‘ cognition toward pharmaceutical biotechnology class every bit good as their perceptual experience and rating towards this class.
To find pharmaceutics pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class and their rating towards the bringing of the class.
To look into degree of pupils ‘ cognition on biotechnology.
To look into whether twelvemonth of survey and taking Biology capable before come ining Bachelor of Pharmacy Programme has important consequence on pupils ‘ cognition
To establish out association between degree and cognition and perceptual experience of pupils towards the class.
The survey design of this research is a cross-sectional survey. This is a quantitative observational survey. Cross-sectional surveies analyze informations collected on a group subjects at one clip instead than over a period of clip. Subjects ( pharmaceutics pupils whose taking Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class ) are indiscriminately selected and information is obtained in a short period of clip. As of our survey was design to find the cognition, perceptual experience and rating of pupils towards pharmaceutical biotechnology class, we merely need to obtain their sentiment at that point of clip and no follow up is needed.
The mark samples of the research are the 2nd twelvemonth and 3rd pharmaceutics pupils from School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia who had taken Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class during their unmarried man of pharmaceutics ( BPharm ) degree plan. In sing the grade of truth, methodological analysis, the population features and the possible Numberss of non-responses, we decided on a sample size of 80 pupils.90 questionnaires are prepared and distributed to the 2nd twelvemonth and 3rd twelvemonth pharmaceutics pupils to avoid deficient informations due to uncooperative respondents.
Non-probability trying method is used. Subjects ( pharmaceutics pupils who had taken Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class ) are indiscriminately selected from 2nd twelvemonth and 3rd twelvemonth due to handiness. This descriptive study was carried in School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Science Malaysia. In order to forestall incommodiousnesss to the respondent, we chose to near them at tiffin clip ( 12.50pm- 2pm ) which is after the forenoon session of lecture terminal.
Data aggregation is done by the assistance of questionnaire. This method of informations aggregation is chosen because it is cost effectual and the informations obtained can be analyzed easy. Subjects ( pharmaceutics pupils who had taken pharmaceutical biotechnology class ) were required to reply and finish the questionnaire on the topographic point. The questionnaire is designed to dwell of 2 parts. Part 1 is the demographic information of the topic, while Part 2 is divided into 3 subdivisions and the respondents are required to reply all subdivisions. The first subdivision is aimed to find the rating of pupils towards the class while the 2nd subdivision consists of inquiry to measure pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards this class. The 3rd subdivision is designed to measure the cognition of the pupils on biotechnology and the inquiries made merely ask basic cognition about biotechnology. Evaluation and perceptual experience of respondents were assessed by 5 points Likert graduated table. In order to find the cognition of the pupils, a close-ended inquiries in which the respondents were given a few options to take is being made. Due to the principle that the respondents are all educated and they are expected to possess high proficiency in linguistic communications, the questionnaire is prepared in one linguistic communication merely, which is English. The aggregation of informations is done by single attack and it took us about 1 hebdomads to roll up all the informations.
Data analysis is done by the assistance of statistical package, Statistic Procedure for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) Version 16.0.1 for Windows.
For the demographic portion, we have used descriptive statistic to analyse our informations. From SPSS we obtained the frequence and per centum of each class under each demographic inquiry.
For the Likert responses, all responses with any grade of understanding were group together as positive responses, and all responses with any grade of dissension were grouped together as negative response. There is besides some of the negative-worded points presence and hence rearward marking is used.
For the cognition portion which consists of 8 close-ended inquiries, a marking system was made as follows:
The inquiries asked in the cognition portion allows respondents to take more than one reply which they thinks are right. In taging the replies, a negative marker system is being applied. We marked all the right replies as mark 1. While for the incorrect reply, 1 grade will be deducted. There will be no negative grade for any inquiry but the lowest possible concluding mark is 0 and the highest possible grade is 18. Those who scored 0-6 is considered holding a hapless cognition, 7-12 is moderate and 13-18 is considered holding good cognition in biotechnology.
Under illative statistic, the important association between the independent variable ( s ) and dependent variable ( s ) is investigated utilizing Chi-square trial. The independent variables are demographic factor include twelvemonth of survey and taking biological science before come ining Bachelor of Pharmacy programme. The dependent variable is the degree of cognition of the pupils on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. By utilizing SPSS, we obtained the cross tabulate ( crosstab ) tabular array and P value. In this survey, the alpha value is 0.05. Consequences were considered important when the P value was less than 0.05
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Descriptive Statisticss: Demographic informations of the Respondents
Percentage ( % )
Year of Study
Mode of Entry into the University
Taking Biology before Entering BPharm
Table 1: Demographic Features of Pharmacy Students ‘ Enrolled in Pharmaceutical
Of the 81 pupils take parting in this survey, 16 are female and 65 are female. Our respondents were made up of 2 races. There are Malay ( 52 ) which made up the major proportion with a per centum of 64.2 % , followed by Chinese ( 28 ) which has a per centum of 34.6 % and other races ( 1 ) which made up of proportion of 1.2 % . The major group of our respondents, ( 84.0 % ) is come ining the university through Matriculation. While the staying, 16.0 % is come ining the university with their STPM making. There are about an equal proportion of 2nd twelvemonth and 3rd twelvemonth pupils who take parting in this survey. 53.1 % is from 2nd twelvemonth while another 46.9 % is the 3rd twelvemonth pupils. Over half of the respondents ( 66 ) had taking Biology capable before come ining Bachelor of Pharmacy Programme which made up the major proportion ( 81.5 % ) . Lone minority of the respondents ( 15 ) is non taking Biology before come ining this programme and all of them are really taking Physicss capable.
Students ‘ Evaluation on the Delivery of the Course
Degree of Response
Towards negative response
Towards positive response
The class content is arranged in a clear,
logical and orderly mode.
( 19.8 % )
( 13.3 % )
( 46.9 % )
The class content explains the
cognition and constructs good.
( 17.3 % )
( 13.3 % )
( 49.4 % )
The class content covered what pupil
demand to cognize as a druggist in the
( 19.8 % )
( 32.1 % )
( 48.1 % )
Course stuffs were relevant and up to
day of the month
( 12.3 % )
( 37.0 % )
( 50.6 % )
I found that the class being delivered in
a really apprehensible mode
( 25.9 % )
( 45.7 % )
( 28.4 % )
*This class burdens me a batch but merely
give two graduation units in bend.
( 46.9 % )
( 24.7 % )
( 28.4 % )
The lector ‘s presentation positively
impacted my apprehension of the
( 24.7 % )
( 28.4 % )
( 46.9 % )
Assignments given in this class are really
interesting and stimulating
( 24.7 % )
( 39.5 % )
( 29.7 % )
*I can barely conceive of and understand some of the complex concepts/process in this class due to miss of examples/diagrams/video being provided.
( 63.6 % )
( 23.5 % )
( 12.3 % )
The stuffs ( text editions, press releases ) in this class have helped me to better understand many cardinal constructs and/terms in this class
( 17.2 % )
( 43.2 % )
( 39.5 % )
Overall, I was satisfied with the quality of this class.
( 22.3 % )
( 39.5 % )
( 38.3 % )
Table 2: Pharmacy Students ‘ Evaluation on the Delivery of Pharmaceutical
*Negatively worded-item. Reverse marking is used
In measuring the bringing of Biotechnology class in School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM ) , 11 inquiries were asked sing the effectivity of talk ‘s presentation, the class contents, assignments given every bit good as stuffs used in carry oning the class throughout, the semester.
In general, grade of response towards pupils ‘ satisfaction about the quality of the class is moderate in which 32 pupils ( 39.5 % ) give impersonal perceptual experience, 31 pupils ( 38.3 % ) keenly give positive satisfaction and 18 respondents ( 22.3 % ) shows dissatisfaction towards the quality of the Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class in School of Pharmacy, USM.
While accessing pupils ‘ rating towards the content of the class, most of them evaluated it as impersonal to somewhat positive. 38 respondents, ( 46.9 % ) agree that the class content is arranged in a clear, logical and orderly mode. While another 27 pupils ( 13.3 % ) give impersonal perceptual experience and 16 ( 19.8 % ) of them disagree about the statement. About 40 respondents, ( 49.4 % ) agree that the content explain the biotechnology cognition and constructs good, 14 ( 17.3 % ) disagree and 27 ( 13.3 % ) give moderate appraisal about the statement. In add-on, pupils do hold that the content covered what they need to cognize as a druggist in the hereafter, with 39 pupils ( 48.1 % ) agree, 26 pupils ( 32.1 % ) impersonal and 16 pupils ( 19.8 % ) disagree. Students with involvement in biopharmaceuticals and drug design might hold with this statement while other that prone to retail or hospital pharmaceutics of other field of pharmaceutics may be less agree that the class can cover what pupils needs as a pharmaceutics in the hereafter. Harmonizing to the appraisal reported by the Biotechnology Education Committee of the American Association of Colleges Pharmacy, in a survey conducted, most of the pupils do non satisfied with the current pharmaceutical biotechnology course of study in fixing the pupils to understand the function and possible impact of biotechnology-related merchandise in pharmaceutics pattern. So, there is a definite sense that there is an pressing demand to beef up our attempts in supplying more efficient methods of showing the stuff. [ 3 ] Overall, most of the pupils are somewhat satisfied with the content of the class.
However in measuring the bringing effectivity of the class, we found out that pupils could non make up one’s mind that the class was delivered in a really apprehensible mode. 37 respondents ( 45.7 % ) neither agree nor disagree, 23 respondents ( 28.4 % ) agree and 21respondents ( 25.9 % ) disagree that they able to understand the cognition during talks. In footings of lector ‘s presentation, 46.9 % of the pupils agree that the lectors ‘ presentation positively impacted their apprehension of the stuff while approximately 21.7 % disagree with the statement. In one of the survey done by Atwater, Wiggins and Gardner, they found that instructors ‘ attitude towards the capable affair and its effectual presentation was every bit important as the pupils ‘ position in finding the success of the instruction or larning procedure [ 8 ] . Probably, the lector ‘s in School of Pharmaceutical Sciences have successfully delivered their talk good and therefore develop the apprehension of the pupils. However, there is a idea that possibly some of them still unable to pull pupils ‘ attending every bit good as spread outing pupils understanding. Harmonizing to Steele and Andersoon, although the instructors have an first-class cognition and apprehension of the content, but due to miss of chance for practical in the schoolroom, they are unable to well-delivered the talk. [ 8,11 ] Practically, lectors have to update the cognition and new information on biotechnology specifically in pharmaceutical field or biopharmaceuticals as it keep quickly altering from clip to clip Apparently, the content and syllabus construction of this class is good organized but the bringing effectivity every bit good as the manner stuff is being presented seems to drop pupils ‘ perceptual experience and the avidity to analyze biotechnology.
Though half of the pupils ( 40 respondents, 50.6 % ) agree that the stuff given by the lectors are relevant and up to day of the month but it is still non plenty in hiking up their degree of understanding. In another points accessed, many pupils ( 35 respondents, 43.2 % ) have moderate perceptual experience that the stuffs such as text editions and press releases in this class helped them much to derive better understanding in many cardinal constructs and footings used in biotechnology. 32 respondents ( 39.5 % ) give positive perceptual experience and the remainder ( 14 respondents, 17.2 % ) give negative perceptual experience. Lecture notes do non assist much for pupils to wholly catch the constructs in biotechnology though it is up to day of the month. In fact, in one of the study done, they found out that deficiency of information resources including mention stuff and talk stuff is one of the barriers in implementing biotechnology in pharmaceutics course of study. Besides that, they besides found out that deficiency of picture and clinical surveies is another barrier. The same state of affairs besides being reflected in this survey where over half of the respondents ( 63.6 % ) claim that deficiency of illustrations, diagrams, or pictures being provided during the larning procedure lead to the trouble in understanding some of the complex constructs or procedure in this class. Subject that emerge on how pupils would better the course of study are to increase the usage of computing machines and the cyberspace, make the class more interesting, better and spread out the practical constituents of the class, increase their ain engagement in acquisition, and increase their apprehension of topics every bit good as their cognition. [ 4 ] Therefore, a new attack demand to be introduced such as web-base acquisition of Pharmaceutical biotechnology to heighten the easiness of understanding the complex key construct in biotechnology besides to hike up involvement in larning biotechnology in pharmaceutics pupils.
The assignments given do non appears to be stimulating and interesting to most of the pupils as it does non affect the existent application of biotechnology in pharmaceutics. As expected, 38 respondents ( 46.9 % ) agreed that biotechnology class burdens them a batch but merely give 2 graduation units in bend. As this class requires pupils to memorise a tonss and rather a tough class, most of them would likely believe that is non just if it merely gives 2 graduation units.
Therefore, a proactive stairss is needed in order to better and heighten the bringing effectivity of Pharmaceutical Biotechology Course ( FEL271/2 ) in School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USM.
Students ‘ Percept of the Course
Degree of Response
Towards Negative Response
Towards Positive Response
Pharmaceutical biotechnology class is really interesting.
( 17.2 % )
( 37.0 % )
( 45.7 % )
Knowledge gained from the class necessary for my pharmaceutics pattern.
( 13.6 % )
( 33.3 % )
( 53.1 % )
*I can understand biotechnology through my ain acquisition even if I ‘m non taking this class.
( 51.9 % )
( 34.6 % )
( 13.5 % )
This class should be made as a nucleus topic instead than merely an elected.
( 46.9 % )
( 28.4 % )
( 24.7 % )
Everybody should hold this cognition to go a all-around druggist.
( 6.1 % )
( 30.9 % )
( 63.0 % )
*This class requires pupil to memorise a batch.
( 4.9 % )
( 13.6 % )
( 81.5 % )
*Only pupils that are interested/aiming to work in pharmaceutical biotechnology related field are necessary to take this class.
( 13.6 % )
( 19.8 % )
( 60.5 % )
The usage of IT ( information engineering ) including cyberspace, e-learning, etc is necessary to do this class better.
( 4.9 % )
( 16.0 % )
( 79.0 % )
Overall, I ‘m glad that this class is offered to pharmacy pupils.
( 2.5 % )
( 29.6 % )
( 67.9 % )
Table 3: Pharmacy Students ‘ Percept on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Course
*Negatively worded-item. Reverse marking is used
Nine points were asked in correspondence to this constituent of survey. Out of the nine points, three were asked in the signifier of negative statement, while the other six were asked in positive statements. Out of the nine points, six of them received positive responses. Majority of the pupils felt that Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class is really interesting ( 45.7 % ) and the cognition gained from the class necessary for their pharmaceutics pattern ( 53.1 % ) . Meanwhile, bulk of the pupils felt that they can non understand this biotechnology through their ain acquisition even if they are non taking this class. More than half of the pupils ( 63.0 % ) think that everybody should hold this cognition to go a all-around druggist. Most of the pupils ( 79.0 % ) agreed that the usage of IT ( information engineering ) including cyberspace, e-learning, etc is necessary to do this class better. Overall, the pupils ( 67.9 % ) are glad that this class is offered to pharmacy pupils.
On the other manus, bulk of the pupils ( 46.9 % ) disagree that this class should be made into a nucleus topic instead than an elected topic. This perceptual experience can be correlated with the fact that bulk of the pupils ( 81.5 % ) agreed to the statement that this class requires pupil to memorise a batch. Furthermore, most of them ( 60.5 % ) felt that lone pupils that are interested or taking to work in pharmaceutical biotechnology related field are necessary to take this class.
Biotechnology instruction in developing states is one of the restricting factors in accomplishing optimum human resource capacity in order to to the full use bioresources in our state. While there may be a steady watercourse of biological science and biotechnology based alumnuss, from Malayan every bit good as foreign universities lending to the human resource base for these states, the Numberss and cognition diverseness produced, still lack the capacity to optimally power research and development every bit good as supply the industrial biotechnology sectors of these states. [ 19 ] In Sixth Plan period ( 1991-1995 ) , Malaysia has emphasized the development of biotechnology. [ 12 ] Therefore, there is a demand to bring forth druggist equipped with biotechnology cognition, particularly in biopharmaceuticals industry. A sound pharmaceutics instruction system with accent and smart partnership in research and development will certainly convey away enormous advancement to the pharmaceutics profession in Malaysia. [ 13 ]
In order to measure the perceptual experiences of the pharmaceutics pupils toward the debut of this pharmaceutical biotechnology class in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course of study, this study was conducted. Majority of participants believed that the pharmaceutical biotechnology class is of import in doing them a all-around druggist and would be utile in their hereafter pharmaceutics pattern. However, there is ever room for betterment in the bringing of the class. This is reflected in pupils ‘ negative perceptual experiences towards the class ‘s usefulness as they felt that lone pupils that are interested or taking to work in pharmaceutical biotechnology related field are necessary to take this class and therefore it should remain as an elected topic instead than a nucleus topic. The course of study and the learning method of the class besides may necessitate to be reviewed as the pupils felt that that this class requires pupil to memorise a batch. The consequence of this study shows the importance of experiential constituents of larning in a pharmaceutical biotechnology class as tools to better cognition and accomplishments and besides to maintain the pupils interested in the class.
The challenge in planing a good practical assignment is supplying adequate deepness while doing it attractive for the pupils. [ 14 ] Although most of the pupils found that the public wellness class was meaningful, there is still a important per centum of pupils that found it uninteresting.
Students ‘ Knowledge on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
In order to entree the pupils ‘ cognition on pharmaceutical biotechnology, a really basic and simple inquiry related to biotechnology construct and biopharmaceutical is being asked. All of the inquiries asked are considered important cognition that every pupils should possess as a future druggist. Below is the distribution of mark every bit good as the entire mark achieved by the pupils:
Figure 1: Distribution of respondents ‘ mark based on the response given to the inquiries administered
Figure 2: Graph above represent entire mark achieved by the pupils after finishing the inquiry sing pharmaceutical biotechnology.
The respondents ‘ mark ranged from 1 to 16 out of 18.Based on the graph [ Figure 2 ] above, it indicates that bulk of the pupils, 44 ( 54.3 % ) are holding “ moderate ” degree of cognition on pharmaceutical biotechnology. Merely 10.3 % of the respondents reached the “ good ” mark and it is rather defeated to see that 27 of the pupils are in “ hapless ” class which makes up a per centum of 33.3 % . Figure 1 shows about a normal distribution where the mean mark was 7.89 and manners were 8 where it is fall under “ moderate ” mark.
Year of survey
I± = 0.05
P & lt ; 0.05
9 ( 11.1 % )
25 ( 30.9 % )
9 ( 11.1 % )
18 ( 22.2 % )
19 ( 23.5 % )
1 ( 1.2 % )
27 ( 33.3 % )
44 ( 54.3 % )
10 ( 12.3 % )
Table 4: Chi-Square rating of response based on old ages of survey versus cognition
The tabular array above shows the association between old ages of survey and knowledge degree of the pupils on biotechnology. The Chi-square trial had been used in order to find whether there is important difference between old ages of survey and degree of cognition. Harmonizing to the Chi-square trial, there is important difference ( p=0.007, P & lt ; 0.05 ) between the old ages of survey and cognition of the pupils. Based on the tabular array above, we can clearly see that most of the 2nd twelvemonth pupils are holding better cognition compared to the 3rd twelvemonth pupils. Less figure of 2nd twelvemonth pupils is holding “ hapless ” mark ( 11.1 % ) , compared to 3rd twelvemonth pupils ( 22.2 % ) . The low degree of cognition perceived by the 3rd twelvemonth pupils might likely due to the fact that they have left the class for approximately 1years as this topic is being taken when they are in the first semester of 2nd twelvemonth. Compared to the 2nd twelvemonth, the cognition on biotechnology is still fresh and they are able to remember it as this class is being taken on the last 6 – 5 months. As this is merely an elected and no drawn-out class on biotechnology being offered after they finished this class, most of 3rd twelvemonth pupils have a higher inclination to bury what they had learnt. Therefore, it is non surprised to see that most of the 3rd twelvemonth pupils achieved a lower mark.
The better cognition achieved by the 2nd twelvemonth pupils might be due to the that betterment of the content of the class every bit good as the instruction manner and scheme of the lectures.. From other research conducted by Gillian Kidman, they found that a instructor ‘s attitude toward the capable affair and the effectivity of their presentation was giving important positions towards the pupils in finding their success of the instruction. [ 8 ] . The pupils will give their full attending if the presentation from the lector is attractive and easy be understand. A good presentation will heighten the pupils to larn more about that peculiar subject, so, the pupils will hold better cognition towards that topic.
Taking biological science before come ining BPharm Programme
I± = 0.05
P & gt ; 0.05
no important difference
21 ( 25.9 % )
36 ( 44.4 % )
9 ( 11.1 % )
6 ( 7.4 % )
8 ( 9.9 % )
1 ( 1.2 % )
27 ( 33.3 % )
44 ( 54.3 % )
10 ( 12.3 % )
Table 5: Chi-Square trial on taking Biology before come ining BPharm programme and
degree of cognition
The tabular array above shows the relationship between taking Biology class before come ining Bacehelor of Pharmacy Programme ( BPharm ) and knowledge on pharmaceutical biotechnology. Chi- square trial shows that there is no important difference ( p=0.694, P & gt ; 0.05 ) between taking Biology before come ining BPharm and the cognition of the pupils.
Though the pupils are holding basic cognition on biological science before come ining Bachelor of Pharmacy programme, it is non guaranteed that they will execute good during the class. Based on the consequence obtained, we can see that 21 pupils ( 25.9 % ) have hapless cognition on pharmaceutical biotechnology even though they have basic cognition on biological science during matriculation or STPM. We have been informed by some of the pupils who take biological science before come ining this programme that there is little difference on what they had learnt before ( in Matriculation ) and what is being taught in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class. They agreed that this class is concentrating on more complex and inside informations subjects compared to what they had learnt earlier. However, most of them think that by holding a basic cognition in Biology is a fillip is for them to understand and catch the cardinal constructs of this class more easy. But, the most of import factor impacting the public presentation of pupils through out the class is really based on their attempts and avidity to research the cognition biotechnology. Not holding background in Biology does non intend that they ca n’t get the hang and understand biotechnology good. It is all depends on the single itself.
Students response towards biopharmaceutical-related inquiries
Survey Question: What is biopharmaceutical?
Figure 3: Students ‘ response on the inquiries “ What is biopharmaceutical? ”
In order to find the pupils ‘ cognition towards Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, a basic inquiry on what they understand about biopharmaceutical is being asked. Based on the pie chart above, it can be seen that over three quarters ( 77.78 % ) of the pupils defined biopharmaceuticals as a drug created by agencies of biotechnology, particularly familial technology. And more than half ( 60.49 % ) of them besides agree that biopharmaceutical is a pharmaceutical merchandise that consist of protein and/ or nucleic acid. This shows that most of the pupils are familiar and well-introduced on what biopharmaceutical is. The term biopharmaceutical is non something new to them as they might hold been introduced to it by the lectors while taking Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class.
However, they are still minority ( 12.35 % ) of the pupils that defined biopharmaceutical as a field of scientific discipline in which biological science, computing machine scientific discipline and information engineering merge into a individual subject to analyse biological science information. This definition is really refers to bioinformatics. While approximately 11.11 % of the pupils would specify biopharmaceutical as a subdivision of biological science that surveies heredity and fluctuation in being. Some of them might likely acquire confused with the definition of genetic sciences as they look rather similar and related to biopharmaceutical.
Survey Question: Why biopharmaceuticals are normally non being taken orally?
( n= 81 )
Percent ( % )
It is protein-degraded by acid in tummy
Undergo first base on balls consequence
Have low bioavailability
Dangerous to human
Table 6: Students ‘ response on the study inquiry “ Why biopharmaceutical are normally non being taken orally.
Among the 9 inquiries, one open-ended inquiry is being asked to entree the pupils ‘ understanding toward biopharmaceuticals. More than half of the respondents ( 59.3 % ) managed to reply the inquiries correctly- biopharmaceuticals are normally non being taken orally because they will be degraded by acidic environment in tummy. This figure reflects that most of the pupils clearly understand what they have learnt during the class and able to associate between biotechnology and pharmaceutics. Most of them know that biopharmaceutical is really derived from protein substance so, they wo n’t be stable if being taken orally.
However, it is rather aghast to see that approximately 7.4 % of the pupils think that biopharmaceuticals are non being taken orally because it will undergo first-pass consequence and a little per centum of them ( 3.7 % ) think that biopharmaceutical is holding low bioavailability. These replies might be merely a conjecture by some of the pupils as they ca n’t retrieve what they had learnt and non able to associate between biotechnology and is application in biopharmaceuticals.
Surprisingly, approximately 2.5 % of the pupils think that biopharmaceuticals are unsafe to human if they are being taken orally. This reply is given based on their perceptual experience that biotechnology-derived merchandise will incorporate bacteriums that is unsafe when it is being consumed. This incorrect perceptual experience besides being reflected in the survey conducted on Slovakian pupils where some of them falsely perceived that familial alteration is unsafe to human. About 16.0 % per centums of the pupils left the inquiries blanked. They might be holding no thought what is really biopharmaceutical agencies and they ca n’t believe of any relevant replies
Restriction OF THIS STUDY
There are several restrictions in our research that we would wish to turn to in this subdivision.
First, our respondents were non big plenty. Merely 81 pupils that have been taking Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class respond to our questionnaires. Apart from that, we did non managed to administer the questionnaires to the 4th twelvemonth pupils as half of them has been traveling to HUSM, Kubang Kerian for their clerkship. Therefore, the informations collected could non stand for the sentiment of all the pharmaceutics pupils sing Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class.
Besides that, the usage of 5-point Likert Scale which include ‘Neutral ‘ as portion of the graduated table does non look to be effectual in finding the pupils ‘ rating and perceptual experience towards Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class. Most of the pupils ‘ prefer to take ‘Neutral ‘ in most of the items/statements provided in the questionnaire. Therefore, it is hard for us to find whether the pupils is holding positive or negative perceptual experience towards the statements.
The questionnaire was distributed in the talk hall after the forenoon session of the lecture terminal. However, this might develop prejudice because some of the pupils might likely discourse the reply with their friends particularly for the cognition portion. This might change the concluding result of our consequence.
Furthermore, most of the inquiries were close-ended, therefore the range of replies was limited and the pupils does non hold much opportunity to show their sentiment.
Overall, the pupils are holding positive perceptual experience toward Pharmaceutical Biotechnology class in School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USM. However, in footings of the bringing of the class, bulk of them do non satisfied and would rank it as moderate. Lacks of information resources and the instruction tool are considered the common barrier in guaranting the effectivity of the bringing of this class. Possibly more efficient and effectual methods of showing the stuff are needed. Therefore, there is a suggestion to present the usage of information engineering ( IT ) including cyberspace and e-learning to heighten the apprehension of pupils and do this class more interesting. By supplying the pupils with more illustrations and assignments which is closely related to pupils ‘ hereafter pattern as a druggist would likely better the credence of pupils towards this class.
Second twelvemonth pupils perceived higher mark in term of cognition about pharmaceutical biotechnology compared to 3rd twelvemonth. But in general most of the pupils is holding moderate cognition on pharmaceutical biotechnology specifically, biopharmaceuticals. As one of the aims of this class is to discourse the function of druggist in distributing biotechnology merchandises and guaranting the quality of merchandise, it is suggested that the course of study of this class to concentrate more on biopharmaceuticals in order to run into the aim.